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75“Skazka O Rybake i Rybke” (1835). The poem is about a fisherman who caught a goldfish that promised to give him a wish in exchange for letting it go. To watch an animated version of this story, accompanied by narration of the poem in Russian, see <http://video.aol.com/video-detail/the-tale-of-the-fisherman-and-the-fish/677744983>. An Enslish translation is available at <http://home.freeuk.net/russica4/books/goldfish/gfish.html>.

76Tcherepnin is referring here to his Six musical illustrations to Pushkin’s “Tale about the Fisherman and the Fish” that he wrote in Yalta in August of 1912. It was orchestrated in 1917. See Tcherepnin, op. cit., p. 123, note 40.

77An area in St. Petersburg where Pushkin “lived for some time after he finished his studies at the Lyceum.” Stravinsky based his comic opera “Mavra” on Pushkin’s poem “A Small House in Kolomna” (1830). See <http://www.vor.ru/culture/cultarch72_eng.html>.

78For a photograph, see <http://travel.webshots.com/photo/2619880530103070373tHIlwi>.

79The Alarchin Bridge crosses the Griboedov Canal in St. Petersburg.

See <http://encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804005815>

80Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera, The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya premiered in St. Petersburg’s Mariinsky Theater in February, 1907. See Richard Taruskin, ‘The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevroniya ‘, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 15 May 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

81Fedor Ivanovich Tiutchev (1803-1873) was a Russian poet and diplomat. His poetry was a favorite of the aristocracy and he is considered “as second to Pushkin (arguably only with the exception of Lermontov) .” See the Russian-language page at <http://www.encspb.ru/article.php?kod=2804027054> and the English-language biography at <http://www.ruthenia.ru/tiutcheviana/publications/trans/jude.html>. The poem in question was published in 1864. See <http://tutchev.ouc.ru/kak-nerazgadannaja-tajna.html>.

82For a description of the events surrounding this exam, see Gregor Tassie’s article on “ Music from the Silver Age – Nikolay and Alexander Cherepnin.”


83Alexander Sergeyevich Famintsin (1841-1896). His opera ‘Sardanapal’ was produced in 1875 and “had so little success that his second opera, the four-act ‘Uriel Acosta’ (1883), was never performed.” See O.W. Neighbour, ‘Famintsïn, Aleksandr Sergeyevich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 16 May 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

84In 1892 Rachmaninov wrote his one-act opera, Aleko, based on Pushkin’s poem. It received its premiere at the Bolshoi Opera 1893. See <http://www.boosey.com/pages/opera/moredetails.asp?musicid=4737>.

85Sergey Ivanovich Taneyev (1856-1915) graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1875 and was “the first student to receive a gold medal for performance and composition.” See David Brown, ‘Taneyev, Sergey Ivanovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 11 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

86Apparently this story refers to the 1903 performance of Taneyev’s Orestes,and not to its premiere in St. Petersburg in 1895. See Tcherepnin, op. cit., p. 124, note 47.

87The Soviet version of this memoir misspells this Latin phrase “ad usum clelphini.” See Tcherepnin, op. cit. p. 58. The original Latin is generally used to refer to something that has been “expurgated of offensive or improper parts.” See <http://www.indopedia.org/List_of_Latin_phrases.html>.

88Grand Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna of Russia (1827-1894).

See <http://www.thepeerage.com/p11097.htm#i110966>

and <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchess_Catherine_Mikhailovna_of_Russia>.

89Nikolai Nikolaevich Kedrov (1871-1940) was not only a well-known opera singer, but also a composer who wrote a substantial amount of religious music. In 1917 he and his family emigrated to Paris. See the brief Russian-language biography at <http://pda.mymusicbase.ru/SPPB/ppb22/Bio_2252.htm> and the extensive Russian-language biography of the Kedrov family at


90Tcherepnin seems to be mistaken here. According to the Shatalov Music College website, Samar, where Karklin moved in 1902, is in the Mid-Volga region. Karklin (1867-1960), who also went by the name of Ekab Karklinsh, also studied with Rimsky-Korsakov and opened the Shatalov school in 1902. He worked there until 1920, when he left for Latvia where he taught music theory until 1950. See the Russian-language pages at <http://mus-college-shatalov.narod.ru/history.htm> and <http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/agin/article/vs3/vs3-0057.htm>.

91Natalia Alexandrovna Iretskaya (1845-1922) studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and in Paris. See the Russian-language page at <http://www.te05.mnogosmenka.ru/te050249/te050275.htm>.

92Stanislav Ivanovich Gibel (1849-1924) studied in Paris, Milan, and St. Petersburg. Also known as a pianist and composer, he originated many roles on the St. Petersburg opera stage. See the extensive biography on the Russian-language page at <http://www.biografija.ru/show_bio.aspx?id=20433 > (drawn in part from the Riemann Lexicon), and the briefer biography at <http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/agin/article/vs2/vs2-0002.htm> for his death date.

93Dimitri Leonidovich Horvat (1859-1937). After finishing study at the Nicholas College of Engineering, he worked on several railroad projects before and after the 1917 Revolution. See the Russian-language biography at <http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_h/horvat.html>.

94Ussuriysk is located in the easternmost area of the Russian Federation, near the Ussuri river, north of the North Korean border. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ussuriysk>.

95According to her son, Alexander Nikolaevich Tcherepnin, M. A. Tcherepnin exhibited her work in Greece only once. Progressive myopia hindered her pursuing the activity more actively. See Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 124, note 51.

96Life Guards or Lieb Guards were personal guards of the Emperor or Empress.

See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Imperial_Guard>. The Preobrazhensky Regiment was “one of the oldest regiments in the Russian army.” See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preobrazhensky_Regiment>.

97For a description of this area, a favorite of artists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, see <http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804000350>.

98This is most likely a reference to the fisherman’s nagging, scolding harridan of a wife. See note 75.

99 Apparently Tcherepnin mistakes the dates here: the latest this meeting could have taken place was 1918. Prokofiev left Russia May 7, 1918, returned briefly in 1927 when he gave a series of concerts, and finally returned to Russia in 1936. Glazunov’s mother died in 1925. See Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 124, note 52, and Dorothea Redpenning, ‘Prokofiev, Sergey (Sergeyevich), Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

100 Alexei Nikolaevich Tolstoy (1883-1945), a distant relative of Lev Tolstoy and Ivan Turgenev, wrote prose as well as poetry. Although he left Russia after the Bolshevik revolution, he returned in 1923 and went on to win three Stalin prizes. See <http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/atolstoi.htm>.

101 Evgeny Abramovich Baratinsky (1800-1844) was in Pushkin’s Lycée circle and was Lermontov’s friend. See <http://max.mmlc.northwestern.edu/~mdenner/Demo/poetpage/baratynsky.html>.

102 Fyodor Ivanovich Tiutchev (1808-1873). Tiutchev’s poetry was admired by the great Russian writers Turgenev and the Russian symbolist Briusov.

See <http://max.mmlc.northwestern.edu/~mdenner/Demo/poetpage/tiutchev.html>.

103 Shtrup (1871-1915) worked with Rimsky-Korsakov on his opera “Sadko.” See Richard Taruskin, ‘Sadko’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 12 October 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com> and Simon Morrison, “The Semiotics of Symmetry or Rimsky-Korsakov’s Operatic History Lesson,” Cambridge Opera Journal, vol. 13, no. 3 (Nov. 2001): p. 262.

104 Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov (1831-1895). Other Russian composers who have used his works include Shostakovich, who used Leskov’s 1866 "Lady Macbeth of the Mzinsk District" as a basis for his opera of the same name; and Rodion Shchedrin, who used his “Sealed Angel” (1873) for a choral work that “may be considered a Russian liturgy and one of the finest pieces of Russian sacred music written in the 20th century.” See <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Leskov-N.html> and Valentina Kholopova, ‘Shchedrin, Rodion Konstantinovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 12 October 2008),

<http://www.grovemusic.com>, and <http://kirjasto.sci.fi/leskov.htm>.

105 Occurring during the 1890s, “[t]he joint compositions resulting from these gatherings were published by Belaieff under the title Pyatnitsï (‘Fridays’).” See Jennifer Spencer/Edward Garden, ‘Lyadov [Lyadov], Anatoly [Anatol] Konstantinovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 11 June 2008),


106 Nikolai Alexandrovich Sokolov (1859-1922) taught at the Court Chapel from 1886-1917 and at the St. Peterburg Conservatory beginning in 1896. Shostakovich was one of his students. See Jennifer Spencer, ‘Sokolov, Nikolay Aleksandrovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 11 June 2008),


107 A choral conductor and composer, Shchiglov (1834-1903) began to live with the Borodins in 1846 when he and Alexander were both about 13 years old. They studied piano together. Shchiglov taught himself violin and taught Borodin the cello so they could play chamber music. See Robert William Oldani, ‘Borodin, Aleksandr Porfir’yevich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 10 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>, and the Russian-language page at <http://kapellanin.ru/names/?id=870>. Borodin himself was the illegitimate son of a Georgian prince and his Russian mistress, and was adopted by one of the Prince’s serfs. See Robert W. Oldani, ‘Borodin, Aleksandr Porfir’yevich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 6 November 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

108 “[T]he oldest and most venerable institution of Russian music and musical education.” See <http://www.music- opera.com/site_english/ville_stpetersburg_e.htm>.

109 From 1893 until the beginning of the Petrograd post-revolutionary “meltdown,” Elena Lukinichna Mrozovskaya worked at 20 Nevsky Prospekt. In 1892 she finished her studies at the Imperial Russian Technical Society and left for Paris to complete her education. Returning to Petersburg, she “quickly became well-known among the Petersburg cognoscenti and people in the arts.” See the Russian-language page at <http://www.fotodepartament.ru/cat/323/ru>.

110 The “red corner” is of central importance to the Russian Orthodox peasant hut. An icon hangs on each wall, and the corner is chosen so that the icons would be the first things one sees upon entering the room. See the section on “Rituals and Holy Places” at <http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Russia.html> and the Russian-language page at <http://tinyurl.com/6ywoe7>.

111 Konstantine Alexandrovich Posse (1847-1928) was a highly regarded mathematician. See the Russian-language pages <http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/bse/122972/Поссе> for his dates

and <http://www.mathsoc.spb.ru/pantheon/posse/b-e.html> for some of his publications.

112 Nikolai Alexandrovich Gezekhus (1845-1919) was a physics professor. See the Russian-language biography at <http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/bse/article/00017/14800.htm?text=гезехус>.

113 The Troitsky or Trinity bridge crosses the Neva river in St. Petersburg.

See <http://www.photoeurasia.com/catalog.php?id=17366>.

114 Sergei Mikhailovich Volkonsky (1860-1937) was also director of the Russian Conservatory in Paris after Glazunov died. See Valeria Tsenova, and Romela Kohanovskaya, Underground music from the former USSR (Routledge: 1997), p. 2.

115 Mathilde Kschessinska (1872-1971) was a colorful character who “adored roulette, diamonds, caviar and men, particularly when named Romanov.”

See <http://www.ballet.co.uk/magazines/yr_06/dec06/jt_mathilde_kschessinska_imperial_dancer.htm>.

116 A. F. Cohn (1844-1927) was a lawyer and literature aficionado. S. V. Maksimov (1831-1901) was a writer and ethnographer. Many members of the aristocratic Sheremtev family supported the arts. Cohn, Maksimov and P. Seremetev published books dedicated to Gorbunov’s writings. See Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 124, notes 53-55.

117 Like Anton Chekhov, Vasily A. Volotaryov (1873-1964) was born in the port city of Taganrog, on the Azov Sea. A prize-winning composer, he completed his Conservatory studies in two years, receiving the Rubinstein Prize upon graduation. He taught at the Moscow Conservatory before returning to his Ukrainian homeland to teach at the Belorussian Conservatory (1932-1941). He wrote a memoir of his time studying with Balakirev and Rimsky-Korsakov. See the Russian-language page at <http://www.musiccopyright.ru/musicians/105.html>.

118 Anna Nikolaevna Esipova (1841-1914) studied and taught at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. She concertized in Europe and the U.S. See the Russian-language pages at

<http://www.internetseti.ru/index/e/esipova_anna_nikolaevna.php> for a brief biography and her birth and death dates and <http://mirslovarei.com/content_beo/Esipova-Anna-Nikolaevna-5347.html> for a more complete write-up.

119 “The Novice” (Mtsyri) is a poem by 1839 by Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841).

See <http://marksarvas.blogs.com/elegvar/2004/02/lermontov_in_en.html>.

120 Composer and conductor Spendiarov (1871-1978) was “one of the founders of the 20th-century Armenian national school.” See Svetlana Sarkisyan, ‘Spendiaryan [Spendiarov], Aleksandr Afanasy’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 24 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

121 Vasily Sergeyevich Kalinnikov (1866-1901) is probably best known for his two symphonies. A gifted, lyrical composer, he strove to imitate in music the landscape of his birth, as his fellow countrymen, e.g. Lermontov, did in literature. See Jennifer Spencer, ‘Kalinnikov, Vasily Sergeyevich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 15 October 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

122 Antony Stepanovich Arensky (1861-1906) began composing music as a child. He received a gold medal from the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1882. He then moved to Moscow where he had much success as a composer and conductor. He was appointed to direct the Imperial Chapel in 1894. See David Brown, ‘Arensky, Anton [Antony] Stepanovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 15 July 2008),


123 The concert was held in Yalta on July 8, 1904 and included works by Amani, Arensky, Spendiarov and Tcherepnin. See Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 125, note. 56.

124 Founded by Balakirev and the choral conductor, teacher and composer Gavriil Yakimovich Lomakin (1812-1885) to “counterbalance” the Russian Music Society that Anton Rubinstein founded in 1859, St. Petersburg’s Free Music School (1862-1917) was one of the first music education schools in Russia. See Lyudmila Kovnatskaya, ‘St. Petersburg’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 26 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>, Jennifer Spencer, ‘Lomakin, Gavriil Yakimovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 26 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>, and the Russian-language page at <http://museum.edu.ru/catalog.asp?cat_ob_no=13126&ob_no=13127>.

125 There was a great struggle in Russia at the time between Balakirev and Rubinstein over the future of Russian musical education. See David Brown, untitled review of Robert C. Ridenour’s “Nationalism, Modernism, and Personal Rivalry in Russian Music,” The American Historical Review, vol. 87, no. 4 (Oct. 1982): p. 1134, and Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 125 note 58.

126 Rubinstein’s second symphony, called “Ocean,” underwent several incarnations. The first, written in 1851 had four movements, the second, written in 1863 had six, and the final one, written in 1880 had seven. See Edward Garden, ‘Rubinstein, Anton’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 26 June 2008),


127 Nicolas Camille Flammarion (1842 – 1925) founded the French Astronomical Society in 1882. Well-known for his work on double stars and Mars, he was also involved in several occult organizations. See <http://www.answers.com/topic/camille-flammarion>

128 Here Tcherepnin could be referring either to the third-century BCE Greek philosopher, Aristarchus of Samos, whose work included attempts to measure the relative distance from the Earth of the moon and the sun, and whose “critical revision of Homer is responsible for the excellent texts of Homer that survive” (see <http://www.bartleby.com/65/ar/AristarSchl.html>), or Miltiades Aristarches (1859-1866), a ruler of Samos, who liked music and whose reign was “fair in the beginning, ended up strict and cruel.” See <http://hellas.teipir.gr/thesis/samos/english/tdk133.html>.

129 Tcherepnin’s typescript lists this composition as op. 11, but the Tcherepnin Society website and the New Grove Dictionary both list it as op. 12. See <http://www.tcherepnin.com/nikolai/comps_nik.htm> and Svetlana Savienko, ‘Nikolay (Nikolayevich) Tcherepnin’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 30 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

130 The Dramatic Fantasy was published in 1903, and the ballet suite is listed as op. 29, and was published in 1908. See <http://www.tcherepnin.com/nikolai/comps_nik.htm>.

131 Tcherepnin refers here to N. P. Tcherepnin’s “detailed and factually rich” three volume examination of the history of Russian pedagogy entitled The Imperial Educational Society of Noble Young Women - 1764-1914 that was published in 1915. See Tcherepnin, op cit., p. 125, note 60.

132 The Enchanted Lake, op. 62, was written in 1909. First published in 1889 as a piano work “About Olden Times,” op. 21, was reworked for orchestra in 1906 and issued as op. 21b. See Jennifer Spencer/Ward Garden, ‘Lyadov, Anatoly Konstantinovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 30 June 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

133 Having had several incarnations, the current building, which was erected in 1834-1839 at a cost of 1 million rubles, is now called the Shostakovich Philharmonic Hall.

See <http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804016435>

134 This restaurant opened in 1870 and was named after the site of a battle with Napoleon. Other habitues included Chekhov. See <http://www.encspb.ru/en/article.php?kod=2804016886>.

135 See note 129 for information on the discrepancy between the opus number given in the text and that appearing elsewhere.

136 Nikolai Artsybushev (1858-1937) assumed leadership of the Belaieff publishing house after Rimsky-Korsakov stepped down. See Richard Beattie Davis, ‘Belyayev [Belaieff], Mitrofan Petrovich’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 3 July 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>

137 There is some confusion here in the typescript: both the Tcherepnin Society website and the New Grove Dictionary list the Pushkin piece as a work for orchestra and give its opus number as 41 (see http://www.tcherepnin.com/nikolai/comps_nik.htmand Svetlana Savenko, et al., ‘Nikolay (Nikolayevich) Tcherepnin’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 3 July 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>). According to the Tcherepnin Society website Narcisse and Echo is op. 40 and was published by Belaieff. See <http://www.tcherepnin.com/nikolai/comps_nik.htm>.

138 Founded as “The Russian Music Society” in 1859 by Anton Rubinstein, The Imperial Russian Music Society (the name changed in 1869) helped develop Russian music culture through concert performances, compositions competitions, etc. See Lyudmila Kovnatskaya, ‘St Petersburg,’ Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 5 July 2008).

139 Fedor Ivanovich Grus was art critic for the Petersburg German Gazette and was married to publisher Jurgenson’s daughter. See the Russian-language page at <http://www.2lib.ru/getbook/13131.html> (Notes of a pedestrian – the memoir of Vasily Gregorevich Yan (a.k.a. Yanchevetsky) 1874-1954, a Soviet writer.)

140 Alexander Nikolaevich Tcherepnin (1899-1977). See Enrique Alberto Arias, ‘Tcherepnin, Alexander (Nikolayevich)’, Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed 8 July 2008), <http://www.grovemusic.com>)’ and the Tcherepnin Society website <http://www.tcherepnin.com/alex/bio_alex.htm>.

141 General Dityakin was a character created by Gorbunov to represent tsar Nikolai II’s world that was “petrified in its world view, firmly established in its half-unconscious judgments and feelings, surrounded on all sides by a changing reality to which manifestation it was unwillingly called to respond. In his tale Gorbunov gradually draws a character with special love and close observation. Little by little the general becomes the darling of all the social circles and groups in which he participates.” See the Russian-language page at
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