1. Prepare the summary about Washington D.C. and retell it.
2. Find the Russian equivalents of the English sentences.
Washongton, D. C.
Вашингтон, округ Колумбия
1)Washington was named after the first US President George Washington. He selected the place for the capital and Pierre L' Enfant, a French engineer, designed the city.
2)Washington was settled in 1790 and since 1800 it has been the Federal capital.
3)In the very centre of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol — a big white dome standing on a circle of pillars. The 535 members of the Congress meet here to discuss the nation's affairs. It's easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.
4)The White House is the official residence of the US President. He works in the Oval Office.
5)There are no skyscrapers in Washington, because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. No building in the city may be more than 40 metres tall.
a) Недалеко от Капитолия находится Библиотека Конгресса, самая крупная библиотека в Соединенных Штатах. В ней содержится более 13 миллионов книг, более 19 миллионов рукописей, включая личные бумаги американских президентов.
b) Белый Дом — официальная резиденция американского Президента. Он работает в Овальном кабинете.
c)Вашингтон был назван в честь первого американского Президента Джорджа Вашингтона. Он выбрал место для столицы, а французский инженер Пьер Льен-фан выполнил проект города.
d) Вашингтон был заселен в 1790 г., а с 1800 г. он является федеральной столицей.
e) В самом центре города возвышается огромный купол Капитолия — большой белый купол, опирающийся на круг колонн. Здесь встречаются 535 членов Конгресса, чтобы обсудить дела страны. В этом огромном здании, где очень много картин и статуй, легко заблудиться.
6)Not far from the Capitol is the Library of Congress, the largest library in the States. It contains more than 13 million books and more than 19 million manuscripts, including the personal papers of the US Presidents.
7)One can hardly find a park, a square or an open area in Washington without a monument or a memorial.
8)There are some important museums in Washington where you can see all kinds of things: famous paintings and sculptures, the dresses of Presidents' wives, the original of the Declaration of Independence, the largest blue diamond in the world, etc.
f)В Вашингтоне вряд ли найдется парк, площадь или открытое пространство без памятника или мемориала.
g)В Вашингтоне есть замечательные музеи, где можно увидеть все что угодно: известные картины и скульптуры, платья президентских жен, оригинал Декларации о Независимости, самый крупный в мире голубой алмаз и т. п.
h)В Вашингтоне нет небоскребов, так как они закрыли бы вид на многие городские памятники. Ни одно здание города не должно превышать 40 метров.
3. Prepare the report “Washington, D.C. is worth seeing”.
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation (Russia) is the world’s largest country in area. It extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It is located in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometres. Russia borders many countries, such as Finland, the Ukrain, the Baltic States, China, Mongolia, and others.
The surface of Russia is various. You can see lowlands and highlands, forests and wide grasslands on its territory. There are many rivers and lakes in our country. Lake Baikal in Siberia is the world’s deepest lake.
There are different climatic zones on the vast area of our country.
Russia has abundant natural resources. Three quarters of the mineral wealth are concentrated in Siberia and in the Far East.
The population of Russia is over 143 million people. Most of Russia’s people are ethnic Russians, but more than 100 minority nationalities also live in our country. The official language is Russian. The capital of Russia is Moscow.
The head of the state is the President, who is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The head of the government is the Prime Minister.
The Russian flag has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. Besides the flag, there is another national symbol of Russia. It is a two-headed eagle.
1. Fill in the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you.
1. Russia b... many different countries.
2. On the vast Russia area you can see wide g... .
3. Lake Baikal in Siberia is the world’s d... lake.
4. Russia has a... natural resources.
5. Most of m... wealth are concentrated in Siberia and in the Far East.
6. The head of the g... is the Prime Minister.
7. The national s... of Russia is a two-headed eagle.
2. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.
1. Russia borders many countries.
2. The area of the Russian Federation is not large.
3. The surface is the same on the vast territory of Russia.
4. Russia has abundant natural resources.
5. More than 160 million people live in Russia.
3. Complete the following sentences.
1. The Russian Federation is ... .
2. It extends ... .
3. Russia borders ... .
4. Its total area is ... .
5. The population of Russia is ... .
6. The capital of the country is ... .
7. The head of the state is ... .
8. The Russian flag has ... .
2. Make up and retell a text about Russia to your English friend.
Imagine you are telling your foreign guest about Russia. What main points (geography, political system, economy, culture) would you touch upon ?
The first thing I am going to tell my foreign visitor about is the geography and climate of Russia, as the geographical position and climate of a country influence the country's economy; the second reason is that they influence lifestyles and the health of its people, as well as the national character. The Russian Federation or Russia is the largest country in the world. Its vast territory lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. The country is washed by three oceans (the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific) and twelve seas (the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and others). Russia borders on many countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania in the north, China, Mongolia, North Korea and others in the south-east, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine in the west, and others. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus and the Altai, and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range. The Caucasus contains Mount Elbrus, Russia's and Europe's highest point at 5,633 m. The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that forms the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes in the country. Notable rivers of Russia in Europe are the Volga, the Don, the Kama, the Oka and the Northern Dvina, while several other rivers originate in Russia but flow into other countries, such as the Dnieper and the Western Dvina. In Asia, important rivers are the Ob, the Irtysh, the Yenisei, the Angara, the Lena, the Amur and the Kolyma. The largest lakes are Baikal, Ladoga and Onega.
Baikal is the deepest fresh-water lake in the world and its water is the purest on Earth. The climate of Russia is varied, from arctic and subarctic in the north, continental in the centre, to subtropical in the south.
The Russian Federation is extremely rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, iron, gold, non-ferrous metals and many other minerals.
The second thing I am going to speak about is Russia's economy as I believe economy is a foundation of any country's life.
The economy of Russia is going through a transitional period from the centrally planned socialist economy to a market economy. After the collapses of the Soviet Union in 1991 the greater part of industries were privatized, agriculture and land underwent partial privatization later and are still undergoing it. After the crisis of 1997 and the depreciation of the rouble followed by sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population, Russia's economy faced recession. The economy started recovering in 1999, partially because of high export prices on oil and gas which Russia is rich in. Russia is still heavily dependent on export of oil, gas and timber, while its industrial and farming sectors are still weak as compared with those of the developed countries, but the rate of economic growth of the country is very high. If the rate is the same within a period of several years, Russia will be the second largest European economy after Germany.
The third point I am going to touch upon is Russia's political system.
The current population of Russia is about 143 million people. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with a population of about 11 million people.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. Head of State in the country is President, directly elected for a four-year term, which has considerable executive power and is head of the executive branch of the government. The government consists of three branches: legislative (the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Federation Council and the State Duma), executive (the government or the Cabinet of Ministers) and judicial (the system of courts, including the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts). The national flag of Russia is a white-blue-and-red banner. The national language of the Russian Federation is Russian. The Orthodox Church is the dominant religion in Russia.
And finally, I am going to speak about Russian culture.
Russian culture abounds in names which are famous all over the world. Actually, there is no field in science or arts where Russia failed to contribute to the world's intellectual and artistic treasure-houses.
1. Translate into English.
1. Считается, что географическое положение и климат оказывают влияние на экономику, стиль жизни страны и национальный характер.
2. Обширная территория России омывается тремя океанами и двенадцатью морями и граничит со многими странами.
3. Ландшафты (land) разнообразны, от лесов до пустынь, от высоких гор до глубоких долин и включают большое количество горных цепей, в том числе Кавказ с самой высокой точкой Европы — горой Эльбрус, Уральские горы, Алтай и т. д.
4. В России много больших рек и озер, в том числе Байкал, самое глубокое и чистое пресноводное озеро в Европе.
5. После распада Советского Союза Россия проходит через переходный период — от социалистической экономики, основанной на централизованном планировании, к рыночной экономике.
6. Большая часть отраслей промышленности России уже приватизирована, а сельское хозяйство все еще проходит приватизацию.
2. Translate into Russian.
1. The greater part of Russia's industries have already been privatized, and agriculture is still undergoing privatization.
2. The crisis and depreciation of the rouble resulted in sharp deterioration in living standards for most of the population, Russia was facing recession.
3. Though Russia is still dependent on export of oil, gas and timber and its industrial and farming sectors are still weak, the rate of economic growth is very high.
4. Russia is a parliamentary republic with President, directly elected for a four-year term, as Head of State and head of the executive branch of the government.
5. The legislative branch of the government is represented by the Federal Assembly consisting of the Federation Council and the State Duma; the executive branch is represented by President and the Cabinet of Ministers, the judicial branch consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts.
6. Russian culture abounds in famous names, as Russia has contributed greatly to the world's intellectual and artistic treasure-houses.
3. Find the Russian equivalents of the English sentences.
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface.
It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. It is total area is about 17 million square kilometres.
In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia and Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found.
The world's deepest lake (1,600 meters) is a Lake Baikal.
It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.
a) Она включает в себя восточную часть Европы и северную часть Азии. Площадь страны составляет около 17 млн. кв. км.
b) Вряд ли найдется в мире еще страна с таким разнообразием ландшафтов и растительной жизни, как в России.
c) Россия — самая большая страна в мире. Она занимает почти одну седьмую часть всего мирового пространства.
d) Одно из них — Байкал — самое глубокое озеро в мире. Оно значительно меньше, чем Балтийское море, однако воды в нем гораздо больше. Вода в озере такая чистая, что, если посмотреть вниз, можно сосчитать камни на дне.
e) На юге Россия граничит с Китаем, Монголией, Кореей, Казахстаном, Грузией и Азербайджаном. На западе — с Норвегией, Финляндией, Балтикой, Белоруссией и Украиной. У России проходит также морская граница с США.
f) Россия является парламентской республикой. Во главе страны стоит президент. Законодательная власть принадлежит Государственной Думе.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was not always the capital. In ancient times the capitals of Russia were also Kiev and Novgorod. After Peter the Great built Saint-Petersburg it became the Russian capital for about two hundreds years.
Moscow is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities of the world. It is one of major cultural and political centres of Europe. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of the city is more than nine hundred square kilometres. Moscow is often called as "a port of five seas", because in Moscow ports you can see boats coming from the Baltic, the White, the Caspian and the Black seas and the Sea of Azov.
Moscow is an industrial centre too. A lot of manufacturing plants are situated there. One of the best known is Likhachev Automobile Plant producing a great number of different lorries and cars.
Cultural life is very busy in Moscow. There are a lot of theatres, museums, cinemas and libraries here. The Tretyakov Art Gallery and Pushkin Fine Arts Museum are the most famous among them. The Pushkin museum is called the treasure-house of Russian art. Young people like to visit Central Military Museum. You can see tanks, guns and war documents there.
There are a lot of splendid buildings, wide avenues, large squares, famous monuments and green forest-like parks in Moscow. One of the highest and original buildings in Moscow is Moscow State University. The university was founded in 1755 by the great chemist, poet and thinker Mikhail Lomonosov.
Moscow transport system is a great one. You can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses and trams in the streets of the city. Electric trains bring millions people from and to suburbs and Moscow region small towns. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and four airports. Bus stations are numerous. Most of the people take metro to their work and back home. The Moscow metro began its work on the 15th of May 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now they are 186.
Sport is very popular among moscovites. There are a lot of stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki. Many football matches are held there, 22nd Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow in 1980. By that year Olympic village had been built. There are a lot of training grounds and gyms besides residential buildings. I live in Moscow and I am proud of this city.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the seat of the highest bodies of state authority. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. In the 15th century Moscow became the capital of Russian Federation. With the transfer of Russia's capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, it became the country’s second capital. In 1918 it became the capital of Russian Federation.
Present-day Moscow is the capital of Russian Federation. Moscow has many streets and squares taking up an area of 2500 square kilometres. The population is about 12 million, plus some three million guests coming annually. Moscow is a country’s major industrial centre, unrivalled in the strength of its work force and the range of manufactured goods. Machine building, instrument making and radio electronics are the leading industries of the capital. Moscow is the major transportation hub linked by rail, road and air with all the areas of Russia and with many countries.
Moscow is the main scientific centre of Russia housing the Russian Academy of Sciences, numerous higher educational institutions and many scientific and research establishments. Moscow is the venue of important congresses and conferences, scientific symposiums, art exhibitions, festivals and sport competitions.
Moscow is the major tourist centre of Russia. Thousands of people, who visit our capital, come to see its Red Square, the main square in Moscow and Russia and the famous Kremlin, numerous museums, theatres and exhibitions. The most famous are the Bolshoi Theatre, the Tretyakov Art Gallery, the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and many others.
The city impresses everybody with its streets lined with fine buildings, its large squares, green parks, its wide bridges, its beautiful embankments, churches and monuments. Russia's centre of present-day transformations, Moscow combines the memories of the past with all that is sacred today and holds a good promise for the future. Moscow is an ever young city, which is always growing and changing. It is a city dear to the heart of every Russian man.
1. Put ten questions to the texts.
2. Complete the sentences.
1. The history of Moscow began in … .
2. Moscow is … centre of Russia.
3. In Red Square tourists visit … .
4. On the territory of the Kremlin we can see … .
5. If you are interested in arts you'd better visit the Tretyakov Art Gallery which contains … .
6. If you visit … you'll admire the magnificent display of West-European paintings of the 13th-20th centuries.
3. Why does Moscow attract tourists from all over the world? Give detailed answer.
Tatarstan is situated in the central part of Russia. The population of Tatarstan is over 3,8 million people. The republic occupies the area of 67 thousand square kilometres. There are no high mountains in Tatarstan, but there are a lot of hills, lakes and rivers. The largest and the biggest rivers are the Volga and the Kama. The nature of the country is very picturesque and beautiful. The climate of Tatarstan is moderate continental: sometimes it is very hot in summer and very cold in winter.
Tatarstan is very rich in natural recources, such as coal and gas. The chief mineral wealth of the republic is oil. Agriculture of the republic is also of great impotance. In rural parts of the country the farmers produce meat and milk, grow fruits and vegetables.
The largest cities are Almetyevsk, Bugulma, Chistopol, and Naberezhnye Chelny. Lorries, cars, watches, medical equipment are produced in these towns. Chemical industry is developed in Nizhnekamsk and Kazan.
Tatarstan is the sovereign state of which the President is the official head. There is the Prime Minister and Parliament which makes laws.
The national flag of the republic consists of three stripes: green, white and red. The State Coat of Arms represents the image of a winged snow leopard.
The capital of the republic is Kazan.
picturesque – живописный
moderate – умеренный
coal – уголь
highly industrialized – высокоразвитый
equipment – оборудование
rural – сельскохозяйственный
coat – герб
1. Answer the questions.
1. Where is Tatarstan situated?
2. How many people live in the republic?
3. Are there many mountains in Tatarstan?
4. What natural resources is the republic rich in?
5. What large cities do you know in Tatarstan?
6. Who is the head of the state?
7. Who is the head of the government?
8. What national symbols does the republic have?
2. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.
1. The republic occupies the area of 76 thousand square kilometres.
2. The largest and the biggest river is the Lena in Tatarstan.
3. The climate of Tatarstan is moderate continental.
4. Tatarstan is not rich in natural recources.
5. The national flag of the republic consists of three stripes: blue, white and red.
Tatarstan, also called Tatariya, is the republic in the east-central part of European Russia. Its total area is about 67 thousand square km. The republic lies in the middle Volga River basin around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers. Kazan is the capital.
The Volga flows north-south across the western end of the republic, while the Kama, the Volga’s largest tributary, forms a roughly east-west axis through the greater part. The Vyatka and the Belaya rivers are major tributaries of the Kama. Generally, the relief is a low, rolling plain.
The climate is continental, with long, severe winters and hot summers.
Most of the republic lies in the forest-steppe zone on the black earth. About one-sixth of the territory is forested.
As for 2010, the population of the republic is 3 822 859. The Tatars, who today consist of a half of Tatarstan’s population, are a Turkic people. The republic was formed in 1920. Tatarstan remained a republic within the Russian federation after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, but separatist sentiments emerged soon afterward among its Tatar population.
The republic’s diversified economy centres on petroleum production, industry, and agriculture. The first oil well was drilled in 1943, and subsequent development was rapid. Pipelines run east and west from the oil fields at Almetyevsk; the production of natural gas is centred in Nizhnaya Maktama.
The chemical industry has developed chiefly in Kazan, Mendeleyevsk, and Nizhnekamsk. Engineering works are concentrated largely in cities along the Volga and the Kama, notably in Kazan, Zelyonodolsk, and Chistopol. Trucks are manufactured at a large plant in Naberezhnye Chelny. The manufacture of soap and other fat products is important in Kazan. Agricultural products include wheat, corn (maize), millet, legumes, potatoes, sugar beets, hemp, tobacco, apples, dairy products, and livestock.
Heavy freight traffic moves along the rivers; regular passenger services also connect the river ports of the republic with Moscow and all parts of the Volga River basin. Rail service is less developed; two main lines between Moscow and the Urals cross the republic’s northwestern and southeastern corners. Another line runs north-south through the Volga right-bank area.
Tatarstan has numerous institutions of higher learning, including the state university in Kazan and specialized institutes.
tributary - приток реки
axis – вал, ось
severe - суровый
emerge - появляться, всплывать
diversify – вводить ранообразие
drill - сверлить
pipeline - конвейер
maize - кукуруза
millet - просо
legume - боб