6. What season do you like? Why? Give detailed answer.
Sport in our life (1)
People all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport makes people healthy, keeps them fit, more organized and better disciplined. It unites people of different classes and nationalities.
Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volleyball, football, bodybuilding, etc. All necessary facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields. Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments. Gymnastics is a part of children's daily activity in the kindergartens. Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools and universities.
Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our republic. There are different sporting societies, clubs and complexes. The most famous of them are the Olympic complexes "Luzhniki", "Dynamo" stadium, etc. They are used for international and world competitions.
Practically all kinds of sports are popular in our republic but football; gymnastics and tennis enjoy the greatest popularity.
As for me, I go in for swimming. It needs mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps a person in a good form. I have been swimming for a 5 years. I get a real joy taking part in competitions or a simply swimming with my friends. Certainly, it’s a great distance between my manner of swimming and such favourites as Popov, but I do my training with great pleasure and hope to swim well as our best swimmers do.
As for my friend Nick, he goes in for table tennis (ping-pong). It needs mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps a person in a good form. He has been playing tennis for five years, but the more he plays, the more he likes it. Nick gets a real joy taking part in competitions or simply playing with me. Sometimes, he goes to tennis courts.
Certainly, there's a great distance between his manner of playing and such favourites as Jim Courier, Stephan Edberg, Pete Sampras, Boris Becker, Per Korda, but Nick does his training with great pleasure and hopes to play as well as our best players do.
fit — пригодный, здоровый
on personal initiative — по личной инициативе
to pay attention to — обращать внимание на
kindergarten — детский сад
compulsory — обязательный
to enjoy popularity — пользоваться популярностью
mobility — мобильность
distance — расстояние
1. Answer the questions:
1. Why are people all over the world fond of sports and games?
2. What necessary facilities are provided for people?
3. What kinds of sports are popular in our country?
4. What is your favourite kind of sport? Why?
2. Make up sentences using the highlighted words and word combinations.
1. Sport is very popular in our country.
2. I go in for speed skating.
3. The athletes took part in competitions abroad.
4. The competitions took place in Kazan.
5. I often do my training in the evening.
6. My friend is a champion in boxing.
Summer and winter sports (2)
People all over the world are very fond of sports and games. That is one of the things in which people of every nationality and class are united.
The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, and hockey in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow — skating, skiing and tobogganing. It's so nice to go to the skating-rink on a frosty sunny day. Some people prefer to be out of town in such weather and to sledge or to ski in the woods. Many people greatly enjoy figure skating and ski jumping. Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many other sports. Among outdoor games football takes the first place in public interests; this game is played in all the countries of the world.
The other games that have firmly established themselves in favour in different countries are cricket, volleyball, basketball, and so on. Badminton is also very popular with both young and old.
All the year round many people indulge in boxing, wrestling, gymnastics and track and field events. Scores of young girls and women go in for callisthenics. Over the last few years aerobics has become popular with young girls and women.
Aerobics helps them to be slim, healthy and strong. The interest for it greatly increased thanks to Jane Fonda, a prominent American actress, the founder of this kind of sport. This woman may serve as an impressive example of inexhaustible health, cheerfulness and beauty. Being a great enthusiast of aerobics, she has been trying to initiate many women all over the world into this sport.
Among indoor games which one can go in for all the year round are billiards, table tennis, draughts, chess, of course. The results of chess tournaments are studied and discussed by enthusiasts in different countries.
So we have all grounds to say that sport is one of the things that makes people kin.
to be fond of smth. — любить, нравиться
to unite — объединять
outdoor winter sports — зимние виды спорта на открытом воздухе
shooting — стрельба
hunting — охота
tobogganing — санный спорт
to sledge — кататься на санках
yachting — парусный спорт
gliding — планерный спорт
to establish oneself in favour — стать в почете
lawn-tennis — теннис
track and field events — легкая атлетика
scores of young girls and women — множество девушек и женщин
calisthenics — ритмическая гимнастика
indoor games — игры в закрытом помещении
impressive example — замечательный пример
inexhaustible — неисчерпаемый
cheerfulness — бодрость
enthusiast — энтузиаст
to initiate — приобщить кого-то к чему-то
tournament — турнир, спортивное соревнование
1. Answer the questions:
1. What are people all over the world fond of?
2. What unites people of every nationality?
3. Why do people prefer to be out of town on a frosty sunny day?
4. What are the most popular outdoor winter sports?
5. What opportunities for sports does summer afford?
6. What game takes the first place in public interest?
7. When do many people indulge in boxing, wrestling, athletics, and gymnastics?
8. Who goes in for calisthenics?
9. Why is chess the great international game?
2. Ask you friend:
- what kind of sports he / she knows;
- what sport he / she goes in for;
- if he / she has enough time to do sports;
- why people go in for sports;
- what his / her favourite football team is;
- if he / she is interested in swimming;
- if he / she drives a car;
- if he / she ever goes to football matches or watches the games on TV;
- if he / she belongs to any sport club;
- who his / her favourite sportsmen are.
Art and culture (1)
The Oxford Advancer Learner's Dictionary of Current English by Hornby gives us the following definition of the notion "art". ""Art" is the creation or expression of what is beautiful, especially in visual form. Drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, ballet belong to the fine art".
Really when something is extremely beautiful or it has great cultural value, we say: "It is art". Art has always been occupation for the few, but has been admired by many. Art reflects feelings and emotions, brings delight and admiration, and makes life pure as it wakens our best-hidden qualities. Speaking about arts, we connect this notion with culture. According to the dictionary culture of a community or nation includes all the arts, beliefs and social institutions characteristic of a community or nation. We can speak about either material, or spiritual culture. Art is both.
Russia is a country that can rightfully boast its artistic and cultural traditions, its art galleries attract huge crowds of tourists from all over the world. St. Petersburg is a precious stone in the crown of Russian cities. The Hermitage is famous all over the world for its valuable rare collections of canvases and other art objects covering a span of about seven hundreds years and comprising masterpieces of by Leonardo da Vinci, Titian, Raphael, Rembrandt, and Rubens. The collections illustrate the art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Germany, France, Britain, and Sweden. The West - European Department also includes a fine collection of European Sculpture. People come to admire the collections of tapestry, precious textiles, weapons, ivory, pottery, porcelain and furniture as well.
Speaking about art one should not forget about music, especially classic music. Outstanding Russian composers make the whole world admire their music. One can find a man, who does not know Pyotr Ilyich Tchaicovsky, Michail Glinka, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov - the prominent composers of 19th century, and Sergey Rachmaninov, Sergey Prokofiev and Dmitriy Shostakovich.
It was Glinka (1804-1857) who laid the foundation for modern Russian music; his music expressed the temperament of Russian people. His two best known operas "Ivan Susanin" and "Ruslan and Ludmila" were based on Russian folklore and historical legends.
The most famous ballets "Swan Lake", "The Sleeping Beauty", "The Nutcracker" and not less famous operas "The Queen of Spades", "Eugene Onegin" are still excellently staged and performed not only in Russian but also in many greatest theatres in the world.
Russia is world famous for its literature. The "golden age" of Russian literature began in the 19th century when such outstanding masters of letters such as Alexander Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, and Dostoyevsky created their immortal masterpieces.
Alexander Pushkin, the father of Russian Literature was the authors of more than 700 lyrical poems. He wrote also the volumes of dramatic works, short stories, made adaptations of Russian fairy-tales.
Russia is famous for its architecture. The real jewel of architecture is the Moscow Kremlin with its cathedrals, towers and red brick walls. Just outside the Kremlin walls stands St. Basil's Cathedral, one of the world most astonishing buildings with 8 domes of different designs and colours.
St. Petersburg has great number of real masterpieces of architecture of different styles and is definitely worth visiting and being admired.
Russia is rich also in young talents, new Russian culture is forming. It will appear on the basis of the old one, but its essence will be new. We can hear new voices in music and poetry, new canvases of modern artists, great actors and film directors.
All of them will make their contribution into Russian Culture and Art.
creation – создание; выдумка
spiritual – духовный; церковный
canvas – холст
tapestry – гобелен
1. Put ten questions to the text.
2. Combine the following words using the model:
model: “Tarsan” is an interesting film.
“The Piligrim” interesting musical
“Romeo and Juliet” famous comedy
“Pigmalion” popular play
“Dracula” wonderful opera
“Nobody Wanted to Die” great ballet
“The Swan Lake” classical film
“TheSnow Maiden” rock thriller
“Gone with the Wind” horror drama
“My Fair Lady” fascinating animated
“Jesus Christ – Super Star” splendid cartoons
3. Find the Russian equivalents of the English sentences:
Cultural Life. Arts. Museums and Libraries
Культурная жизнь. Искусство. Музеи и библиотеки
a)Moscow has long been a centre of Russian and world culture.
1) В Большом театре ставятся оперы и балеты.
b) Dancers from all over the country are trained at the Bolshoi Theatre’s school.
2) Москва долго была центром российской и мировой культуры
c)The Moscow State Symphony and other orchestras perform at the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall in Moscow.
3) Танцоры со всей страны обучаются в школе Большого театра..
d)The city also features a number of famous drama theatres, including the Maly and Moscow Art theatres.
4)Ослепительные сокровища, которые принадлежали царям, демонстрируются в Оружейной палате в Кремле. Третьяковская галерея содержит собрание традиционного искусства. Русский национальный выставочный центр отводит главное место науке и технике.
e) The Bolshoi Theatre presents operas and ballets.
5)Московский Государственный симфонический и другие оркестры выступают в концертном зале Чайковского в Москве.
f)Historical Museum attracts many students of Russian history. The Central Museum of the Revolution has exhibits on the Russian Revolution.
6)Отличительным признаком города также являются множество известных драматических театров, включая Малый и Московские художественный театры.
g) Dazzling treasures that belonged to the czars are displayed in the Armoury Museum in the Kremlin. The Tretyakov Gallery contains a collection of traditional art. The Russian National Exhibition Centre highlights science and technology.
7) Государственный исторический музей привлекает много студентов, которые изучают российскую историю. Центральный музей революции демонстрирует экспонаты российской Революции.
h)Over 1,200 main libraries operate in Moscow. The Russian State Library is the largest library in Russia, and it ranks as one of the largest libraries in the world.
8)В Москве работают более 1 200 основных библиотек. Русская Государственная библиотека — самая большая библиотека в России, и считается одной из самых больших библиотек в мире.
Culture in Great Britain (2)
It you're staying in London for a few days, you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. You'll find opera, ballet, comedy, drama, review, musical comedy and variety. Most theatres and music-halls have good orchestras with popular conductors. At the West-End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. As a rule, the plays are magnificently staged - costumes, dresses, scenery, everything being done on the most lavish scale.
The last half of the XVI and the beginning of the XVII centuries are known as the golden age of English literature. It was the time of the English Renaissance, and sometimes it is even called "the age of Shakespeare".
Shakespeare, the greatest and most famous of English writers, and probably the greatest playwright who has ever lived, was born in Stratford-on-Avon. In spite of his fame we know very little about his life. He wrote 37 plays. Among them there are deep tragedies, such as Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Macbeth, light comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor, All's Well That Ends Well, Twelfth Night, Much Ado About Nothing.
1. Prepare the report “London is worse seeing”.
2. What do the words “art” and “culture” mean for you? Give detailed answer.
Almost all people are fond of travelling. It is very interesting to see new places, another towns and countries. People may travel either for pleasure or on business. There are various means of travelling. For me there is nothing like travel by air; it is more comfortable, more convenient and, of course, far quicker than any other means. There is none of the dust and dirt of a railway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train to steamer and then to another train.
With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. From the comfortable seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car; and if a journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper.
Travelling by ship is also very popular now. It is very pleasant to feel the deck of the ship under the feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in the face and hear the cry of the seagulls.
Many people like to travel by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many sights in a short time, you can stop when and where you like, you do not have to buy tickets or carry your suitcases.
A very popular means of travelling is hiking. It is travelling on foot. Walking tours are very interesting. Hitchhiking is a very popular method of travelling among young people. But it is not as popular in our country as abroad.
1. Answer the questions:
1. Do you like to travel?
2. What is the best way to study geography?
3. What do you do during your vacation?
4. What do you call "a good vacation"?
2. Discuss the features of an ideal vacation.
Have you ever asked yourself “What do I imagine when I hear travelling?”
The word "travelling" do not arouse lots of thoughts and memories to pay to in me. My experience in travelling is rather poor. Maybe I think so because most of my travel routes I have done hundreds of times during the year but in general I do not travel a lot.
What I imagine when I hear travelling? Do I imagine a highway, a road, or a narrow forest path? Do I imagine myself packing the luggage and in my usual way having forgotten something to take? Do I imagine scenery changing in one moment while riding a car or a train or, maybe, the peace of the nature during the walk? Do I imagine a holiday, rest or hardships and my stamina test? Do I imagine myself alone or with family, friends, in a noisy company?
These are the questions I’m asking myself when I hear “travelling”. In my opinion travelling is careful preparation, when you are making yourself to take nothing more but you need. I long way to the aim that leads through the towns, forests and fields to have its end in a small pretty place you have chosen for a rest or a work. Travelling is a route through towns going sightseeing, through the forests admiring nature’s treasures, riding a van and loosing it all sleeping all the way. Happy you are the travel begins but happier you feel when you are again at home. Travel is a rest after which you’ll rest through next year, preparing to new adventures.
I wish I would have a chance to travel around the world. Such a travelling may be the greatest event in person’s life. Firstly I’ll visit France and its capital Paris.
France isn’t very far from Russia, so I’ll chose travel by train. Here there are some reasons for it: you can enjoy splendid scenery and picturesque places, communicate with the companions, so you won’t feel alone during the trip. And nowadays due to the technical progress trains become faster and faster and are comfortable enough to be a good travel service.
France is well known as a country of artists, fashion, perfumes and love. Paris is a particular city of France; it’s the capital of France, European fashion, art, city of unique people. Among its places worth sightseeing are Eiffel tower the cathedral of the Notre Dame, well known due to “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” written by Hugo, Louver. Louver is a great masterpiece in itself but more masterpieces it contains. Louver is the museum of world’s art, which is visited by each traveller. French Kitchen is also famous and, I think, nobody will deny to dine at a small restaurant when essence of love is dissolved in peaceful evening air.
The next point of my travelling will be the capital of the USA Washington.
I’ll chose travel by sea among all ways of crossing Atlantic Ocean. Sea voyage have something romantic in it, moreover I never travelled by ship so it’ll be a new experience for me. Ship is rather slow way of travelling but do I have to hurry somewhere all the time?
Washington, D. C. is one of the most famous capitals of the world. It’s known for its state buildings, the White House, US capitol, the Supreme Court building are among them, for plenty of memorials and museums dedicated to American heroes of the past. Lincoln, Jefferson and Washington memorials are great examples of warm feelings of Americans towards their heroes.
From Washington I’ll fly to Tokyo, Japan.
Planes consider being the fastest and the most comfortable way of travelling as the most expensive one also. I can’t deny that there are facts of air catastrophes but indeed air travelling is the safest of all ways of covering distances.
Japan had interested many Europeans since they discovered it, because of its special traditions and customs that survive in everyday life up to nowadays. Japan require from a visitor peculiar attention it itself because it’s easy to lose your head when enter the quite kingdom of nature after noisy and fast-moving town. Like in Tokyo that is one of the biggest industrial and economical centres of the world and contain such masterpieces of the past as the Imperial palace, that is open for visitors only on the 2nd of January, so maybe I’ll have to arrange my plans accordingly, the Asakura Kannon temple, Meiji shrine with its gateway and many other.
I think that my travel will last to long if I visit more places in one time and the next travel point will be my home. I think that Paris, Washington, Tokyo are enough as for the first trip.
1. Read and translate the text using vocabulary.
2. Put ten questions to the text.
3. Try to retell the story.
COUNTRIES AND CULTURES
The United Kingdom of Great Britain