Tanzania Wildlife Discussion Paper No. 37
Rolf D. Baldus (Ed.)
COASTAL FORESTS OF THE
SAADANI NATIONAL PARK
- CONSERVATION VALUES AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES -
Urs Bloesch and Frank Klötzli
GTZ Wildlife Programme Wildlife Division
in Tanzania Ministry of Natural Resources & Tourism
Dar es Salaam
1. Introduction 4
2. Methods 4
3. Description of coastal forest types 5
3.1 Small hilltop forests on hillocks 7
3.2 Gully forests 8
3.3 Forest patches and thicket clumps 9
3.4 Groundwater forests 10
3.5 Gallery forests 12
3.6 Large hilltop forests 13
3.7 Large isolated trees 14
4. Discussion 15
4.1Characteristics of coastal forests 15
4.2 Vegetation dynamics of wooded vegetation 16
4.3 Floral affinities amongst forest types 19
5. Harvesting of forest products 19
5.1 Firewood 19
5.2 Timber and building poles 21
5.3 Non-woody forest products 22
5.4 The Chapa Mangrove Forest 22
6. Conservation values and management suggestions 23
7. Conclusions 25
8. Recommendations 26
9. Acknowledgements 26
10. References 27
11. List of Tanzania Wildlife Discussion Papers 30
GTZ Wildlife Programme in Tanzania
P.O. Box 1519
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
The Discussion Papers reflect the opinions of authors only. They may contain views that do not necessarily correspond with the official positions of the Wildlife Division, GTZ and the editor.
The major biodiversity and conservation value of Saadani National Park lies not in its mammal populations but essentially in its vegetation, of which the coastal forests are the most conspicuous. These coastal forests are under serious threat and are quickly disappearing along the coast of Tanzania.
German Development Cooperation has assisted the creation of the National Park through the Saadani Conservation and Development Programme. This support was essentially in relation to planning, practical management, capacity building and involvement of the communities in the buffer zones. Some ecological monitoring and collection of basic data was also introduced and certain activities, such as a bird inventory are ongoing. The authors of this Discussion Paper and the Zurich ETH University have a long affiliation with the Saadani-Mkwaja Ecosystem. This paper, similar to a preceding one by them (Bloesch and Klotzli, 2003) serves as a presentation of baseline data. This study also serves the purpose to make this knowledge, accumulated over more than two decades, available to the new managers of Tanzania's latest national park, both now and in the years to come.
It was a particular fortune that the attention of the two researchers was drawn to the hitherto unexplored Kwamsisi coastal forest, which without doubt will offer a few surprises once it can be thoroughly surveyed by scientists. The forests described in this paper cannot, however be conserved in the long run without the active involvement of the communities around the National Park, and the communities need to see clear material benefits. The present trend to develop tourism around Saadani by investors acquiring land from the communities and thereafter excluding them from user rights on the land, the forests and the wildlife on it are cause for major concern.
For a number of reasons Wildlife Management Areas (WMA) around Saadani National Park have not yet been established during the course of the Saadani Conservation and Development Programme. It is however promising that several villages, even in the Genda Genda area have proposed development of WMA, which TANAPA, the Wildlife Division and GTZ have agreed to support. To ensure a smooth development of these WMA, the villages must benefit from tourism development, even that which has started. The present trend that investors purchase agricultural land and build a lodge not only violates existing legislation, but also excludes the villages from long-term tourism benefits. If WMA are established they will require such tourist lodges to pay a rent or bed levy to the WMA even for land that was acquired privately prior to the establishment of the WMA.
The WMA will facilitate the conservation measures and the traditional uses of trees and other forest products as described in this study.
Twenty-four small coastal forests within the Saadani National Park have been surveyed. According to their topographic position different types have been defined, i.e., small hilltop forest on hillock, gully forest, forest patch/thicket clump, groundwater forest, gallery forest and large hilltop forest. Their floristic composition is analysed and their conservation value is outlined. The dynamics of the wooded vegetation and their main determinants are described. Furthermore, the firewood collection practices of the local communities and its impact on the vegetation are briefly assessed. Based on the findings several management strategies are suggested.
The main terrestrial vegetation types of the Saadani ecosystem and their biodiversity and conservation values are outlined by Bloesch & Klötzli (2002). They stress in particular the high biodiversity and the exceptional endemism of the poorly known coastal forests within the Saadani savanna landscape. Moreover, they underline the importance of effective community participation and the appropriate use of fire in view of a sustainable management of the area.
In this report we discuss the main findings of a field survey carried out from 27/7 – 8/8/2003 in order to complement our knowledge of the coastal forests. In particular the following aspects are discussed:
Botanical description of the different forest types and assessment of their biodiversity values;
Establishment of the floristic affinities between the analysed different forest types;
Tentative description of the dynamics of the different forest types;
Description of the conservation values of the wooded vegetation and of their main threats;
Rapid assessment of the firewood collection practices of the local communities and its impact on the vegetation;
Suggestions for management strategies regarding these forests.
A more exhaustive floristic analysis and a list of all species recorded (indicating endemic species) will be published in a scientific journal. This paper will also compare our forest data with that of other coastal forests known from the literature, particularly the Zaraninge Forest.