Table S2 Synopsis of no-choice gall induction tests with Rhinusa pilosa in 2006–12 Plant species




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Table S2 Synopsis of no-choice gall induction tests with Rhinusa pilosa in 2006–12

Plant species

No. of females tested

No. of replicates(plants)

No. of oviposition marksc

No. of galls induced

No. of galls

/ replicate

mean ± SE (range)

No. of adults emerged

No. of adults / replicate

mean ± SE (range)

No. of adults

/ gall

mean ± SE

(range)

% of galls supporting development

to adult

mean ± SE

% of oviposition marks resulting

in adult

production mean ± SE

Genetic types of the target weed species

Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill. EU (control) a

30

172

1363

356

2.1±0.1

(0-11)


1037

6.0±0.4

(0-34)


2.9±0.1

(0-12)


85.4±1.9

71.0±1.9

L. vulgaris (NA pops. pooled ) a

52

281

2771

729

2.6±0.1

(0-11)


2054

7.3±0.3

(0-40)


2.8±0.1

(0-12)


89.4±1.1

72.7±1.2

L. vulgaris (NA pop. No. 1) a

5

34

289

66

1.9±0.2

(0-6)


225

6.6±1.0

(0-22)


3.4±0.3

(0-12)


86.4±4.2

69.6±3.9

L. vulgaris (NA pop. No. 2) a

5

31

268

91

2.9±0.3

(1-7)


199

6.4±0.6

(1-15)


2.2±0.2

(0-8)


89.0±3.3

71.1±3.3

L. vulgaris (NA pop. No. 3) a

5

32

268

72

2.2±0.3

(1-7)


209

6.5±0.6

(2-19)


2.9±0.2

(0-7)


93.1±3.0

75.2±3.2

L. vulgaris (NA pop. No. 7) a

5

30

260

70

2.3±0.3

(0-6)


200

6.7±0.9

(0-15)


2.9±0.3

(0-12)


87.1±4.0

70.9±3.9

L. vulgaris (NA pop. No. 8) a

15

85

733

221

2.6±0.2

(0-9)


565

6.6±0.5

(0-26)


2.6±0.1

(0-8)


87.8±2.2

73.1±2.2

Species from the same genus (Linaria) as the target weed species



















L. alpina (L.) Mill.

10

45

552

149

3.3±0.5

(0-11)


113

2.5±0.6

(0-19)


0.8±0.1

(0-6)


40.3±4.0

22.2±2.8

L. angustissima (Loisel.) Borbás

3

9

65

20

2.2±0.4

(1-5)


19

2.1±0.6

(0-5)


1.0±0.3

(0-5)


50.0±11.5

25.3±7.0

Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. (NA pops. pooled) a

20

99

604

(238)


147

1.5±0.2

(0-6)


184

1.9±0.3

(0-13)


1.0±0.1

(0-7)


63.2±4.0

38.6±3.0

L. dalmatica (NA pop. No. 1) a

1

4

24

(of which 19 HR)



3

0.8±0.8

(0-3)


1

0.3±0.3

(0-1)


0.3±0.3

(0-1)


33.3±33.3

8.3±8.3

L. dalmatica (NA pop. No. 2) a

1

4

32

(of which 16 HR)



5

1.2±1.2

(0-5)


12

3.0±3.0

(0-12)


2.4±1.2

(1-7)


100

42.2±14.0

L. dalmatica (NA pop. No. 7) a

4

20

119

(of which 80 HR)



12

0.6±0.2

(0-4)


26

1.3±0.6

(0-10)


2.2±0.5

(0-6)


58.3±51.5

28.6±43.4

L. dalmatica (NA pop. No. 9) a

1

7

46

(of which 40 HR)



1

0.1±0.1

(0-1)


5

0.7±0.7

(0-5)


0.7±0.7

(0-1)


100

13.9±13.9

L. dalmatica (NA pop. No. 11) a

1

7

37

(of which 23 HR)



8

1.1±0.6

(1-4)


7

1.0±0.5

(0-3)


0.9±0.3

(0-2)


62.5±18.3

26.4±10.1

L. dalmatica (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica EU a

3

14

74

(of which 45 HR)



2

0.1±0.1

(0-1)


6

0.4±0.3

(0-3)


0.5±0.3

100

17.9±10.4

L. dalmatica (L.) Mill. ssp. macedonica EU a

5

20

262

(of which 19 HR)



74

3.7±1.0

(0-13)


41

2.1±1.0

(0-17)


0.6±0.1

(0-4)


29.7±5.3

16.2±3.4

L. genistifolia (L.) Mill. EU a

18

93

594

(of which 476 HR)



20

0.2±0.1

(0-5)


37

0.4±0.1

(0-7)


1.8±0.5

(0-6)


65.0±10.9

7.9±2.3

L. genistifolia (L.) Mill. ssp. confertiflora EU a

5

18

64

17

0.9±0.3

(0-3)


0

-

-

-

-

L. genistifolia (L.) Mill. ssp. artvinensis EU a

3

9

110

38

4.2±1.1

(2-11)


66

7.3±2.6

(0-22)


1.7±0.2

(0-6)


84.2±6.0

62.0±5.6

L. kurdica Boiss. & Hohen.

2

8

65

(of which 62 HR)



22

2.8±0.4

(1-5)


0

-

-

-

-

L. maroccana Hook. f.

9

49

126

38

0.8±0.2

(0-4)


0

-

-

0

0

L. pancicii Janka ex Nyman

5

19

159

(of which 24 HR)



48

2.5±0.5

(0-8)


96

5.0±1.2

(0-16)


2.0±0.2

(0-4)


90.6±4.1

62.8±5.1

L. purpurea (L.) Mill.

12

42

265

(of which 23 HR)



66

1.6±0.3

(0-7)


68

1.6±0.5

(0-17)


1.0±0.2

(0-5)


54.5±6.2

24.9±3.6

L. repens (L.) Mill.

9

30

21

7

0.2±0.1

(0-3)


1

0.03±0.03

(0-1)


0.1±0.1

(0-1)


14.3±14.3

4.8±14.3

L. rubioides Vis. & Pančić
(macedonian phenotype)

3

9

98

35

3.9±0.3

(3-5)


64

7.1±0.9

(4-13)


1.8±0.2

(0-4)


88.6±5.4

66.0±5.6

L. rubioides Vis. & Pančić ssp. nissana

10

30

538

140

4.7±0.7

(0-16)


104

3.5±1.0

(0-19)


0.7±0.1

(0-13)


41.4±4.2

19.7±2.6

L. saxatilis (L.) Chaz.

8

27

188

65

2.4±0.5

(0-9)


24

0.9±0.6

(0-17)


0.4±0.1

(0-3)


23.1±5.3

13.0±3.5

L. supina (L.) Chaz.

9

33

484

134

4.1±0.7

(0-14)


79

2.4±0.6

(0-15)


0.6±0.1

(0-5)


43.3±4.3

19.3±2.5

Species from the same tribe (Antirrhineae) as the target weed species

Species from the same clade (Antirrhinum) as the target weed species

Antirrhinum majus L.

9

19

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange

10

16

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Misopates orontium (L.) Raf.

9

25

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mohavea confertiflora (A. DC.) A. Heller b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Species from clades other than that of the target weed species

Cymbalaria muralis G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.

10

16

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Epixiphium wislizeni (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Munz b

10

35

99

0

-

-

-

-

-

0

Galvezia juncea (Benth.) A. Gray b

5

10

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gambelia speciosa Nutt. b

5

10

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mabrya acerifolia (Pennell) Elisens b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Maurandella antirrhiniflora (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Rothm. b

10

31

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Neogaerrhinum strictum (Hook. & Arn.) Rothm. b

5

13

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton b

29

117

17

13

0.1±0.04

(0-3)


0

-

-

0

0

Pseudorontium cyathiferum (Benth.) Rothm. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sairocarpus multiflorus (Pennell) D.A. Sutton b

15

38

0

0

-

0

-

-

-

0

S. nuttallianus (Benth. ex A. DC.) D.A. Sutton b

29

131

1240

148

1.1±0.1

(0-6)


0

-

-

0

0

S. virga (A. Gray) D.A. Sutton b

58

262

2187

297

1.1±0.1

(0-8)


3

0.01±0.01

(0-1)


0.01±0.01

(0-1)


1.0±0.6

0.1±0.1

Species from tribes other than that of the target weed species

Bacopa rotundifolia(Michx.) Wettst. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Besseya wyomingensis (A. Nelson) Rydb. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Chelone oblique L.b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Collinsia bicolor Benth. (syn. C. heterophylla) b

9

27

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

C. parviflora Lindl. b

6

6

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Digitalis purpurea L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Keckiella antirrhinoides (Benth.) Straw b

7

18

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

K. breviflora (Lindl.) Straw b

5

14

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

K. cordifolia (Benth.) Straw b

5

12

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

K. ternata (Torr. ex A. Gray) Straw b

5

11

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell b

5

6

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Penstemon centranthifolius (Benth.) Benth. b

5

8

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. confertus Douglas ex Lindl. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. digitalis Nutt. ex Sims b

12

31

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. eriantherus Pursh b

2

4

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. glaber Pursh b

3

7

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. grinnellii Eastw. b

5

9

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. heterophyllusLindl.b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. laricifolius Hook. & Arn. b

3

9

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. nitidus Douglas ex Benth. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. ovatus Douglas ex Hook. b

13

27

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. paysoniorum D.D. Keck b

2

10

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. procerus Douglas ex Graham b

14

32

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. spectabilis Thurb. ex A. Gray b

5

7

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Plantago eriopoda Torr.b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. lanceolata L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

P. major L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scoparia dulcis L. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synthyris pinnatifida S. Watson b

10

10

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tonella floribunda A. Gray b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

T. tenella (Benth.) A. Heller b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. chamaedrys L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. hederifolia L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. officinalis L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. spicata L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. wormskjoldii Roem. & Schult. b

9

25

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Species from other families in the order Lamiales

Ajugachamaepitys (L.) Schreb.

LAMIACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Castilleja applegatei Fernald b

OROBANCHACEAE



4

4

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

C. lineariifolia (Benth.) T.I. Chuang & Heckard b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

C. minor (A. Gray) A. Gray b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

C. occidentalis Torr b

4

4

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

C. sp. (miniata ?) Douglas ex Hook. ssp. miniata b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. b

OLEACEAE


5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mimulus aurantiacus W. Curtis b

PHYRAMCEAE



3

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

M. brevipes Benth b

2

3

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

M. guttatus DC. b

6

18

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

M. lewisii Pursh b

3

15

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

M. longiflorus Nutt. b

3

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

M. puniceusi Nutt.b

3

4

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud.b

ACANTHACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

R. strepens L. b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Salvia azurea Michx. ex Lam. b

LAMIACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Scrophularia californica Cham. & Schltdl. b

SCROPHULARIACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

S. lanceolata Pursh b

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Teucrium canadense L. b

LAMIACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trichostema lanatum Benth.b

LAMIACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Verbascum nigrum L.

SCROPHULARIACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. thapsus L.

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

V. virgatum Stokes

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Verbena lasiostachys Link b

VERBENACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Species from other orders with shared morphological or biochemical characteristics to the target weed species or on which a biocontrol agent or its close relatives have been recorded to feed and/or reproduce

Campanula rotundifolia L. b

CAMPALUNACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Gentiana cruciata L.

GENTIANACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake b

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Valeriana edulis Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray b

VALERIANACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Other families and crops

Centaurea jacea L.

ASTERACEAE



5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

ASTERACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Lactuca sativa L.

ASTERACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trifolium repens L.

FABACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Triticum sativum L.

POACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

Zea mays L.

POACEAE

5

5

0

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

a Geographic origin of the L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica populations tested:

EU = European population.



NA = North American population.

L. vulgaris No. 1 = Nisku, Alberta (AB), Canada.
L. vulgaris No. 2 = Kamloops, British Columbia (BC), Canada.
L. vulgaris No. 3 = Sweet Grass Co., Montana, USA.
L. vulgaris No. 7 = Boulder, Colorado, USA.
L. vulgaris No. 8 = Edmonton, AB, Canada.
L. dalmatica No. 1 = Fort Macleod, AB, Canada.
L. dalmatica No. 2 = Kamloops, BC, Canada.
L. dalmatica No. 7 = Grand Forks, BC, Canada.
L. dalmatica No. 9 = East Helena, Clarck Co., Montana, USA.
L. dalmatica No. 11 = Fort Macleod, AB, Canada.

b species native to North America.

c HR: hypersensitive response.




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