Table 1: List of plants screened in the study



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Table 1: List of plants screened in the study.


Plant





Voucher specimen no.

Family

Part tested


Traditional usesa

Acacia pennivenia* Schweinf.

Acanthospermum hispidum DC.

Acridocarpus socotranus* Oliv.

Aloe perryi* Baker

Ballochia atro-virgata* Balf.f.

Blepharis spiculifolia* Balf.f.

Boswellia dioscorides* Thulin & Gifri

Boswellia socotrana* Balf.f.

Capparis cartilaginea Decne.

Commiphora ornifolia* (Balf.f.) Gillett

Corchorus erodioides* Balf.f.

Croton socotranus* Balf.f.

Euclea divinorum Hiern

Euphorbia socotrana* Balf.f.

Eureiandra balfourii* Cogn.

Ficus cordata Thunb.

Glossonema revoili Franch.

Hibiscus noli-tangere* A.G.Mill.

Hypoestes pubescens* Balf.f.

Lannea transulta* ( Balf.f.) Radcl.-Sm.

Leucas samhaensis* Cortes-Burns & A.G.Mill.

Leucas virgata* Balf.f.

Lycium sokotranum* Wagner & Vierh.

Maerua angolensis DC.

Rhus thyrsiflora* Balf.f.

Teucrium sokotranum* Vierh.

Mo-Sq28

Mo-Sq10


Mo-Sq16

Mo-Sq9


Mo-Sq15

Mo-Sq13


Mo-Sq26

Mo-Sq24


Mo-Sq8

Mo-Sq23


Mo-Sq27

Mo-Sq4


Mo-Sq1

Mo-Sq5


Mo-Sq3

Mo-Sq4


Mo-Sq29

Mo-Sq30


Mo-Sq12

Mo-Sq17


Mo-Sq23
Mo-Sq21

Mo-Sq20


Mo-Sq7

Mo-Sq18


Mo-Sq22

Mimosaceae

Astraceae

Malpighiaceae


Aloaceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Burseraceae

Burseraceae

Capparaceae

Burseraceae

Tiliaceae


Euphorbiaceae

Ebenaceae


Euphorbiaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Moraceae

Asclepiadaceae

Malvaceae

Acanthaceae

Anacardiaceae

Labiatae

Labiatae Solanaceae

Capparaceae

Anacardiaceae


Labiatae

L


L

L,S


R

S, L


L, S

B

B



L

B

L, F



L, T

R

L



L

L

L, F



L, R

L

L



L
L

L, S


L

T, L


F, L

As a paste around the breast for women with mastitis

Unknown


Headaches, paralysis and muscle or tendon pain

For eye and stomach problems, constipation and malaria

Unknown

Unknown


Common cold, bronchitis, asthma and rheumatism

As Boswellia dioscorides

To treat itching, shortness of breath, head cold and for tumors

Antiseptic, diarrhea, dysentery and emmenagogue

Diuretic and urinary tract infections

For wounds

For oral care, tooth ache, fungal diseases, sores, wounds and abscesses

For skin diseases and wounds

Unknown

Antiseptic and for ulcers and wounds



Increase milk production in breastfeeding women

For snake bite and fever in children

Fungal skin diseases and scabies

Haemostatic for wounds, and sores and abrasions

For cough and cold
For persons with heartburn and indigestion and stomach problems

For stomach ailments and encourage the wound healing

To treat fever, aches and general malaise

To treat anorexia, general tonic and for painful joints

As flavoring agent and for indigestion

* endemic plant, B: Bark, F: Flower, L: Leaves, R: Roots or rhizomes, S: Stems, T: Fruits



a Most of the information of traditional use has been taken from [2] and native people.

Table 2: Antimicrobial activity of the investigated plants in agar diffusion test.



Plant species

Extracts

Extract yield in %

Microbial strains tested

Multiresistant strains tested

S. a.

B. c.

M. f.

E. c.

P. e.

C. m.

S. e. 847

S. h. 535

S. a. NGR


Acacia pennivenia
Acanthospermum hispidum
Acridocarpus socotranus
Aloe perryi
Ballochia atro-virgata
Blepharis spiculifolia
Boswellia dioscorides
Boswellia socotrana
Capparis cartilaginea
Commiphora ornifolia
Corchorus erodioides
Croton socotranus
Euclea divinorum

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

12.18


5.97

16.14


7.22

10.46


4.75

20.27


18.82

14.91


5.70

5.04


5.51

40.45


14.31

33.77


11.68

8.33


10.02

19.50


10.72

10.46


4.95

14.91


6.78

21.85


4.13

22

20



16

12

15



18

-

-



12

12

12



-

18

11



31

25

10



-

16

11



10

-

10



-

24

16



12

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

16

8



21

12

-



-

13

8



9

-

8



-

12

-



22

20



22

15

16



16

-

-



-

-

-



-

20

12



27

16

-



-

19

12



12

11

15



-

18

-



16

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

8

-



14

10

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

11

-



14

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

10

-



20

15

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

15

-



-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

10

-



22

16

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

10

-



18

8



18

8

14



18

18

-



10

-

10



-

28

28



28

22

-



-

18

18



-

-

18



20

24

12



14

-



12

-

10



14

10

-



-

-

-



-

18

16



20

18

-



-

14

10



-

-

10



10

16

-



20

18



20

12

14



22

20

14



16

-

16



-

38

28



28

24

-



-

18

20



-

-

24



24

26

20






Table 2: (Continued).



Plant species

Extracts

Extract yield in %

Microbial strains tested

Multiresistant strains tested

S. a.

B. c.

M. f.

E. c.

P. e.

C. m.

S. e. 847

S. h. 535

S. a. NGR


Euphorbia socotrana
Eureiandra balfourii
Ficus cordata
Glossonema revoili
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hypoestes pubescens
Lannea transulta
Leucas samhaensis
Leucas virgata
Lycium sokotranum
Maerua angolensis


Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

19.74


11.75

11.60


8.58

9.06


10.50

16.34


8.53

10.61


4.92

21.16


7.80

8.04


9.15

11.47


5.25

14.11


3.37

10.93


5.05

22.01


13.80

16

-



10

12

10



16

20

9



10

-

8



15

13

14



-

19

18



17

20

17



-

-

11

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



14

11

-



-

-

-



-

18

-



-

15

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



14

14

16



20

24

17



15

15

-



-

-

-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

15

12



-

12

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

20

20



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

16

22



14

18

16



20

12

-



-

12

12

12

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

-

-



-

12

12



14

12

12



12

-

-



-

26

26



-

-

12



14

-

-



-

-

-



-

16

22



18

20

22



26

20

20



-

16




Table 2: (Continued).


Plant species

Extracts

Extract yield in %

Microbial strains tested

Multiresistant strains tested

S. a.

B. c.

M. f.

E. c.

P. e.

C. m.

S. e. 847

S. h. 535

S. a. NGR


Rhus thyrsiflora
Teucrium sokotranum
Ampicillin 10 µg/disc

Gentamicin 10 µg/disc

Amphotericin 10 µg/disc

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

5.88


11.50

12.42


4.43

20

20



17

22

28



N.T.

N.T.

12

12

14



10

24

N.T.



N.T.

18

21



22

15

30



N.T.

N.T.

-

-

-



-

N.T.


15

N.T.

-

-

-



-

N.T.


17

N.T.

-

-

-



-

N.T.


N.T.

10

18

20

14



18

-

N.T.



N.T.

14

16



10

14

-



N.T.

N.T.

24

26

16



20

-

N.T.



N.T.


S. a., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; B. c., Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6059; M. f., Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16; E. c., Escherichia coli ATCC 11229;

P. e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 ; C. m., Candida maltosa SBUG; S. e. 847, multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis; S. h. 535, multiresistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus; S. a. NGR, North German species, multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus; -: no activity; N.T.: not tested; Inhibition zones including the diameter of the paper disc (6 mm)



Table 3: Free radical scavenging activity and MIC of the investigated plants.



Plant species

Extracts

Radical scavenging activity in %

MIC in µg/ml

10

(µg/ml)


50

(µg/ml)


100

(µg/ml)


500

(µg/ml)


1000

(µg/ml)


S. aureus

B. subtilis

M. flavus


Acacia pennivenia
Acanthospermum hispidum
Acridocarpus socotranus
Aloe perryi
Ballochia atro-virgata
Blepharis spiculifolia
Boswellia dioscorides
Boswellia socotrana
Capparis cartilaginea
Commiphora ornifolia
Corchorus erodioides
Croton socotranus
Euclea divinorum
Euphorbia socotrana

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

25.4


4.8

2.8


5.2

5.1


0.6

6.7


2.1

2.1


2.0

14.8


1.6

25.8


7,8

26.1


2.9

0.2


3.1

20.8


10.6

10.4


4.2

5.3


2.0

3.1


14.3

16.7


1.9

78.5


29.2

13.8


11.6

40.8


6.7

19.8


6.4

5.3


2.7

13.3


4.4

89.8


39.0

88.2


30.9

3.8


1.1

85.9


25.2

14.3


5.1

12.6


2.9

10.6


27.1

67.4


8.8

88.9


31.1

25.9


14.4

80.9


37.6

28.7


20.8

45.7


34.5

25.1


34.3

96.1


65.9

94.6


58.5

2.1


22.8

95.0


49.1

27.6


37.6

22.2


10.1

36.2


41.5

95.5


28.7

95.0


42.8

55.5


26.3

92.6


46.5

92.4


36.4

56.8


43.7

64.6


38.3

96.3


68.2

94.9


62.1

51.2


27.5

95.4


66.2

95.1


57.9

78.9


23.5

93.1


52.6

96.3


36.2

94.0


67.0

94.7


27.4

94.6


45.3

94.1


45.9

94.2


36.7

91.5


46.8

96.8


74.6

95.1


75.8

87.6


28.2

95.2


72.9

94.1


59.7

93.1


26.4

88.6


56.1

95.2


40.1

250


500

500


> 1000

250


250

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

125


500

125


250

> 1000


> 1000

250


500

> 1000


> 1000

500


> 1000

250


> 1000

500


> 1000

500


1000

1000


> 1000

1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

500


1000

250


500

> 1000


> 1000

500


1000

> 1000


> 1000

1000


> 1000

1000


> 1000

1000


> 1000

250


500

500


> 1000

250


250

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

125


500

125


250

> 1000


> 1000

250


500

> 1000


> 1000

500


> 1000

500


> 1000

500


> 1000


Table 3: (Continued).



Plant species

Extracts

Radical scavenging activity in %

MIC in µg/ml

10

(µg/ml)


50

(µg/ml)


100

(µg/ml)


500

(µg/ml)


1000

(µg/ml)


S. aureus

B. subtilis

M. flavus


Eureiandra balfourii
Ficus cordata
Glossonema revoili
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hypoestes pubescens
Lannea transulta
Leucas samhaensis

Leucas virgata
Lycium sokotranum
Maerua angolensis
Rhus thyrsiflora
Teucrium sokotranum
Ascorbic acid

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

Methanolic

Hot aqueous

15.0


7.3

2.5


1.6

1.7


0.3

0.6


1.4

1.5


2.6

21.9


36.7

2.3


3.8

1.5


26.2

5.6


26.5

13.8


29.1

3.8


1.1

3.4


24.2

42.8

17.8

23.0


12.5

9.3


14.9

2.7


7.3

0.8


4.0

4.2


64.2

33.2


9.6

5.6


1.1

34.8


27.8

30.3


19.3

65.1


29.4

9.3


2.8

28.7


94.2

8.3


35.4

31.0


16.4

26.8


2.5

18.4


2.8

16.6


3.1

95.4


37.2

8.0


37.3

2.8


39.5

29.8


31.2

32.0


69.1

55.9


12.8

16.4


38.2

96.8

19.1

42.7


89.2

18.9


38.6

7.8


85.9

5.6


38.7

16.1


92.1

32.3


61.7

49.3


27.6

44.0


91.4

37.4


52.5

68.3


95.6

22.4


41.0

47.6


96.6

57.7


41.0

91.6


20.4

76.4


8.1

89.0


6.6

72.6


18.3

98.6


29.9

88.8


47.1

81.9


51.9

94.2


39.5

82.3


73.9

95.4


30.5

92.1


61.4

96.9

> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

1000


1000

1000


> 1000

500


500

500


500

1000


> 1000

> 1000


500

500


500

250


> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


1000

> 1000


> 1000

1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


1000

1000


1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

> 1000


500

1000


1000

500


500

1000


500

500


> 1000

> 1000


> 1000

500


500

500


500

Table 4: IC50 values (µg/ml) for cell growth inhibition of the investigated methanolic extracts on three human cancer cell lines

and phytochemical screening. Values are averages and standard deviations of three or more independent determinations.


Plant species

Extracts

Cell lines

Phytochemical screening

5637


MCF-7


A-427



Acacia pennivenia

Acanthospermum hispidum

Acridocarpus socotranus

Aloe perryi

Ballochia atro-virgata

Blepharis spiculifolia

Boswellia dioscorides

Boswellia socotrana

Capparis cartilaginea

Commiphora ornifolia

Corchorus erodioides

Croton socotranus

Euclea divinorum

Euphorbia socotrana

Eureiandra balfourii

Ficus cordata

Glossonema revoili

Hibiscus noli-tangere

Hypoestes pubescens

Lannea transulta

Leucas samhaensis

Leucas virgata

Lycium sokotranum

Maerua angolensis

Rhus thyrsiflora

Teucrium sokotranum

Etoposide (µM)


Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

Methanolic

> 50


9.37 ± 1.98

> 50


> 50

2.83 ± 2.06

> 50

29.0 ± 8.26



18.4 ± 4.66

> 50


30.2 ± 3.12

> 50


> 50

> 50


42.0 ± 7.43

0.82 ± 0.15

> 50

> 50


> 50

8.25 ± 3.49

> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

0.54 ± 0.30


> 50


19.92 ± 8.94

> 50


> 50

2.94 ± 0.28

> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


38.5 ± 1.93

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

3.47 ± 1.18

> 50

> 50


> 50

7.03 ± 2.02

> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

0.50 ± 0.19


> 50


16.70 ± 2.32

> 50


> 50

1.58 ± 0.54

> 50

27.60 ± 10.31



24.9 ± 8.73

> 50


35.1 ± 3.15

> 50


> 50

> 50


38.1 ± 13.49

2.25 ± 0.57

> 50

> 50


> 50

4.85 ± 1.70

> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

> 50


> 50

0.13 ± 0.10


Saponins, tannins

Sesquiterpene lactones

Flavonoids, terpenoids

Anthraquinons, flavonoids

Terpenoids

Phenolic compounds, terpenoids

Volatile oil, terpenoids, flavonoids

Volatile oil, terpenoids, flavonoids

Glucosinolates, flavonoids

Volatile oil, terpenoids, flavonoids

Flavonoids, phenolic compounds

Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins

Phenolic acids, tannins

Terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins

Trepenoids, flavonoids

Tannins, terpenoids

Steroids, flavonoids

Tannins, lignans

Alkaloids, terpenoids

Tannins, flavonoids

Volatile oil, terpenoids and flavonoids

Volatile oil, terpenoids and flavonoids

Alkaloids

Glucosinolates, tannins

Flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins



Volatile oil, terpenoids









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