Seventh Grade Social Studies Curriculum and Assessment Alignment



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Seventh Grade Social Studies Curriculum and Assessment Alignment

GRADE 7 Content Expectation

*State Assess

** Assess

Category

Focus Question

***Sample Response to Focus Question

H1.1 Temporal Thinking
Use historical conceptual devices to organize and study the past. 





7 – H1.1.1 Explain why and how historians use eras and periods as constructs to organize and explain human activities over time.

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What conceptual devices do historians use to organize and study time?

We use eras, millennia, periods, decades, and centuries to organize time and to describe the common characteristics of events during that time period. The era of the Ice Age is characterized, for example, by a certain climate which affected large areas of the Earth. The decades of the “Cold War” were characterized by the polarization of power between two super powers. Looking for common characteristics in devices that help us organize time helps historians and students explain and compare human activity.

7 – H1.1.2 Compare and contrast several different calendar systems used in the past and present and their cultural significance (e.g., Sun Dial, Gregorian calendar – B.C. /A.D.; contemporary secular – B.C.E./C.E.; Chinese, Hebrew, and Islamic/Hijri calendars).

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H1.1


What conceptual devices do historians use to organize and study time?

People keep track of time and develop calendar systems based on both natural and cultural events. Calendars and time-keeping are significant aspects of cultural traditions. Historical events, holidays, religious celebrations, birthdays and anniversaries are recorded on calendars for respective cultural groups to use. Today people continue to use traditional calendars to maintain their cultural links with past generations. They may keep one calendar to maintain cultural and ethnic heritage and use another calendar for business.

H1.2 Historical Inquiry and Analysis
Use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past.
 




7 – H1.2.1 Explain how historians use a variety of sources to explore the past (e.g., artifacts, primary and secondary sources including narratives, technology, historical maps, visual/mathematical quantitative data, radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis).

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H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

Historians use a variety of sources to explore the past. The sources provide information that is used to describe and explain the past. Technology has changed the way in which information is obtained, stored, and analyzed. We can learn about the past by examining artifacts, reading primary and secondary sources, and using historical maps. Students will understand that radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis are often used to verify the authenticity of some sources.

7 – H1.2.2 Read and comprehend a historical passage to identify basic factual knowledge and the literal meaning by indicating who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed.

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H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We can identify knowledge and interpret meaning from a historical passage. We can use historical questions such as who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed to interpret meaning from an historical passage. For example we can identify knowledge and interpret meaning after reading about the spread of Hindu philosophy.

7 – H1.2.3 Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources.

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H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We identify point of view and context when using different types of primary and secondary sources so that we can identify the perspective of the author and determine how it would influence what was related.

7 – H1.2.4 Compare and evaluate competing historical perspectives about the past based on proof.

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H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We compare and evaluate historical perspectives. The view of a time period may be different for different ethnic groups. One example is the view of Israel from the perspective of the Jewish people and the Palestinians.

7 – H1.2.5 Describe how historians use methods of inquiry to identify cause and effect relationships in history noting that many have multiple causes.

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How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We identify cause and effect relationships by studying the sequence of events. We should also inquire about other occurrences that may have influenced the cause and effect relationships by using basic inquiry methods which begin with asking a question, in this case about a cause and effect relationship; collecting information and evaluating it for accuracy or point of view; interjecting the information to form a conclusion or a finding so that historians can identify cause and effect relationships.

7 – H1.2.6 Identify the role of the individual in history and the significance of one person’s ideas.

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H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We can identify the role of individuals in history. Individuals can be famous or not famous, enslaved or free, leaders or followers, philosophers, innovators, dissenters, supporters, religious, political or military leaders. The effects of one person’s ideas may be unknown and only recognized in the future, while the effects of others’ ideas are immediate with revolutionary consequences.

One example of the significance of an individual’s ideas would be Mohandas K. Gandhi, leader of Indian Independence, whose ideas about independence and non-violent protest spread throughout the world.



H1.4 Historical Understanding
Use historical concepts, patterns, and themes to study the past.





7 – H1.4.1 Describe and use cultural institutions to study an era and a region (political, economic, religion/belief, science/technology, written language, education, family).

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H1.4


What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Some examples of cultural institutions are political systems – how people are governed; means of production and consumption and the system of exchange in economy; beliefs, deities and values associated with religion or ethnicity; scientific and technological innovation such as the creation of the calendar, using astronomy, use of metals; written language; education systems, formal and informal; and family structures. For example, we could research Mesopotamian and Hwang civilizations to learn more about life in the past.

7 – H1.4.2 Describe and use themes of history to study patterns of change and continuity.

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H1.4


What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Historians would use themes to study patterns of change and continuity, such as; 1. human interactions with the environment; 2. civilization, cultural diffusion, and innovation; 3. values, beliefs, political ideas, and institutions; 4. conflict and cooperation; 5. comparative history of major developments; and 6. patterns of social and political interaction.

7 – H1.4.3 Use historical perspectives to analyze global issues faced by humans long ago and today.

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What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Global issues that have been faced by people long ago and are still challenges today include global climate change, globalization of trade, migration, human environment interaction (such as the Roman roads and aqueducts, irrigation, as well as agriculture), natural disasters, volcanic eruptions, drought and earthquakes.

W1.1 Peopling of the Earth
Describe the spread of people in the Eastern Hemisphere in Era 1.
 




7 – W1.1.1 Explain how and when human communities populated major regions of the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia) and adapted to a variety of environments.

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H1.2


How and when did humans populate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere?

The early migration of people from Africa occurred throughout the Earth's continents via land and water. Archeological and genetic records show the movement of people from Africa to Australia, Europe, Asia and the Americas over thousands of years. This movement required people to adapt to new and unique environments ranging from tropical to ice-covered regions. We can use informational text, historic maps, the internet, and other electronic sources to gather information and explain how and when communities populated major regions of the Eastern Hemisphere by showing the information on a map of the Eastern Hemisphere.

7 – W1.1.2 Explain what archaeologists have learned about Paleolithic and Neolithic patterns of living in Africa, Western Europe, and Asia.

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G4


How did humans live in regions of the Eastern Hemisphere?

Archeological records reveal much about the patterns of living for Paleolithic and Neolithic peoples. Some common characteristics include living in small bands of hunters and gatherers who used fire and tools, and domesticated the dog. The belief systems were based on nature and were often expressed in paintings that depicted these beliefs and lifestyles.

W1.2 Agricultural Revolution
Describe the Agricultural Revolution and explain why it was a turning point in history.
 




7 – W1.2.1 Explain the importance of the natural environment in the development of agricultural settlements in different locations (e.g., available water for irrigation, adequate precipitation, and suitable growth season).

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G3


How did the natural environment affect how people lived?

A favorable natural environment with adequate soil, water, and growing season allowed for the development of agricultural settlements. The natural environment was important because it allowed for reliable production of clothing, food and shelter for the population.

7 – W1.2.2 Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution (stable food supply, surplus, population growth, trade, division of labor, development of settlements).

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G2


Why was the Agricultural Revolution a turning point in history?

The Agricultural Revolution changed life during this time period by providing a stable food supply, which enabled trade possibilities, population growth, division of labor, and the development of settlements.

The Agricultural Revolution era began when hunter gatherer societies began to settle and plant food and useful commodities. Not until a society had sufficient reliable food sources could trade take place. With surplus and trade came the division of labor – a working society where people do many different jobs such as herdsmen, potters, craftsmen, traders, and farmers. As a result, settlements developed and populations grew. Specialization made the settlement more prosperous.



7 – W1.2.3 Compare and contrast the environmental, economic, and social institutions of two early civilizations from different world regions (e.g., Yangtze, Indus River Valley, Tigris/Euphrates, and Nile).

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G2


What were the characteristics of early civilizations?

Some characteristics of early civilizations are

  • their location in river valleys

  • presence of leadership and government

  • written language

  • religion

  • developed technology

  • tools and techniques such as road building

  • division of labor

  • social structure based on economics, politics, or religion

We can use these characteristics to compare civilizations from two different world regions.

W2.1 Early Civilizations and Early Pastoral Societies
Analyze early Eastern Hemisphere civilizations and pastoral societies.





7 – W2.1.1 Describe the importance of the development of human language, oral and written, and its relationship to the development of culture:

  • verbal vocalizations

  • standardization of physical (rock, bird) and abstract (love, fear) words

  • pictographs to abstract writing (governmental administration, laws, codes, history and artistic expressions)

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G2


What is the relationship between language and culture?

The development of language went from verbal vocalizations such as grunting and imitating sounds to standardization, consistent use of the same sounds to identify objects, and finally to the ability to relate abstract ideas and emotions such as love and fear.

People first used pictures to record events, later pictographs were used, and finally abstract symbols came to represent words and ideas. Using language to relate abstract ideas, people gained the ability to express complex ideas like legal codes, daily functioning of government, writing about history, and artistic expression.

The progression from vocalization to abstract writing allowed humans to pass on important information about architecture and science, keep records, and record history. This was important because each generation could add to the sum total of human knowledge and did not have to “re-invent” discoveries.


7 – W2.1.2 Use historical and modern maps and other sources to locate, describe, and analyze major river systems and discuss the ways these physical settings supported permanent settlements, and development of early civilizations (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Yangtze River, Nile River, Indus River).

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G3


What role did rivers play in the development of permanent settlements and early civilizations?

There is a close spatial relationship between large river systems and permanent settlements. Major river systems provided a constant and reliable source of water necessary for agriculture and life. A favorable agricultural environment enabled people to grow crops either with irrigation or natural precipitation and engage in the domestication of animals and animal husbandry. River valleys were often corridors for trade, both on land and water, and cities served as trade centers. We can use historical and modern maps to locate, describe, and analyze major river systems.

7 – W2.1.3 Examine early civilizations to describe their common features (ways of governing, stable food supply, economic and social structures, use of resources and technology, division of labor and forms of communication).

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What were the characteristics of early civilization and pastoral societies?

Some characteristics of early civilizations were the presence of leadership and government. Written language, religion, developed technology, tools and techniques such as road building, division of labor, and an identifiable social structure based on economics, politics, or religion are characteristics of early civilizations and pastoral societies.

7 – W2.1.4 Define the concept of cultural diffusion and how it resulted in the spread of ideas and technology from one region to another (e.g., plants, crops, plow, wheel, bronze metallurgy).

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G4


What role did cultural diffusion play in the spread of ideas and technology?

Cultural diffusion is the movement of cultural ideas, practices, and technology among groups of people. As different groups of people encountered each other they were exposed to different ideas and practices. One example in the Eastern Hemisphere is the diffusion of Buddhist religion throughout Asia.

7 – W2.1.5 Describe pastoralism and explain how the climate and geography of Central Asia were linked to the rise of pastoral societies on the steppes.

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What were the characteristics of early civilization and pastoral societies?

The geography of Central Asia was favorable to supporting small bands of pastoral people. Some characteristics of pastoral societies were a nomadic lifestyle, small population groups, dependence on livestock for wealth and status. The leadership of bands was often based on inheritance. They used well defined migratory routes which recognized rights to specific water and pasture land. Pastoral people inhabited the arid and semi-arid grasslands, or steppes, of the Eastern Hemisphere where rainfall determined grazing regions. The physical geography of the pasture lands was most often valley plains located between mountain ranges.

W3.1 Classical Traditions in Regions of the Eastern Hemisphere
Analyze classical civilizations and empires and their lasting impact on institutions, political thought, structures, technology and art forms that grew in India, China, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, and Southwest and Central Asia during this era.
 




7 – W3.1.1 Describe the characteristics that classical civilizations share (institutions, cultural styles, systems of thought that influenced neighboring peoples and have endured for several centuries).

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H1.4


What were the characteristics of classical civilizations in the Eastern Hemisphere?

Some characteristics of classic civilizations were the presence of institutionalized government which included legal codes and taxation; written language; organized religions; increasingly developed technology; tools and techniques such as road building, irrigation systems, aqueducts, wells; the division of labor; the presence of artisans and merchants; and an identifiable social structure based on economics, politics, or religion; participation in an organized trade network; and some provisions for public safety.

7 – W3.1.2 Using historic and modern maps, locate three major empires of this era, describe their geographic characteristics including physical features and climates, and propose a generalization about the relationship between geographic characteristics and the development of early empires.

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What were the characteristics of empires in the Eastern Hemisphere?

Favorable geographic characteristics influenced the location of classical civilization. Most were located in the middle latitudes near major rivers, seas, or oceans. The physical environment presented benefits and challenges. Essential to their development were suitable agricultural land, natural resources, and water. When those characteristics were not present, the empires acquired them by extending their influence and boundaries through military action.


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