Fungicides their Common names and Trade names with Formulations
List of Banned Pesticides
Ready reckoner for dissolving insecticides
Guidelines to the farmers for spraying insecticides
Compatability chart of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides
Compatability chart of Pesticides, Fungicides and Biopesticides
AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES OF ANDHRA PRADESH Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India with an area of 2,76,254 sq.km. It is located in southern part of country and extends from 12O to 19O North Latitude and 76O to 84O East Longitude. The State has three geopolitical regions consisting of 23 districts. Soil and climate are the two main factors that determine cropping in any area and the distribution of total rainfall chiefly determines the agro-climatic zones of the state. Based on this, the State has been divided into seven agro-climatic zones.
I Krishna – Godavari Zone
This zone consists of the districts of East Godavari (excluding uplands), West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and the contiguous areas of Khammam, Nalgonda and Prakasam districts. This zone receives an annual rainfall of 800-1100 mm. The maximum and minimum temperatures during sough west monsoon period ranged from 32O to 36OC and 23O to 24OC, respectively. The important soil groups are deltaic alluvium, red soils with clay base, black cotton soils, red loamy, coastal sands and saline soils.
II North Coastal Zone
This zone comprises most of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts (excluding tribal hill areas) and upland areas of East Godavari district. Annual rainfall is 1000 to 1100 mm. Maximum and minimum temperatures during the south west monsoon ranges from 33O to 35OC and 26O to 27OC, respectively. The soils are predominantly red with clay base. There are small pockets of acidic laterite soils with pH 4.0 to 5.0.
This zone includes the districts of Nellore and Chittoor, southern parts of Prakasam and Cuddapah and eastern part of Anantapur. The annual average rainfall from north east monsoon is 700 to 1000mm and 300 to 450 mm during south west monsoon. The maximum and minimum temperatures during south west monsoon range from 36O to 40OC and 23O to 25OC, respectively. The important soils group is of red loamy soils which are shallow to moderately deep.
IV North Telangana Zone
This zone includes the districts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak (except southern borders) Warangal (except north-west portion) Eastern of Nalgonda and Khammam (except extreme southern and eastern parts). The annual average rainfall is 900 to 1150 mm, mostly from south west monsoon. The maximum and minimum temperatures during south west monsoon range from 32O to 37OC and 21O to 25OC, respectively. Red soils are predominant in the zone which includes chalkas, red sandy deep red loamy and very deep black cotton soils are also seen in some parts of the zone.
V Southern Telangana Zone
The districts of Ranga Reddy, Mahaboobnagar (except southern border) Nalgonda (except south-east border) north western part of Warangal and southern part of Medak constitute this zone. The annual average rainfall is 700 to 900 mm. the maximum and minimum temperatures during south west monsoon range from 28O to 34OC and 22O to 23OC, respectively. It is a predominantly red soil tract having red earths with loamy subsoils i.e. chalkas.
VI Scarce Rainfall Zone
This zone consists of Kurnool, Anantapur, western parts of Prakasam and northern parts of Cuddapah. The average annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 750 mm. The maximum and minimum temperatures during south west monsoon range from 32O to 36OC and 24O to 30OC, respectively. The important soil groups are red earths with loamy soils i.e., chalkas. Red sandy soils and black cotton soils are also seen in some pockets.
VII High Altitude and Tribal Areas
This zone consists of the areas along the northern borders of the State in the districts of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Khammam. These areas are inhabited by tribals and large areas lying at high altitudes upto 1000 m above M.S.L. with high annual rainfall over 1400 mm.
HORTICULTURAL ZONES IN ANDHRA PRADESH Andhra Pradesh is essentially a tropical zone. However, depending upon the prevailing climate in the state, it is classified as 2 main fruit growing zones viz., Tropical zone and Subtropical zone
1. Tropical zone
This zone is again subdivided into 3 subzones viz., Arid tropical, humid tropical and coastal humid tropical.
a) Arid tropical zone
It includes western parts of Adilabad, Karimnagar, Nellore, Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, West Godavari, Nalgonda, Medak, Khammam, Nizamabad, Mahaboobnagar, Kadapa, Kurnool and Anantapur. In this zone high temperatures prevail throughout the year, moderate to scanty rainfall in received from both South-West and North East Monsoons. The fruits grown in this zone are Mango, Grape, Banana, Sweetorange, Lime, Custardapple, Guava etc.,
b) Humid tropic
Heavy rains are received in this zone. Hence, the humidity is more. Based on the amount of rainfall this zone is again subdivided into 2 zones
i) Heavy rainfall areas
It includes Polavaram, Rampachodavaram talukas of West Godavari distirct where 150-200 cm rainfall is received annually. The elevation will be 600 m. from mean sea level and high humidity prevails in this regions.
Parts of Adilabad, Warangal, Kurnool and Kadapa come under this zone with annual rainfall of 100 to 150 cm.
The fruits grown in this zone are Banana, Sweetorange, Guava, Papaya, Grape and Ber.
c) Coastal humid tropic
It includes the coastal areas from Nellore to Srikakulam. The average annual rainfall is 75-100 cm., majority of which is received from South-West monsoon and to a small extent from North-East monsoon. In this zone humidity is high due to high rainfall as well as due to presence of sea at close proximity. Banana, Cashew, Pineapple and Coconut are grown in this zone.
2. Sub-tropical zone
This zone is sub-divided into two viz., Arid sub-tropical and Humid sub-tropical based on the amount of rainfall received
a) Arid sub-tropical areas
Average annual rainfall received is 75-100 cm and the elevation is 450 m. above mean sea level. The climate is cold between October and February. This area includes Hyderabad and Rangareddy districts, Horsley hills of Chittoor district and Penukonda taluk of Ananthapur district. Fruits like Grape, Orange, Phalsa, Mandarin, Seethaphal and Lime are cultivated in these areas.
b) Humid sub-tropical areas
The average annual rainfall in this zone is upto 200 cm and the elevation ranger upto 620 m above MSL. The zone includes parts of Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. Fruits like Peach, Japanese plum, Avocado, Litchi, Jack fruit and Cocoa can be grown in these areas.
(Mangifera indica L.)
Mango is considered as king of fruits. Andhra Pradesh is the second largest mango growing state in the country with an area of about 4.31 lakh hectares and annual production of 43.5 lakh metric tons. In Andhra Pradesh mango occupies 68 per cent of the total area under fruits. 24 % of the total production of mango in India is from Andhra Pradesh. The mango is grown extensively in Krishna, Vijayanagaram, Vishakapatnam, West and East Godavari, Kadapa, Warangal, Nalgonda, Adilabad, Medak and Rangareddy district.
Mango is well adapted to tropical climate. High humidity and cloudy weather at the time of flowering are not favourable as they affect pollination and fruit set and encourage diseases. Rains during flowering are detrimental to the crop.
Alluvial and sandyloams are ideal for mango cultivation. It can be grown even on lighter soils like chalkas and dubbas when properly manured. Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided. The most desirable soils for mango should be of medium texture, deep (2 to 2.5 m) well drained with low water table (below 180 cms in all seasons) and have a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. Mango cannot tolerate high soil salt content (not more than 0.05 %).
Banganpalli is the leading commercial variety of the state. The tree is medium in size and regular in bearing. The fruit is large, with is golden yellow color. The flesh of fruit is firm, fibreless. The fruit quality is very good with good keeping quality. It is tolerant to hoppers and winds.
Totapari (Bangalora, Collector, Chittoor mamidi)
Totapari is better suited to dry regions, more regular and prolific yielder. The tree is medium size. Fruit medium to large, skin thick, golden yellow colour, flesh firm, fibre less, fruit quality poor to medium. The keeping quality is good. The bearing in Totapari is later than Banganpalli. Tree brittle and more susceptible to hoppers and cyclone damage compared to Banganpalli.
Suvarnarekha (Sundari, Lal Sundari)
This variety is popular in Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam districts. Fruit is medium in size, skin medium thick, light cadmium with a blush of red, flesh soft, fibreless. Fruit quality medium to good, bearing heavy and regular. Suvarnarekha is moderately tolerant to hoppers and susceptible to powdery mildew. The keeping quality of the fruit is good. This variety is suitable for export.
Neelum is a late variety, more popular in Rayalaseema region. Fruit are medium in size. Skin medium thick, yellow in colour. The flesh is fibreless and fruit quality is good, Neelum is a regular and heavy bearer. However, the fruit does not attain good size in Telangana region.
Dashehari is a commercial variety of North India and found suitable for growing in North Telangana Zone. The tree is medium in size. Fruit is small to medium, skin medium thick and yellow in colour. The flesh is firm, fibreless with good fruit quality. However, Dashehari is irregular in bearer, susceptible to hoppers and powdery mildew.
Peddarasam is popular in Godavari and Krishna districts. The tree is medium in height, with large fruit. The fruit turns greenish yellow when ripe. The fruit juice is abundant, fibrous and sub-acidic. The bearing is regular and early.
Chinnarasam is popular in Nuzividu area of Krishna district. The tree is medium in size. The fruit is medium in size with abundant juice, characteristic strong flavor with fairly good keeping quality. The fruit quality is very good. The bearing is regular and heavy.
The tree is medium to large size. The fruit is medium with abundant juice and short and soft fiber. The fruit quality is good. The bearing is regular and heavy, midseason, susceptible to powdery mildew and moderately tolerant to hoppers. Fruit keeping quality poor.
A dwarf variety suited for high density planting. The tree is small in size. The fruit is medium, skin thin, yellowish green, flesh moderately firm, fibreless. The fruit quality very good to best. The bearing is regular, heavy, midseason to late, susceptible to hoppers, tolerates wind. The fruit keeping quality is good.
Chirutapudi Goa (Royal Special)
Royal special gives second crop (September-October) apart from main season. Tree is medium in size. The fruit is medium, juice abundant with good fruit quality. The bearing is regular, mid-season to late, moderately tolerant to hoppers, less susceptible to winds.
It is a pickle variety, regular bearer, fruit size is medium to large. It is a late variety.
A hybrid between Rumani and Mulgoa. Fruit medium to large flesh melting, fibreless juice, fruit quality and bearing better than parents, stands transportation well. This hybrid was released from Horticultural Research Station, Anantharajupet.
This hybrid was released from H.R.S., Anantharajupet. It is a hybrid between Neelum and Baneshan. The fruits are medium in size with firm fibreless flesh. The fruit matures 15 days later than Baneshan and catches the late market.
It is a hybrid between Neelum and Himayuddin. The fruits are medium sized weighing on an average 200 g each and intermediate between the parents in shape. The skin is smooth, flesh is firm, melting and fibreless with characteristic flavor. It is abundantly juicy, very sweet in taste and rich in chemical constituents. Each tree bears 500 to 700 fruits regularly and comes to harvest in the last week of May.
This hybrid is developed by crossing Neelum with Yerramulgoa. The fruits are akin to Neelum but bigger in size and smooth skinned. The flesh is firm, melting, fibreless, moderately juicy and very sweet in taste with a delightful flavour. The fruit weighs 270 g and is rich in nutrients. It has a regular bearing habit and produces 1000 fruits just like Neelum and comes to harvest in the month of May.
It is a hybrid between Chinna Suvarnarekha and Jehangir and inherits the attractive colour of the former parent and the size and quality of the latter. The fruit resembles Jehangir in shape and skin characters, but slightly less in size weighing 230 g. The flesh is moderately firm, fibreless, abundantly juicy and very sweet with pleasant flavour. It excels both the parents in yield and bears 600 fruits. The fruits are harvested in the month of June and stands transport very well.
It is a hybrid of Rumani X Neelum released from Sangareddy. Fruits very attractive and large, looks like Rumani. It is a dwarf variety, suitable for high density planting. About 500 plants can be accommodated per hectare adopting a spacing of 4.5 m either way. Tolerant to powdery mildew and hoppers.
It is a cross between Dashehari and Neelum. Amrapali is precocious, distinctly dwarf, highly regular and prolific in bearing and has good fruit quality. Since Amrapali is a short statured variety, the planting distance can be reduced considerably.
It is a cross between Neelum and Alphonso. It has good qualities of Alphanso in fruit characters with semi dwarf growing habit. The formation of spongy tissue is absent.
It is a cross between Neelum and Dahsehari. The tree is medium in size and regular bearer. The fruits are large, elongated, good quality and bears in cluster.
It is a cross between Banganpalli and Alphonso released from IIHR, Bangalore. It is regular bearer. The fruit are large (500-700 g) and attractive, fibreless with sweet flesh.
It is a cross between Alphonso and Banganpalli released from IIHR, Bangalore. It is regular bearer with medium size fruit (200-300 g) with very attractive red colour, fibreless flesh.
It is a cross between Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand released from IIHR, Bangalore. The tree is semi dwarf, regular bearer with orange colour flesh. The fruit has long shelf life and hence suitable for export.
It is a back cross between Ratna and Alphonso. It has paper thin seed which weighs about 6.8 g.
Mango is commercially propagated by Veneer grafting. One or two year old veneer grafts should be collected from an authentic source. The grafts should have a minimum of 4 whorls of leaves with strong graft union.
Planting and spacing
The plantation of mango should be taken up at the beginning of the monsoon (June- July). In areas with heavy rainfall planting should be done at the end of rainy season. The pit of size 1m x 1m x 1m should be dug and filled with top soil, well mixed with 25 kg farmyard manure and 2 kg superphosphate and 100 gm of Folidol powder to avoid termite damage. Planting distances can be around 7 to 10 meters depending on soil depth and vigour of the variety planted. Even 12 meters spacing may be necessary in very deep and fertile soils. The graft should be planted with ball of earth and press the soil all around the base. The graft joint should be above ground level. Stake the plant to prevent wind damage. Remove root-stock sprouts below the graft joint.
Manures and fertilizers
To improve the texture of soils, add adequate tank silt and FYM. Sowing of the green manure crop (20 kg sun hemp/10 kg diancha/acre) with the onset of monsoon Fertilizer and incorporating 45 days after sowing. The fertilizers schedule for mango for different ages is as follows
Age of the tree
grams / tree
Fertilizers should be applied through placement in circular trenches around the trunk. For the 10 years age and above trees the fertilizer should be applied at 1.5 m away from the trunk
Manures and fertilizers should be generally done in the beginning of monsoon. Irrigation should be given after the application of fertilizers. Wherever irrigation is available it is advantageous to apply half of the recommended dose of fertilizers after fruit set.
For the correction of micronutrient deficiency, spraying of ZnSO4 5 g , Boran 2 g and 10 g urea per liter of water is recommended at the onset of monsoon.
Spraying of KNO3 @ 10 g/l during November helps in opening of the flower bud and uniform flowering.
Pruning to remove criss –cross branches may be done so that center of the tree is opened out and inner branches are exposed to sunlight. Pruning of the dried twigs and branches should be done with pruning saw during June-July. Pruning in mango encourages production of new shoots.
Inter crops like vegetables, low growing field crops and fruits like Phalsa or Papaya can be profitably grown in alleys in young orchards. Red gram is not advisable as it is an alternative host to mealy bug. In old orchards shade tolerating crops like ginger, turmeric etc., can be taken.
Two ploughing in the inter spaces, once at the beginning and another at the end of the monsoon keep the orchard weed free and facilitate rain water percolation.