Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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See Hocket.

Oktave (i)


See Octave.

Oktave (ii)


See under Organ stop (Octave).



Piccolo. See Flute II, §3(i).



See Coupling.



See under Zug (i).



See Octet.


(Gk.: ‘eightfold sound’).

The system of the eight ‘church modes’ (the ‘musical’ oktōēchos) in the medieval Latin, Byzantine, Slavonic, Syrian, Armenian and Georgian repertories of Christian liturgical chant. Also, by association, the practice of grouping chants by mode (the ‘calendric’ oktōēchos) so that they can be sung in numerical order over a period of time, usually one mode per week, proceeding to the next higher number each Sunday and beginning with the 1st mode again when the 8th is completed. And a book (the ‘liturgical’ oktōēchos) in which the chant texts are grouped by mode in numerical order to facilitate performance according to the calendric oktōēchos (see Liturgy and liturgical books, §IV, 3(viii)); books also exist in which chants are arranged according to mode but without regard to a calendar, notably the Western Tonary and the Byzantine Heirmologion).

Although many theories regarding the origins of the eight-mode system have been proposed, the earliest genuine evidence of the musical oktōēchos dates from the 8th and 9th centuries ce. The modes appeared during this period in all the Eastern and Western chant repertories that use them, and the evidence consistently points to an origin in the milieu of Greek-speaking Palestinian monasticism and the closely related liturgical tradition of Jerusalem. The earliest extant collections of modally ordered chants include a series of Proper chants for the Jerusalem Mass in RU-SPsc (Thibaut, 1913, pp.17–30; text on pp.3*–11* of ‘Documents’ section) and a list of prokeimena (‘gradual’ chants; see Prokeimenon) and allēlouïaria in the Palestinian appendix to the Typikon of the Great Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Mateos, 1963, pp.175–7). Eightfold cycles of chants for the Resurrection Office, celebrated every Sunday in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, formed the nucleus of the liturgical book known as the Great Oktōēchos or Paraklētikē, traditionally ascribed to John Damascene (d c749), a monk at St Sabas monastery near Jerusalem. More securely connected to the milieu of John Damascene are the many kanōnes (hymns based on the biblical canticles; see Kanōn) composed by him and his fellow monks at St Sabas. The model stanzas (heirmoi) that provided the melodies for these chants were collected in the heirmologion.

The earliest manuscripts of the Georgian liturgical books corresponding to the Great Oktōēchos and the heirmologion are important witnesses to the processes by which these collections were assembled; the same is true of the Slavonic heirmologion. The origins of the Armenian oktōēchos appear to be connected with the importation of the kanōn repertory in the 8th century by Hellenophile Armenians. In the Syrian liturgical traditions the use of the eight modes was also originally associated with Greek genres of hymnody, and the oktōēchos is known to this day only in the two Syrian traditions that are most dependent on Greek models – the Melkite or Antiochian, and the West Syrian or Jacobite. The two other Syrian traditions – the Lebanese Maronite and the Assyrian or Nestorian – betray no evidence of the oktōēchos; nor does the Ethiopian liturgy, the only other Christian tradition based on a Semitic language. Theories that the oktōēchos was ultimately of Syrian or Semitic origin, therefore, cannot be sustained. The few Coptic sources that show an awareness of the oktōēchos are easily explained as reflecting Greek influence.

The eight modes first appear in Western sources in the St Riquier Tonary (F-Pn lat.13159) dated between 795 and 800 (Huglo, 1971, pp.25–9). Like the early Palestinian sources, it is a simple list of texts for the Proper of the Mass, arranged according to their modal number. The adoption of the oktōēchos in the West was clearly part of the Carolingian effort to standardize the melodies of the emerging Gregorian chant repertory. Other Latin chant traditions, such as the Old Roman and Ambrosian (Milanese), made no use of the musical oktōēchos, and no Western tradition has ever followed a calendric oktōēchos. The Western numbering of the modes differs from the Eastern practice (see Table 1), suggesting that the Latin Church had access to a rather primitive form of the oktōēchos, in which authentic and plagal modes alternate rather than being grouped separately (i.e. the authentic modes first, then the plagal). Some early Syrian sources are also organized according to the principle used in the West, but their numbering is different. Western sources preserve the earliest surviving evidence of the ēchēmata (see Ēchēma), which in the Byzantine tradition may have been sung at the beginning of each chant to help the choir become attuned to the mode; the ēchēmata would thus have simultaneously fulfilled the functions of the Western intonation formulae and differentiae (see Psalm, §II).

Efforts to formulate a coherent music theory integrating the oktōēchos with terms and concepts borrowed from the writings of classical antiquity seem to have begun immediately in the West but only later in the East. The ultimate success of the Western synthesis created the false impression that the medieval oktōēchos was inherited directly from ancient Greece. A comparison of the Western theory with the two medieval Byzantine syntheses associated with the treatises known as the Hagiopolitēs and the Papadikē confirms the abundant musical evidence that the familiar modal names ‘Dorian’, ‘Phrygian’ etc., which medieval scholars attached to the modes of the oktōēchos, have nothing to do with the original use of these names to designate ways of tuning the ancient Greek lyre. Table 1 illustrates the different usage of the Greek names within the Western and Byzantine classifications.

There is no early evidence to suggest that numerology influenced the fixing of the number of modes at eight; the 4 × 2 structure of the oktōēchos is more probably the result of musical considerations. The musical characteristics of the Latin, Greek, Slavonic, Syrian and other modes have diverged so much that it is difficult to uncover the original logic of the modal system; yet the outlines of the earliest oktōēchos can be broadly defined. The core of this system may have been the four-note tetrachord with a semitone in the middle, corresponding to the modern pitches D–E–F–G; to complete the octave, this tetrachord was duplicated immediately above, on A–B–C–D. Melodies belonging to the Western ‘authentic’ or Eastern ‘main’ (Byzantine kyrios) categories of mode were those with a relatively high ambitus that ascended into the upper tetrachord; melodies that tended to remain in the lower tetrachord or that descended below it were classified as ‘plagal’. In Byzantine chant to this day authentic melodies often cadence on a final in the upper tetrachord, and plagal melodies in the lower one. This pattern was also followed in early Western chant, but over the centuries the final in the lower tetrachord was gradually accorded precedence. The other Eastern traditions appear to be less concerned with linking each mode to a specific final.

The original tuning of the modal tetrachords is a particularly vexed issue. The Western and Slavonic modes have become relatively diatonic, in keeping with the general characteristics of West European music; the use of B in Gregorian chant is explained as a survival or revival of the synēmmenōn tetrachord of ancient Greek theory. Modern Greek, Syrian and Armenian chant, however, use microtones and other features that recall the maqām principle of Arab and Turkish music, although in Byzantine theory such characteristics are explained as deriving from the ancient Greek enharmonic and chromatic genera. The traditional opinion among Western musicologists that the Greek modes were originally diatonic, like their Western counterparts, and that their chromaticism is a recent development due to Turkish influence is probably overstated. Because of Islamic restrictions on music making, musicians in Ottoman courts tended to be Greeks and other Eastern Christians, who may thus have played a significant role in the creation of Middle Eastern musical cultures. And recent research into Western chant has drawn attention to the large number of chromatic and other modally ambiguous chants that circulated in the early Gregorian repertory. It seems that the oktōēchos, even in earliest Palestinian sources, was originally a descriptive system for classifying melodies that already existed. Only gradually did it develop into a prescriptive system governing the creation of new melodies, and in each tradition this process followed its own path. This explains why every tradition has supplemented the oktōēchos with additional categories for melodies that do not fit well into any of the eight modes, for example, the Western parapteres. Scholars of the Western chant traditions have been particularly keen to identify the musical characteristics that predate the importation of the oktōēchos: pentatonic (Chailley), recitation tone (Claire) and ‘quartal and tertial chain’ (van der Werf) structures have been variously discerned. Yet in each of the Eastern and Western traditions that adopted the oktōēchos, centuries of effort were expended by theorists, composers and editors seeking to make it into an all-encompassing system that fully accounted for the characteristics of the musical repertory. The oktōēchos has thus provided a dynamic impetus to the historical development of music in many cultures.

See also Armenia, §II; Byzantine chant, §5; Coptic church music; Ēchos; Georgia, §II; Mode, §II, 1; Plainchant, §2(ii); Syrian church music.






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N. Serkoyan, N. Tahmizian and B. Outtier: ‘Recherches sur le genèse de l’octoéchos arménien’, EG, xiv (1973), 129–211

A. Ertlbauer: Geschichte und Theorie der einstimmigen armenischen Kirchenmusik: eine Kritik der bisherigen Forschung (Vienna, 1985), 63–164

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P. Jeffery: ‘The Sunday Office of Seventh-Century Jerusalem in the Georgian Chantbook (Iadgari): a Preliminary Report’, Studia liturgica, xxi (1991), 52–75

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P. Jeffery: ‘The Earliest Oktoechoi: the Influence of Jerusalem and Palestine on the Beginnings of Modal Ordering’, The Study of Medieval Chant (Rochester, NY, forthcoming)


L. Villecourt: ‘Les observances liturgiques et la discipline du jeûne dans l’église copte’, Le muséon, xxxvi (1923), 249–92, esp. 262–9

I. Borsai: ‘Y a-t-il un “octoéchos” dans le système du chant copte?’, Studia aegyptiaca I: receuil d’études dédiées à Vilmos Wessetzky, ed. L. Kákosy and E. Gaál (Budapest, 1974), 39–53

R. Moftah and others: ‘Music, Coptic: Description of the Corpus and Present Musical Practice’, The Coptic Encyclopedia, ed. A.S. Atiya (New York, 1991), vi, 1715–29, esp. 1722–4
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