Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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5. Motets.

Ockeghem’s motets, though few in number, display perhaps even greater inventiveness than his masses, no doubt because the genre was itself in a state of stylistic redefinition during much of the 15th century. For most of the known repertory, Ockeghem followed a growing tradition in setting Marian texts, either liturgical (in which case the plainchant melody is usually adopted as well) or devotional. The Salve regina that appears to be securely attributed to him presents the chant with melodic coloration, but in the bass (as in the Missa ‘Caput’) rather than, as conventionally, in the tenor. In his Alma Redemptoris mater the antiphon melody is heard in an upper voice, as in a treble-dominated plainsong setting, but with the addition of a fourth part in an unusually high range above it.

By contrast, neither Ave Maria nor Intemerata Dei mater shows any trace of a borrowed melody. Nonetheless, the latter, like both the plainsong settings and the cantus-firmus motets, reflects the influence of the polyphonic masses; it is divided into sections with contrasting mensurations, and the structure is further articulated (especially in the 2nd and 3rd sections) by introductory duos or trios in changing combinations of voices. In addition, its syllabic declamation and homophonic textures are much more common in Ockeghem’s masses than in his motets. Exceptional, however, even for Ockeghem, who was to become famous for his exploration of modal relationships and possibilities, is the succession of finals to the sections of Intemerata from D through A to E (on which all three sections begin).

Ockeghem’s motet-chanson, the déploration on the death of Binchois, has an archaic flavour; in ballade form, it combines the treble-dominated style, polytextuality and cantus-firmus-based structure that were all characteristic of the medieval motet tradition. Though clearly not the first of its kind, the work appears to have defined in significant measure the functional and compositional conception of the genre for subsequent generations (Meconi, 1997). Ut heremita solus is analogous in a sense to the Missa cuiusvis toni and the Missa prolationum in its use of a complex puzzle canon to generate the tenor and regulate its manipulation, but stylistically it stands apart from the other motets of Ockeghem’s known authorship (see Lindmayr, AcM, lx, 1988, for explanation of its resolution). It makes consistent use of short motifs sequentially elaborated in a manner most unusual for him, suggesting that it was – paradoxically for a motet – intended for instruments. It is, in addition, so idiosyncratic in style that Ockeghem’s authorship has been questioned (Lindmayr-Brandl, 1997). The attribution to Ockeghem is implied in Crétin’s Déploration; the work may have been Ockeghem’s reply to Busnoys’ ‘In hydraulis’.

Celeste beneficium and Gaude Maria, which are found only in a set of mid-16th-century part-books in the Proske Musikbibliothek, Regensburg, are now thought to be by another, later composer, despite their ascription to ‘Johannes Okegus’. This is not only because of the lateness of the source and the unusual form of the name (although also used by Erasmus), but more importantly because the sub-genre of the responsory-motet with its aBcB pattern apparently did not become current until the 1530s. Nevertheless, Celeste beneficium, the text of which is probably a contrafactum, recalls Ut heremita by the treatment of its cantus firmus and, even more particularly, by the character of its melodies and counterpoint. Gaude Maria is perhaps less typical of Ockeghem because of its systematic use of syntactic imitation, but some of the traits of his mature style are present, most notably the customary sweep of the melodic lines, the energy of the rhythmic figures and the imaginative freedom with which the cantus firmus has been treated. By contrast, the Salve regina (ii), a relatively conventional plainchant setting with the liturgical melody in the superius, is surely a case of mistaken attribution due to speculation concerning the name (Basiron) that was partially trimmed from the margin of I-Rvat C.S.46 (Lindmayr, 1988).

Ockeghem, Jean de

6. Secular works.

Ockeghem adhered most consistently to tradition in his secular works, perhaps in part because the compositional conventions were more firmly established for the chanson than for mass or motet. Even in this well-trodden field, however, his creative imagination asserted itself. More generously represented in the surviving sources than his sacred music, and better contextualized by contemporaneous repertory, his songs can be seen as central to his own artistic development and to his contribution to the evolving styles and genres of the period (Fallows, 1997). The majority of his works on texts in the vernacular follow the formes fixes that had been in use for more than a century. At least 16 are rondeaux; four others, Ma bouche rit, Ma maistresse, Presque transi and Tant fuz gentement resjouy, are virelais with only a single complete stanza (as was customary at the time judging from the works of Busnoys and other contemporaries who adopted the form). Ockeghem apparently wrote in most instances for three parts, but two of his pieces were originally for four parts; they were not merely supplied later with an optional contratenor as was the case for many chansons of the period.

The predominant texture of Ockeghem’s chansons derives from the treble-dominated solo song characteristic of the genre in the 15th century, but there are significant exceptions in addition to the strictly canonic Prenez sur moi: L’autre d’antan was clearly conceived as a duo between cantus and tenor and in Fors seulement l’attente the cantus and tenor share the same range and much of the same material. For Petite camusette the lower three voices are all based on the eponymous chanson rustique. These three works exhibit a good deal of the imitative counterpoint typical of the chanson repertory of the period, but elsewhere Ockeghem restricted imitation to the beginning of just a phrase or two, as in Ma bouche rit, or avoided it entirely, as in the quasi-homophonic Presque transi.

Ockeghem’s treatment of the vernacular poetry was also largely conventional. He set it line by line, providing for each verse a self-contained melodic phrase. When, as at the beginning of both D’un aultre amer and Presque transi, he weakens the effect of the articulating cadence, it is usually in response to the syntax or sense of the text, which bridges the verses in an enjambment. Conversely, when the verse is cast in decasyllables with a clear caesura after the fourth, he often breaks the melodic line as well, as for the fourth verse of the refrain in Ma maistresse and the first of the second section, or for the second and third verses of Ma bouche rit, where both the caesura and the enjambment are respected. Most of the time the opening rhythms of a melodic phrase allow for a syllabic declamation of the text. In a few instances, however, such as Les desléaux and Quant de vous seul, the subsequent melismatic development of the line sometimes assumes a scope and an energy more like the melodic writing in the masses and motets.

Although Ockeghem generally adhered to the musical structures traditionally derived from the poetic formes fixes, he repeated the first line of L’aultre d’antan as the last, text and music, thus imposing on the rondeau an over-riding formal order that, like the light tone of the verse and the lively tempo of the music, anticipates characteristics of the chanson in the early 16th century. His setting of Petite camusette represents another significant departure from the courtly tradition. All four voices carry text: the lower three have the words of the chanson rustique upon which they are based, and the cantus has a related poem. In both style and substance Petite camusette is typical of the combinative chanson that became fashionable towards the end of the 15th century (Maniates, 1970).

Ockeghem also appears to have played a role in the development of an important new secular genre: an arrangement, usually florid in character, based on one or more parts from a well-known chanson, that would lead to the instrumental canzona. This is suggested by his composition of a second cantus for O rosa bella, his reworking of Cornago’s ¿Qu’es mi vida preguntays?, and in particular by his use of the tenor of Fors seulement l’attente as the point of departure for the réplique, Fors seulement contre ce qu’ay promis, among the first of the 30 or so compositions to rework in some way the melodic material of that chanson (see Picker, 1981). In his rondeau Au travail suis (attributed to Ockeghem in F-Pn R 57 but to Barbingant in F-Dm 517) at the words ‘ma maistresse’, Ockeghem quoted the opening of his virelai Ma maistresse.

Too little is known still about Ockeghem’s relationships with his immediate contemporaries, but it is evident that he was familiar with musical practices and repertories at both Cambrai Cathedral and the Burgundian court chapel. He must have owed significant aspects of his development to the example of Binchois and may have been exposed to the influence of English composers on the Continent. There was ample opportunity for meaningful contact with Du Fay from the 1450s on, and it is quite likely that Busnoys profited from Ockeghem’s tutelage while both were associated with musical institutions in Tours in the early 1460s. During the more than 40 years that Ockeghem served at the French royal court, however, there was no one else in the chapel who even approached his stature as musician and composer.

Like his contemporaries, he adhered to tradition, but no other 15th-century master seems to have handled with as much freedom compositional procedures such as head-motifs, cantus firmi and canonic imitation, nor to have treated established musical genres (mass, motet and chanson) with such subtly inventive creativity. He seems to have been involved with innovatory developments in a number of significant areas: word painting, modal transmutation, the exploitation of new sonorities (especially in the lower registers) and, perhaps most importantly, the contrapuntal, and hence melodic integration and equalization of the separate voices. In every respect Ockeghem achieved a level of contrapuntal skill and artistic excellence without which the extraordinary accomplishments of the next generation of composers, including such figures as Obrecht, La Rue and Josquin, might not have been possible.

Ockeghem, Jean de


Editions:Johannes Ockeghem: Sämtliche Werke (Messen I–VIII), ed. D. Plamenac, Publikationen älterer Musik, Jg.i/2 (Leipzig, 1927); rev. 2/1959 as Masses I–VIII, Johannes Ockeghem: Collected Works, i; Masses and Mass Sections IX–XVI, ed. D. Plamenac, ibid., ii (New York, 1947, 2/1966); Motets and Chansons, ed. R. Wexler with D. Plamenac, ibid., iii (Philadelphia, 1992) [P]Johannes Ockeghem: Masses and Mass Sections, ed. J. van Benthem, i– (Utrecht, 1994–) [B]

For other edns of masses, mass sections, motets and chansons, see P i–iii, Editorial Notes, and Picker (1988)

masses and mass sections



No. of voices





Edition :

P i, 15–29


Remarks :

sections linked by common head-motif in Sup and T




Edition :

P ii, 77–82; B i/3


Remarks :

only Ky, Gl, Cr; each section paraphrases a plainchant from the Ordinary

Missa ‘Au travail suis’



Edition :

P i, 30–41


Remarks :

T of chanson (attrib. Ockeghem and Barbingant) used first as T c.f. (Ky), then as head-motif

Missa ‘Caput’



Edition :

P ii, 37–58; B i/1


Remarks :

T c.f. derived from final melisma of ant for Maundy Thursday, Venit ad Patrem, as rhythmicized in anon. Eng. mass attrib. Du Fay, transposed to lower octave as sounding B; head-motif links all sections except Ky; also ed. A. Planchart (New Haven, CT, 1964)

Missa cuiusvis toni



Edition :

P i, 44–56; B iii/3–4


Remarks :

‘in any mode’; variously interpreted with 2, 3 or (most likely) 4 finals; sections linked by a changing but recognizable head-motif in Sup; also ed. D. Fallows (London, 1989); G. Houle (Bloomington, IN, 1992)

Missa ‘De plus en plus’



Edition :

P i, 57–77; B ii/1


Remarks :

T c.f. based on T of Binchois’ chanson, subjected to both augmentation and paraphrase

Missa ‘Ecce ancilla Domini’



Edition :

P i, 79–98; B i/2


Remarks :

T c.f. from 2nd half of Marian ant Missus est angelus Gabriel; Du Fay’s and Regis’s homonymous masses are based on different plainchant

Missa ‘Fors seulement’



Edition :

P ii, 65–76; B ii/4


Remarks :

only Ky, Gl, Cr; T of Ockeghem’s chanson used as migrating c.f. among inner voices in various transpositions; sometimes simultaneous borrowings from Sup and Ct

Missa ‘L’homme armé’



Edition :

P i, 99–116


Remarks :

T c.f. based on T of combinative setting II sera pour vous/L’homme armé, heard generally in augmentation, at pitch, but as sounding B at lower 5th (Cr) and lower octave (Ag); significant quotes from Sup of the chanson and possible references to Ockeghem’s L’autre d’antan; head-motif in Sup and A links Gl and Cr, echoed in Sup of San and Ag

Missa ‘Ma maistresse’



Edition :

P i, 117–23


Remarks :

only Ky, Gl; Sup and T of Ockeghem’s virelai both used as c.f., T (Ky) at lower octave in B, Sup (Gl) at lower octave in Ct; quotations from the other voice in both

Missa ‘Mi-mi’ [= Missa quarti toni]



Edition :

P ii, 1; B iii/2


Remarks :

head-motif, the falling figure E–A and its continuation in following 2 bars, only in B; resemblance with Ockeghem’s virelai, Presque transi noted by Miyazaki (1985) confined to opening of B

Missa prolationum



Edition :

P ii, 21–36; B iii/4


Remarks :

series of double mensuration canons beginning at the unison (Ky) and proceeding to the octave (Osanna), but reverting to the 4th (Ag I, Benedictus) and the 5th (Ag II, Ag III). Cited by Heyden (1540), Zanger and Wilfflingseder, because of its elaborate canonic structures

Missa quarti toni [= Missa ‘Mi-mi’]


Missa quinti toni



Edition :

P i, 1–14


Remarks :

all movts linked by common head-motif in all voices; 2nd motif also links Ky II with ‘Qui tollis’, ‘Osanna’




Edition :

P ii, 83–97


Remarks :

int, Ky, grad (Si ambulem), tr, off; based on plainchant melodies, paraphrased at times and with interpolations of varying length, carried in highest voice; also ed. G. Darvas (Zürich, 1977); B. Turner (London, 1978)




Edition :

P ii, 59–64, B i/3


Remarks :

based on the Credo I plainchant, which migrates from voice to voice; may be the Patrem de village copied in Bruges, 1475–6


Alma Redemptoris mater


P iii, 3–5

plainchant melody, transposed up 5th, embellished and varied, used as melodic c.f. in A

Ave Maria


P iii, 6–7

no identifiable c.f.

Intemerata Dei mater


P iii, 8–12

Marian text in hexameters; no identifiable c.f. but probably intended for devotional purposes; ranges unusually low; change of final for each of the 3 partes is without precedent

Salve regina (i)


P iii, 13–17

Marian ant with plainchant, embellished, paraphrased and transposed to lower 4th as c.f. in B, anticipatory quotations of opening phrase at pitch in Sup and T

Ut heremita solus


P iii, 18–24

elaborate canonical and hexachordal puzzle; may be Ockeghem’s reply to Busnoys’ In hydraulis


Mort, tu as navré/Miserere


P iii, 77–8; B ii/1, 34–7

déploration on death of Binchois (d 1460); French ballade in Sup, combined with Latin text in T that concludes with words and plainchant of final phrase of Dies irae, but see B ii/1; Ct and B are textless in sources


Aultre Venus estes


P iii, 59

rondeau quatrain in octosyllables

Au travail suis


P iii, 93

rondeau quatrain in octosyllables attrib. Barbingant in F-Dm 517, Ockeghem in Pn R 57; taken as the starting point for Missa ‘Au travail suis’, but see Fallows (1984)

Baisiés moy dont fort


P iii, 60

rondeau quatrain in octosyllables; only refrain of text survives

D’un autre amer


P iii, 61

rondeau quatrain in decasyllables; attrib. Busnoys in Pn fr.15123 is peripheral and largely contradicted by other sources

Fors seulement contre


P iii, 64–5

rondeau cinquain in decasyllables, perhaps intended as a réplique to Fors seulement l’attente, whose T, transposed to lower 12th, functions as B

Fors seulement l’attente


P iii, 62–3; B ii/4, vi–xi

rondeau cinquain in decasyllables, used by Ockeghem in his mass and widely used as a model for reworking or recomposition; see Fors seulement contre

Il ne m’en chault plus


P iii, 66

rondeau cinquain in octosyllables

J’en ay dueil


P iii, 67–9

rondeau quatrain in octosyllables; two versions differ in ranges of lower 3 parts and composition of Ct altus, suggesting orig. written for 3 parts: Sup, T and B

La despourveue et la bannie


P iii, 70

rondeau cinquain in octosyllables

L’autre d’antan


P iii, 71

rondeau cinquain in octosyllables, but with repetition of 1st line of refrain (text and music) as last phrase; two distinct versions of Ct and 4 different mensuration signs, one of which prompted criticism from Tinctoris in his Proportionale

Les desléaux ont la saison


P iii, 72

rondeau quatrain in octosyllables

Ma bouche rit


P iii, 73–4

virelai with 5-line refrain and 3-line ouvert and clos in decasyllables

Ma maistresse


P iii, 75–6

virelai with 5-line refrain and 3-line ouvert and clos in decasyllables; taken by Ockeghem as starting point for his mass

Prenez sur moi


P iii, 80

canonic chanson, ‘fuga trium vocum in epidiatessaron’, with one part notated and the other two entering a breve apart, each time at the lower 4th; termed a catholicon by Glarean: starting pitches are not specified by clef and could imply more than one modal final; often included in 16th-century treatises; the text, a rondeau cinquain in decasyllables, is part of the canon, but only the refrain is given

Presque transi


P iii, 81–2

virelai with 5-line refrain and 3-line ouvert and clos in decasyllables; may have been starting point for head-motif of ‘Missa Mi-mi’

Quant de vous seul


P iii, 83

rondeau cinquain in octosyllables

S’elle m’amera/Petite camusette


P iii, 88–9

combinative chanson with rondeau cinquain in octosyllables in Sup; lower 3 parts based on monophonic chanson or quodlibet

Se vostre cuer eslongne


P iii, 90

rondeau cinquain in decasyllables; only refrain survives

Tant fuz gentement resjouy


P iii, 91

virelai with 5-line refrain and 3-line ouvert and clos in octosyllables

Ung aultre l’a


P iii, 92

‘rondeau royal’, rondeau cinquain in octosyllables

arrangements of works by others

Alius discantus super ‘O rosa bella’


P iii, 79

1 voice concordant with discantus of the setting of Giustiniani’s ballata attrib. Bedyngham or Dunstaple

Qu’es mi vida preguntays


P iii, 84–5

reworking of Cornago’s 3vv setting of this canción; added to Sup and T of the earlier piece are a new B and Ct, the latter quoting initially from Cornago’s Ct at the lower octave

lost works

Missa della madonna (? Missa de Beata Virgine)



T of Credo cited by Zacconi, Cerone; see P ii, p.xlii

Missa ‘Domine, non secundum peccata nostra’ T of Gloria cited Zacconi; see P ii, p.xlii




Missa ‘Jocundare’



T of Osanna cited by Zacconi; see P ii, p.xlii

Missa ‘La belle se siet’

T and Ct of Credo cited by Tinctoris, De arte contrapuncti; see P ii, p.xlii






first work in a choirbook copied for Louis XI in 1471; see Perkins, JAMS, 1984, p.535

questionable and speculative attributions

Missa ‘Le serviteur’



c.f. mass based primarily on T of rondeau attrib. Du Fay, but with borrowings from Sup as well; attrib. Ockeghem in I-TRmn 88, but to Faugues by Tinctoris, De arte contrapuncti; ed. in DTÖ, xxxviii, Jg.xix/1, 1912/R and Faugues, Collected Works, ed. G.C. Schuetze, 1960, pp.5–46

Missa ‘Pour quelque paine’


P ii, 98–115

c.f. mass based on T of anon. chanson; attrib. Ockeghem in B-Br 5557 added by a later hand; attrib. Cornelius Heyns in I-Rvat C.S.51 now generally accepted

Missa [primi toni]



San (frag.) and Ag in Rvat San Pietro B 80, judged to be a ‘twin’ of Ockeghem’s Missa quinti toni because of resemblances in texture, mensuration and general stylistic features (see Wegman, 1987) but found in CZ-Hk II.A.7 ascribed to ‘Lanoy’

Deo gratias


P iii, 35–42

canonic work for 9 groups of 4vv each; anon. in sources but attrib. Ockeghem because 15th- and 16th-century authors credited him with a motet in 36 parts; this work does not fit the description of Ockeghem’s canon by Virdung, who knew it first hand, as 6 groups of 6vv each (but see Lowinsky, 1969)

Celeste beneficium


P iii, 26–34

setting, in responsory form, of a text referring to the Lutheran reformation, probably a contrafactum; an apparent c.f. in T has not been identified; doubts have been raised as to Ockeghem’s authorship because the unique source is peripheral and late (c1538), the responsory motet was not common until the generation after Josquin, and the compositional style is unlike anything in Ockeghem’s other motets

Gaude Maria


P iii, 43–52

T c.f. motet in four parts, based on text and music of liturgical responsory and following its form; attrib. Ockeghem challenged on the same grounds as for Celeste beneficium, with which it is found in its only source

Miles mirae probitatis



anon., in honour of St Martin of Tours; attrib. Ockeghem suggested by Ambros, iii, 1869, p.179, because of the text and on general stylistic grounds, but rejected by Plamenac, MGG1

Salve regina (ii)


P iii, 53–5

setting of Marian ant with plainchant melody paraphrased in Sup; attrib. Ockeghem resulted from misreading of name trimmed from I-Rvat C.S.46, recte Basiron, whose authorship is confirmed by 15201 (see Dean, 1986)

Vivit Dominus


P iii, 25

imitative duo, probably a contrafactum of an internal section of an unknown mass; given lateness of the only source, 154615, attrib. Ockeghem cannot be taken at face value

Permanent vierge/Pulchras es/Sancta Dei genitrix


P iii, 96–7

motet-chanson, combining rondeau quatrain in decasyllables with two Marian ants.; anon. in only source, F-Dm 517; attrib. Ockeghem suggested by Ambros, ii, 1864, p.534, apparently accepted by Stephan, 1937 and Plamenac, MGG1, but designated doubtful by Wexler, P iii

Resjois toy, terre de France/Rex pacificus



motet-chanson in ballade form (although final 4 lines of verse do not correspond to the usual conventions for the poetic form) combined with ant for 1st Vespers at Christmas and the acclamation ‘vivat rex’; text seems to reflect victories of Charles VII in final stage of Hundred Years War, or impending coronation of Louis XI soon after, leading Fallows (1976–7) to suggest attrib. Ockeghem, which he later rejected (1984); Lindmayr sees attrib. Busnoys in name partially trimmed from F-Pn fr.15123

Ce n’est pas jeu [= Si mieulx ne vient]



rondeau quatrain in decasyllables, attrib. Ockeghem in I-Rc 2856 but to Hayne in E-SEG, F-Pn 2245, and I-Fr 2794 (anon. in 3 other sources); ed. B. Hudson in Hayne van Ghizeghem: Opera omnia, CMM, lxxiv, 1977

Departés vous Malebouche


P iii, 94

? rondeau cinquain in decasyllables, refrain only; attrib. Ockeghem in F-Pn fr.15123 and Du Fay in I-MC 871 (anon. in Bc Q 16); doubt has been cast on both ascriptions, but Fallows (1984) favours Du Fay

Malheur me bat [= Dieu d’amours]


P iii, 95

incipit only, but rondeau form, possibly quatrain; attrib. Ockeghem in 15011, taken over by scribe of CH-SGs 461 and Aaron, but attrib. Martini in I-Fc 2439, Fn B.R.229 and Rvat C.G.XIII.27; attrib. Malcort in Rc 2856 (anon. in 5 other sources); attribs. in Florentine MSS appear most reliable

Quant ce viendra



added Ct in US-NH 91, I-TRmn 91; ed. L. Perkins, The Mellon Chansonnier (New Haven, 1979), ii, 76–9; rondeau cinquain layé in octosyllables, tetrasyllables for interpolated shorter lines; attrib. Ockeghem in E-E IV.a.24, but to Busnoys in F-Dm 517, US-Wc Lab; anon. in 6 other sources; attribs. in central French sources appear more reliable

Tous les regretz



ed. Picker (1980); anon. chanson with this incipit in 15043 may be a setting for the rondeau cinquain in decasyllables written by French court poet Octavien de St Gelais on departure of Marguerite of Austria from France in 1493; Picker suggests music may be by Ockeghem

Ockeghem, Jean de


early writers

studies on ockeghem

general studies

Ockeghem, Jean de: Bibliography

early writers


J. Tinctoris: Proportionales musices (MS, c1473–4); ed. in CoussemakerS, iv, 153–77; CSM, xxii/2a (1978); Eng. trans., JMT, i (1957), 22–75; also ed. as Proportions in Music (Colorado Springs, CO, 1979)

J. Tinctoris: Liber de arte contrapuncti (MS, 1477); ed. in CoussemakerS, iv, 76–153; CSM, xxii/2 (1975); Eng. trans., MSD, v (1961)

F. Florio: De Probatione Turonica (c1477); ed. A. Salmon, ‘Description de la ville de Tours sous le règne de Louis XI’, Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Touraine, vii (1855), 82–108

J. Tinctoris: De inventione et usu musicae (Naples, c1487); ed. K. Wienmann, Johannes Tinctoris und sein unbekannter Traktat ‘De inventione et usu musicae’ (Regensburg, 1917)

F. Gaffurius: Practica musice (Milan, 1496/R); Eng. trans., MSD, xx (1968); ed. and trans. I. Young (Madison, WI, 1969)

J. Frappier, ed.: J. Lemaire de Belges: La Concorde des deux langages (Paris, 1947), 112

A. Ornithoparchus: Musicae activae micrologus (Leipzig, 1517/R, 5/1535 as De arte cantandi micrologus; Eng. trans., 1609 as A Compendium of Musical Practice, ed. G. Reese and S. Ledbetter, New York, 1973)

P. Aaron: Thoscanello de la musica (Venice, 1523/R, 5/1562; Eng. trans., 1970)

S. Heyden: Musicae, id est Artis canendi, libri duo (Nuremberg, 1537, 2/1540/R as De arte canendi; Eng. trans., MSD, xxvi, 1972)

H. Glarean: Dodecachordon (Basle, 1547/R; Eng. trans., MSD, vi, 1965)

G. Faber: Musices practicae erotematum libri II (Basle, 1553)

J. Zanger: Practicae musicae praecepta (Leipzig, 1554)

H. Finck: Practica musica (Wittenberg, 1556, enlarged 2/1556/R)

A. Wilfflingseder: Erotemata musices practicae (Nuremberg, 1563)

J. Paix: Selectae, artificiosae et elegantes fugue (Lauingen, 1587, lost, 2/1590)

J. Paix: Kurtzer aber gegruendter Bericht auss Gottes Wort und bewehrten Kirchen-Historien von der Music (Lauingen, 1589)

L. Zacconi: Prattica di musica (Venice, 1592/R, 2/1596)

P. Cerone: El melopeo y maestro: tractado de música theorica y practica (Naples, 1613/R)

G.B. Rossi: Organo de cantori (Venice, 1618)

A. Liberati: Lettera (Rome, 1685)

Ockeghem, Jean de: Bibliography

studies on ockeghem

E. Thoinan: Déploration de Guillaume Crétin sur le trépas de Jehan Okeghem, musicien, premier chaplain du roi de France et trésorier de Saint-Martin de Tours (Paris, 1864)

E. Giraudet: Les artistes tourangeaux (Tours, 1885), 312–13

E. Motta: ‘Musici alla corte degli Sforza’, Archivio storico lombardo, 2nd ser., iv (1887), 305–6

A. Vayssière: ‘Fragment d’un compte de Gilles le Tailleur, argentier de Charles Ier, Duc de Bourbonnais en 1448’, Bulletin archéologique du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques (1891), 54–76

A. de Marsy: ‘Un musicien flamand, Jean de Ockeghem’, Annales du Cercle archéologique de Termonde, 2nd ser., vi (1897), 5–62

P.F. de Maesschalk: ‘Documents inédits sur la maison natale de la famille de Jean Van Ockeghem’, RHCM, ii (1902), 118–19

M. Brenet: Musique et musiciens de la vielle France (Paris, 1911/R)

B. Wallner: ‘Sebastian Virdung von Amberg: Beiträge zu seiner Lebensgeschichte’, KJb, xxiv (1911), 85–106

A. Schering: ‘Ein Rätseltenor Okeghems’, Festschrift Hermann Kretzschmar (Leipzig, 1918/R), 132–5

D. Plamenac: Johannes Ockeghem als Motetten- und Chansonkomponist (diss., U. of Vienna, 1925)

M. Cauchie: ‘Les véritables nom et prénom d’Ockeghem’, RdM, vii (1926), 9–10

D. Plamenac: ‘Autour d’Ockeghem’, ReM, ix/4–6 (1927–8), 26–47

D. Plamenac: ‘Zur “L’homme arme”-Frage’, ZMw, xi (1928–9), 376–83

C. Samaran: ‘Cinquantes feuilles retrouvées des comptes de l’argenterie de Louis XI’, Bulletin philologique et historique du Comité travaux historiques et scientifiques (1928–9), 79–89

C. van den Borren: ‘Le madrigalisme avant le madrigal’, Studien zur Musikgeschichte: Festschrift für Guido Adler (Vienna, 1930/R), 78–83

L. Roosens: ‘Werd Jan van Ockeghem te Dendermonde geboren’, Musica sacra, xliii (1936), 13–18

J.S. Levitan: ‘Ockeghem’s Clefless Compositions’, MQ, xxiii (1937), 440–64

W. Stephan: Die burgundisch-niederländische Motette zur Zeit Ockeghems, vi (Kassel, 1937/R)

O. Strunk: ‘Origins of the “L’homme armé” Mass’, BAMS, ii (1937), 25–6

R.G. Harris: ‘An Analysis of the Design of the “Caput” Masses by Dufay and Ockeghem in their Metric and Rhythmic Aspects’, Hamline Studies in Musicology, i (St Paul, MN, 1945), 1–46

V. Seay: ‘A Contribution to the Problem of Mode in Medieval Music’, Hamline Studies in Musicology, i (St Paul, 1945), 47–68

J. du Saar: Het leven en de composities van Jacobus Barbireau (Utrecht, 1946)

E. Krenek: ‘A Discussion of the Treatment of Dissonances in Okeghem’s Masses as Compared with the Contrapuntal Theory of Joh. Tinctoris’, Hamline Studies in Musicology, ii (St Paul, 1947), 1–26

M.F. Bukofzer: ‘Caput: a Liturgico-Musical Study’, Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music (New York, 1950), 217–310

D. Plamenac: ‘A Postscript to Volume II of the Collected Works of Johannes Ockeghem’, JAMS, iii (1950), 33–40

S. Clercx: ‘Introduction à l’histoire de la musique en Belgique’, RBM, v (1951), 114–31

A. Krings: ‘Die Bearbeitung der gregorianischen Melodien in der Messkomposition von Ockeghem bis Josquin des Prez’, KJb, xxxv (1951), 36–53

E. Krenek: Johannes Okeghem (New York, 1953)

B. Meier: ‘Caput: Bemerkungen zur Messe Dufays und Ockeghems’, Mf, vii (1954), 268–76

I. Pope: ‘La Musique espagnole à la cour de Naples dans la seconde moitié du XVe siècle’, Musique et poésie au XVIe siècle (Paris, 1954), 35–61

R. Lenaerts: ‘Contribution à l’histoire de la musique belge de la renaissance’, RBM, ix (1955), 103–20

F. Brenn: ‘Ockeghems spiritueller Rhythmus’, IMSCR VII: Cologne 1958, 73–4

H. Kellman: ‘The Origins of the Chigi Codex’, JAMS, xi (1958), 6–19

N. Bridgman: ‘The Age of Ockeghem and Josquin’, NOHM, iii (1960), 239–302

C. Dahlhaus: ‘Ockeghems “Fuga trium vocum”’, Mf, xiii (1960), 307–10

H.M. Brown: ‘The Genesis of a Style: the Parisian Chanson, 1500–1530’, Chanson and Madrigal, 1480–1530 (Cambridge, MA, 1964), 1–50

R. Lenaerts: Die Kunst der Niederländer, Mw, xxii (1962; Eng. trans., 1964)

J. Margolin: Erasme et la musique (Paris, 1965)

R. Zimmerman: ‘Stilkritische Anmerkungen zum Werk Ockeghems’, AMw, xxii (1965), 248–71

C.A. Miller: ‘Erasmus on Music’, MQ, lii (1966), 332–49

M. Henze: Studien zu den Messenkompositionen Johannes Ockeghems (Berlin, 1968)

E. Lowinsky: The Medici Codex of 1518 (Chicago, 1968), iii, 213–14

G. Reese: ‘Musical Compositions in Renaissance Intarsia’, Medieval and Renaissance Studies, ii (Durham, NC, 1968), 74–97

J.L. Curry: A Computer-Aided Analytical Study of Kyries in Selected Masses by Johannes Ockeghem (diss., U. of Iowa, 1969)

H. Hewitt: ‘“Fors seulement” and the Cantus Firmus Technique of the Fifteenth Century’, Essays in Musicology in Honor of Dragan Plamenac, ed. G. Reese and R.J. Snow (Pittsburgh, 1969/R), 91–126

F. Lesure: ‘Ockeghem à Notre-Dame de Paris (1463–1470)’, ibid., 147–54

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Ockeghem’s Canon for Thirty-Six Voices: an Essay in Musical Iconography’, ibid., 155–80

Johannes Ockeghem en zijn tijd, Stadthuis, 14 Nov – 6 Dec (Dendermonde, 1970) [exhibition catalogue]

M. Bovyn: ‘(van) Ockeghem’s te Dendermonde’, Johannes Ockeghem en zijn tijd (Dendermonde, 1970), 49–59

M. Maniates: ‘Combinative Chansons in the Dijon Chansonnier’, JAMS, xxiii (1970), 228–81

R. Nowotny: Mensur, Cantus Firmus, Satz in den Caput-Messen von Dufay, Ockeghem, und Obrecht (diss., U. of Munich, 1970)

J.-M. Vaccaro: ‘Jean de Ockeghem, trésorier de l’église Saint-Martin de Tours de 1459(?) à 1497’, Johannes Ockeghem en zijn tijd (Dendermonde, 1970), 72–6

E.F. Houghton: Rhythmic Structure in the Masses and Motets of Johannes Ockeghem (diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 1971)

H. Kellman: ‘Josquin and the Courts of the Netherlands and France’, Josquin des Prez: New York 1971, 181-216

A. Planchart: ‘Guillaume Dufay’s Masses: Notes and Revisions’, MQ (1972), 1–23

L. Lockwood: ‘Aspects of the “L’homme armé” Tradition’, PRMA, c (1973–74), 97–122

E.F. Houghton: ‘Rhythm and Meter in Fifteenth-Century Polyphony’, JMT, xviii (1974), 190–212

H. Huschen: Die Motette, Mw, xlvii (1974; Eng. trans., 1976)

R. Lenaerts: ‘Bermerkungen über Johannes Ockeghem und seinen Kompositionsstil’, Convivium musicorum: Festschrift Wolfgang Boetticher zum sechzigsten Geburtstag, ed. H. Hüschen and D.-R. Moser (Berlin, 1974), 163–7

M. Caraci: ‘Fortuna del tenor “L’homme armé” nel primo Rinascimento’, NRMI, ix (1975), 171–204

C. Wright: ‘Dufay at Cambrai: Discoveries and Revisions’, JAMS, xxviii (1975), 175–229

D. Fallows: ‘English Song Repertories of the Mid-Fifteenth Century’, PRMA, ciii (1976–7), 61–79

M. Eckert: The Structure of the Ockeghem Requiem (diss., U. of Chicago, 1977)

D. Plamenac: ‘On Reading Fifteenth-Century Chanson Texts’, JAMS, xxx (1977), 320–24

M. Eckert: ‘Ockeghem’s Offertory: Mensural Anomaly or Structural Capstone?’, Abstracts of Papers, AMS XLIV: Minneapolis 1978, 1–2

L. Litterick: ‘The Revision of Ockeghem’s “Je n’ay dueil”’, Le Moyen français, Musique naturelle et artificielle, ed. M.B. Winn (Montreal, 1979), 29–48

E. Russell: ‘The Missa In agendis mortuorum of Juan García de Basurto: Johannes Ockeghem, Antoine Brumel and an Early Spanish Polyphonic Requiem Mass’, TVNM, xxix (1979), 1–37

C. Dahlhaus: ‘Miszellen zu einigen niederländischen Messen’, KJb, lxiii–lxiv (1979–80), 1–7

J. Cohen: ‘Munus ab ignoto’, SM, xxii (1980), 187–204

M. Picker: ‘More “Regret” Chansons for Marguerite d’Autriche’, Le moyen français, v (1980), 81–101

M. Picker: ‘A “Salve regina” of Uncertain Authorship’, Datierung und Filiation von Musikhandschriften der Josquin-Zeit: Wolfenbüttel 1980, 177–9

C. Santarelli: ‘Quattro messe su tenor “Fors seulement”’, NRMI, xiv (1980), 333–49

R. Strohm: ‘Quellenkritische Untersuchungen an der Missa “Caput’’’, Datierung und Filiation von Musikhandschriften der Josquin-Zeit: Wolfenbüttel 1980, 153–76

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Canon Technique and Simultaneous Conception in Fifteenth- Century Music’, Essays on the Music of J.S. Bach and other Diverse Subjects: a Tribute to Gerhard Herz, ed. R.L. Weaver (Louisville, KY, 1981), 181–222

M. Picker, ed.: Fors seulement: Thirty Compositions for three to five voices or instruments from the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, RRMMAR, xiv (1981)

A. Planchart: ‘Fifteenth-Century Masses: Notes on Performance and Chronology’, Studi musicali, x (1981), 3–29

A. Planchart: ‘The Relative Speed of “Tempora” in the Period of Dufay’, RMARC, no.17 (1981), 33–51

J. Rahn: ‘Ockeghem’s Three-Section Motet “Salve Regina”: Problems in Coordinating Pitch and Time Constructs’, Music Theory Spectrum, iii (1981), 117–31

L. Trowbridge: The Fifteenth-Century French Chanson: a Computer-Aided Study of Styles and Style Change (diss., U. of Illinois, 1982)

R. Wexler: ‘Which Franco-Netherlander Composed the First Polyphonic Requiem Mass?’, Netherlandic Studies I: Lanham, MD, 1982, 71–6

D. Fallows: ‘Specific Information on the Ensembles for Composed Polyphony, 1400–1474’, Studies in the Performance of Late Medieval Music, ed. S. Boorman (Cambridge, 1983), 109–59

H. Garey: ‘Can a Rondeau with a One-Line Refrain Be Sung?’, Ars Lyrica, ii (1983), 10–21

A. Planchart: ‘Parts with Words and without Words: the Evidence for Multiple Texts in Fifteenth-Century Masses’, Studies in the Performance of Late Medieval Music, ed. S. Boorman (Cambridge, 1983), 227–51

D. Fallows: ‘Johannes Ockeghem: the Changing Image, the Songs and a New Source’, EMc, xii (1984), 218–30

W. Haass: Studien zu den ‘L’homme armé-Messen’ des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg, 1984)

L. Perkins: ‘The L’Homme armé Masses of Busnoys and Okeghem: a Comparison’, JM, iii (1984), 363–96

L. Perkins: ‘Musical Patronage at the Royal Court of France under Charles VII and Louis XI (1422–83)’, JAMS, xxxvii (1984), 507–66

R. Wexler: ‘On the Authenticity of Ockeghem’s Motets’, Abstracts of Papers, AMS L: Philadelphia 1984, 41–2

H.M. Brown: ‘“Lord, have mercy upon us”: Early Sixteenth-Century Scribal Practice and the Polyphonic Kyrie’, Text: Transactions of the Society for Textual Scholarship, ii (1985), 93–110

D. Fallows: ‘The Performing Ensembles in Josquin’s Sacred Music’, TVNM, xxxv (1985), 32–64

H. Miyazaki: ‘New Light on Ockeghem’s Missa “Mi-mi”’, EMc, xiii (1985), 367–75

L. Trowbridge: ‘Style Change in the Fifteenth–Century Chanson: a Comprehensive Study of Compositional Detail’, JM, iv (1985–6), 146–70

H.M. Brown: ‘A Rondeau with a One-Line Refrain Can Be Sung’, Ars Lyrica, iii (1986), 23–35

J.J. Dean: ‘Ockeghem or Basiron? A Disputed Salve Regina and a “Very Notable” Minor Composer’, Abstracts of Papers, AMS LII : Cleveland 1986, 46–7

P. Higgins: ‘“In hydraulis” Revisited: New Light on the Career of Antoine Busnoys’, JAMS, xxxix (1986), 36–86

K. Kreitner: ‘Very Low Ranges in the Sacred Music of Ockeghem and Tinctoris’, EMc, xiv (1986), 467–79

R. Taruskin: ‘Antoine Busnois and the “L’homme armé” Tradition’, JAMS, xxxix (1986), 255–93

W. Elders: ‘Struktur, Zeichen und Symbol in der altniederländischen Totenklage’, Zeichen und Struktur in der Musik der Renaissance: Münster 1987, 27–46

C. Goldberg: ‘Musik als kaleidoskopischer Raum: Zeichen, Motiv, Gestus und Symbol in Johannes Ockeghems Requiem’, Zeichen und Struktur in der Musik der Renaissance: Münster 1987, 47–65

P. Higgins: ‘Antoine Busnois and Musical Culture in Late Fifteenth-Century France and Burgundy’ (diss., Princeton U., 1987), 125–60

B. Hudson: ‘Obrecht’s Tribute to Ockeghem’, TVNM, xxxvii (1987), 3–13

R. Wegman: ‘An Anonymous Twin of Johannes Ockeghem’s “Missa Quinti Toni” in San Pietro B 80’, TVNM, xxxvii (1987), 25–48

C. Gottwald: ‘Johannes Ockeghem: Bericht über den Erzavantgardisten’, Revolution in der Musik: Avantgarde von 1200 bis 2000: Kassel 1988, 55–65

A. Lindmayr: ‘Ein Rätseltenor Ockeghems: Des Rätsels Lösung’, AcM, lx (1988), 31–42

G. Montagna: ‘Johannes Pullois in the Context of his Era’, RBM, xlii (1988), 83–117

M. Picker: Johannes Ockeghem and Jacob Obrecht: a Guide to Research (New York, 1988)

M. Raley: Johannes Ockeghem’s ‘Gaude Maria virgo’ (diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1988)

C. Goldberg: ‘Militat omnis amans: Zitat und Zitieren in Molinets “Le débat du viel Gendarme et du viel amoureux” und Ockeghems Chanson “L’autre d’antan”’, Mf, xlii (1989), 341–9

C. Wright: Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500-1500 (Cambridge, 1989), 303–5

C. Goldberg: ‘Text, Music, and Liturgy in Johannes Ockeghem’s Masses’, MD, xliv (1990), 185–231

A. Lindmayr: Quellenstudien zu den Motetten von Johannes Ockeghem (Laaber, 1990)

L. Perkins: ‘Ockeghem’s Prenez sur moi: Reflections on Canons, Catholica and Solmization’, MD, xliv (1990), 119–83

D. Randel: ‘Music and Poetry, History and Criticism: Reading the Fifteenth- Century Chanson’, Essays in Musicology: a Tribute to Alvin Johnson, ed. L. Lockwood and E.H. Roesner (Philadelphia, 1990), 52–74

R. Wegman: ‘The Anonymous Mass D’Ung aultre amer: a Late Fifteenth-Century Experiment’, MQ, lxxiv (1990), 566–94

J.M. Raley: ‘Johannes Ockeghem and the Motet Gaude Maria virgo’, AnM, xlvi (1991), 27–55

K. Schweizer: ‘Interpolationen zur Missa prolationum (Ockeghem)’, Dissonance, xxvii (1991), 30–31

D. Fallows: ‘Prenez sur moy: Okeghem’s Tonal Pun’, Plainsong and Medieval Music, i (1992), 63–75

C. Goldberg: ‘Cuiusvis toni: Ansätze zur Analyse einer Messe Johannes Ockeghems’, TVNM, xlii/1 (1992), 3–35

C. Goldberg: Die Chansons Johannes Ockeghems: Ästhetik des musikalischen Raumes (Laaber, 1992)

G. Houle: Introduction to Missa cuiusvis toni (Bloomington, IN, 1992)

D. van Overstraeten: ‘Le lieu de naissance de Jean Ockeghem (ca 1420–1497): Une énigme élucidée’, RBM, xlvi (1992), 23–32

P. Starr: ‘Rome as the Center of the Universe: Papal Grace and Music Patronage’, EMH, xi (1992), 223–62

W. Thein: Musikalischer Satz und Textdarbietung im Werk von Johannes Ockeghem (Tutzing, 1992)

L. Perkins: ‘Modal Strategies in Okeghem’s Missa Cuiusvis Toni’, Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past, ed. C. Hatch and D.W. Bernstein (Chicago, 1993), 69–79

L. Bernstein: ‘Ockeghem’s Ave Maria’, From Ciconia to Sweelinck: donum natalicium Willem Elders, ed. A. Clement and E. Jas (Amsterdam, 1994), 75–89.

A. Roth: ‘Anmerkungen zur “Benefizialkarriere” des Johannes Ockeghems’, Collectanea I, ed. A. Roth, Capellae Apostolicae Sixtinaeque Collectanea – Acta – Monumenta, iii (Vatican City, 1994), 97–232

J. van Benthem: ‘“Erratic and Arbitrary” harmonies in Ockeghem’s Missa Cuput?’, Modality in the Music of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, ed. U. Günther, L. Finscher and J. Dean (Neuhausen-Stuttgart, 1996), 247–58

J. Dean: ‘Okeghem’s Attitude towards Modality’, ibid., 203–46

F. Fitch: Johannes Ockeghem: Masses and Models (Paris, 1997)

J. Dean: ‘Okeghem’sIntemerata Dei mater’ (forthcoming)

S. Gallagher: ‘After Burgundy: Rethinking Binchois’ Years in Soignies’, Binchois Studies: New York 1995 (forthcoming)

A. Lindmayr: ‘Resiois-toy terre de France/Rex pacificus: An “Ockeghem” Work Reattributed to Busnoys’, Antoine Busnoys: Method, Meaning and Context in Late Medieval Music (Oxford, forthcoming)

Johannes Ockeghem: Tours 1997

Ockeghem, Jean de: Bibliography

general studies




Grove6(‘Binchois’; D. Fallows)









H. Bellermann: Die Mensuralnoten und Taktzeichen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1858, enlarged 4/1963 by H. Husmann)

H. Riemann: Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, ii (Leipzig, 1907–13, 2/1920–22/R)

H. Besseler: Die Musik des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, HMw, ii (1931)

C. van den Borren: Geschiedenis van de muziek in de Nederlanden (Amsterdam, 1948–51)

E. Apfel: ‘Der klangliche Satz und der freie Diskantsatz im 15. Jahrhundert’, AMw, xii (1955), 297–313

H.C. Wolff: Die Musik der alten Niederländer (Leipzig, 1956)

E. Sparks: Cantus Firmus in Mass and Motet, 1420–1520 (Berkeley, 1963)

W. Elders: Studien zur Symbolik in der Musik der alten Niederländer (Bilthoven, 1968)

V. Scherliess: Musikalischen Noten auf Kunstwerken der italienischen Renaissance (Hamburg, 1972)

H.M. Brown: Music in the Renaissance (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1976)

W. Elders: Symbolic Scores (Leiden, 1994)

A. Blachly: Mensuration and Tempo in 15th-Century Music: Cut Signatures in Theory and Practice (diss., Columbia U., 1995)

C. Märtl: Kardinal Jean Jouffroy (d. 1473): Leben und Werk (Sigmaringen, 1996)
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