Ottensteiner, (Johann) Georg
(b Füssen, 9 Feb 1815; d Munich, 6 Aug 1879). German wind instrument maker. He was trained as a turner and wind instrument maker in Karl Friedrich Adler’s workshop in Bamberg (1837–8). He then moved to Paris where he worked for ten years, during which he came into contact with leading makers such as Sax and Triébert; whether he worked in one of their workshops or independently is unknown. After the Revolution of 1848 he returned briefly to Füssen, moving in 1851 to Munich where he produced both woodwind (licence 1851) and brass instruments (licence 1852). In 1860 he was appointed an official supplier to the Bavarian court. When the Munich court orchestra changed in 1867 to the Parisian diapason normal of a' = 435, he supplied most of the new instruments; his instruments were thus used for many of the Wagner productions of the Hofoper.
Ottensteiner developed numerous wind instrument models including the ‘Baermann-Ottensteiner’ clarinet (an amalgamation of experiments by the clarinettist Carl Baermann and Benedikt Pentenrieder of Munich with the Parisian models of Sax and others), the ‘Munich’ oboe (based on Triébert’s Système 4/4A), a new horn (probably based on a model by Sax) and a bass clarinet (privilege 1869). His instruments were played by virtuosos such as Baermann, Richard Mühlfeld and Franz Strauss. He was the first German wind instrument maker to build Boehm-system clarinets, saxhorns and other French types alongside German models and to attempt to amalgamate the divergent developments in wind instrument making of the two countries; he was also a pioneer of industrial wind instrument making in Germany.
E. Tremmel: Blasinstrumentenbau im 19. Jahrhundert in Südbayern (Augsburg, 1993)
(b Stockholm, 9 May 1955). Swedish mezzo-soprano. She studied in Stockholm and at the GSM in London before being engaged by the Basle Opera (1983–5), where she first appeared as Alcina in Haydn's Orlando paladino. She made admired débuts at Covent Garden (1985) and the Metropolitan (1988) as Cherubino, and has since delighted European and American audiences in such roles as Purcell's Dido, Gluck's Orpheus, Idamantes, Dorabella, Sextus (La clemenza di Tito), Tancredi, Bellini's Romeo, Octavian, Hänsel and Charlotte (Werther). Her recorded repertory of operas extends even further, encompassing Monteverdi's Octavia, several Handel roles (notably Ariodante), Clytemnestra (Iphigénie en Aulide), Olga, Judith (Bluebeard's Castle) and Jocasta. Von Otter is also an eloquent oratorio soloist and has made a deserved reputation as an interpreter of lieder, Scandinavian songs and, most recently, mélodies. Her voice, basically firm and flexible, has an individual tang to it; she employs it intelligently to project the meaning of all she sings, and on stage she commands the personality to perform comedy and tragedy with equal aplomb. Among her many discs those of Octavia, Ariodante, Sextus, Hänsel and Octavian, and of songs by Schubert, Schumann and Grieg (all with her imaginative accompanist Bengt Forsberg), disclose her art at its considerable best.
A. Clark: ‘Anne Sofie von Otter’, Opera, xlii (1991), 627–34
Otter, (Franz) Joseph
(b Nandlstadt, Bavaria, c1760; d Vienna, 1 Sept 1836). German violinist and composer. The Bishop of Freising enabled him to go to Florence to study the violin with Pietro Nardini, but on the death of the bishop he was obliged to return. He became a member of the Freising Hofkapelle in 1781. In 1790 he was named Konzertmeister at the Salzburg court, becoming director and first violinist in 1803. He taught the violin at the Kapellhaus and was a pupil and friend of Michael Haydn, on whom he wrote Biographische Skizze von J.M. Haydn (Salzburg, 1808) in collaboration with F.J. Schinn. In 1809 he became a violinist in the royal chapel at Vienna, a position he held until his death. His son, Ludwig Joseph (b Freising, c1786; d Vienna, 17 Feb 1877), studied the violin with his father and from 1804 to 1809 was violinist at the Salzburg court. He moved to Vienna with his father, but was not listed as a member of the Hofkapelle until 1822; he retained this position until 1867, when he retired.
Vocal: Nun habe Dank, o Vater Haydn, canon, 9vv, in M. Haydn: Der Mond ist aufgegangen: ein Abendlied (Salzburg, c1802); Wolthun edler Freund, erwirkt dir Segen, canon, 7vv, for J. Haydn's birthday, A-Ee*; pieces, 4 male vv, Ssp, MB
Inst: Ich bin liederlich, variations, va, 2 vn ad lib (Vienna, 1810); vn concs.; str qts; sonatas, vn, pf
MGG1 (H. Jancik)
L. von Köchel: Die kaiserliche Hof-Musikkapelle in Wien von 1543 bis 1867 (Vienna, 1869/R)
K.G. Fellerer: Beiträge zur Musikgeschichte Freisings von den ältesten christlichen Zeiten bis zur Auflösung des Hofes 1803 (Freising, 1926)
(b Winterswijk, 27 Dec 1907; d Melbourne, 27 July 1978). Dutch conductor and composer. He first studied medicine in Utrecht, then the cello under Orobio de Castro and composition under Sem Dresden at the Amsterdam Conservatory. While engaged as a cellist with the Utrecht City Orchestra his Suite no.3 won a prize offered by the Concertgebouw Orchestra, and its first performance brought about his conducting début with that orchestra in 1932. The next year he was appointed assistant conductor at Utrecht, and joint chief conductor with Carl Schuricht in 1937. In 1949 he became conductor of the Residentie-Orkest, The Hague, a post he held until 1973; his technique and keen feeling for orchestral capacity brought the orchestra to an international standard and he conducted it on numerous recordings (mostly in the 1950s), some of which received international awards. Admired for his reliable and sensitive performances in works by contemporary composers as well as the standard repertory, he also conducted leading orchestras in other countries and in 1971 was appointed conductor of the Sydney PO, returning to Europe in 1974 to become general music director at Düsseldorf. He was an accomplished composer; his works include a symphony, three suites for orchestra, Symphonietta for 16 wind instruments, Seranade (Divertimento) for brass orchestra, harp, celesta and percussion, Five Sketches for string orchestra, Intrada for brass instruments, double bassoon and percussion, and Introduction and Allegro for orchestra (which won high praise for its originality and beauty), as well as a string trio and an (unpublished) string quartet. He was a Knight of the Order of the Nederlandse Leeuw.
HERBERT ANTCLIFFE/TRUUS DE LEUR