Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Oswald, John

(b Kitchener-Waterloo, ON, 30 May 1953). Canadian composer and saxophonist. Largely self-taught, he attended classes given by R. Murray Schafer, Barry Truax and Casey Sokol. His best-known works manipulate existing material, drawing primarily on 20th-century popular and classical music sources. Oswald coined the term ‘plunderphonics’ to describe these compositions, which are very much trompe-l'oreille and not without considerable humour. His first recording (Plunderphonics, 1989) gained him notoriety when its legality was challenged by the singer Michael Jackson and major record labels. Such defiance of copyright law has been typical of Oswald's compositional approach. He has completed commissions for artists and ensembles including the Kronos Quartet (Spectre, 1990; preLieu, 1991; Mach, 1993), ARRAYMUSIC (Slide Whistles, 1979; Acupuncture, 1992), John Zorn (Plexure, 1993), The Grateful Dead (Grayfolded, 1994–5), the Modern Quartet (Fore, 1996), Deutsche Oper Ballet, Lyon Opera Ballet, Teatro Communale di Bologna and choreographers Bill T. Jones, Holly Small and Bill Coleman. He has performed as an improvising saxophonist with Henry Kaiser, CCMC and his own chamber sextet, the Double Wind Cello Trios.


Oswald von Wolkenstein

(b Burg Schöneck, Pustertal, c1376; d Merano, 2 Aug 1445). South Tyrolean poet. His life is unusually well documented in archival material and his own autobiographical songs, and several portraits of him survive. He came from the noble south Tyrolean family of Villanders and Wolkenstein, and was the second son of Friedrich von Wolkenstein and Katharina von Trostberg, who had seven children in all. Much of Oswald’s life was spent travelling – he was already spending time away from home by the age of ten. He is known to have been in the Tyrol in 1400, when his father died, but he was soon on the road again. His second period of travel, during which he took part in King Ruprecht’s Italian campaign, led to financial difficulties which in turn led to a dispute with his elder brother, not the last time that he was involved in family arguments. However, he also forged links with the church and with secular authorities – his political activities were linked to his membership of the ‘Elephant League’ (Elefantenbund), of which he was a founding member in 1406; from 1409 he was the Bishop of Brixen’s secular representative (but by 1413 they were in dispute over his pay). Among other journeys and campaigns at this time, he visited Venice with King Sigismund in 1412–13. The king took him fully into his service in 1415, possibly with a view to forging a link through Oswald with the league of Tyrolean nobles in his disputes with Duke Friedrich of Austria. On a later journey with the king he received distinctions from the dowager queen of Aragon and the wife of Charles VI of France. He was later involved in disputes between the league of nobles and Duke Friedrich.

In 1417 he married Margarete Schwangau; there were seven children from the marriage. In 1421 he became embroiled in another dispute at home in connection with his inheritance of one-third of the castle of Hauenstein, and was imprisoned by Martin Jäger, the husband of one of the co-inheritors of the castle. Duke Friedrich took over the prisoner and guaranteed payment of Jäger’s claims. Oswald contrived to get the backing of King Sigismund, who tried to make use of these local quarrels in his conflict with Duke Friedrich. The king’s efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, and Oswald lost most of his goods to bail payments. He was reimprisoned in 1427, and the dispute was settled only when friends intervened on his behalf, after which he acquired the remainder of the castle on payment of 500 ducats. The contractual agreements entailed his promising fealty to the duke, and in future he abstained from political actions on his own account. After this he made several more journeys, but after 1434 does not seem to have left the Tyrol. He remained active in local affairs, and died at Merano in 1445, in the midst of disputes about the Tyrolean succession. He was buried at the monastery church in Neustift (South Tyrol; now Novacella, Alto Adige).

During Oswald’s lifetime (and probably for the most part under his supervision) two large-format collections of his songs with musical notation were made. According to its list of contents the main part of the older manuscript, A-Wn 2777 (manuscript A), dates from 1425, when it contained 43 lieder. 65 more poems were added in about 1436 and 1441. The later manuscript, A-Iu (no shelfmark; manuscript B), certainly contained 72 lieder and 58 melodies by 1432 (the date given in the heading of the list of contents); additions (comprising 43 further lieder) were then made up until 1438.

Both manuscripts (on parchment) include a portrait of the poet as a frontispiece to the collection of songs; that in manuscript B is attributed to Pisanello or to his studio (see illustration). A third collection of Oswald’s songs, a paper manuscript held in Innsbruck (A-Imf F.B.1950), was the work of a single scribe in the years after Oswald’s death (c1450–53), and contains only the texts and no melodies. Only 12 of the lieder preserved in the main manuscripts also occur elsewhere. They include Oswald’s contrafactum text Vier hundert jar auff erd (Kl 88 in the numbering of Klein’s edition; see work-list) to Pierre Fontaine’s rondeau A son plaisir, which appears in Clara Hätzlerin’s songbook CZ-Pnm X A 12, and in the so-called Ebenreutter manuscript D-Bsp Mgf 488. The incipit of this text is also found accompanying versions of Fontaine’s rondeau in the fire-damaged manuscript F-Sm C.22 and the Buxheimer Orgelbuch (D-Mbs Mus.ms.3735). This generally narrow transmission suggests that Oswald’s work, perhaps with the exception of Kl 88, was not widely distributed.

The authenticity of five further songs (Kl 128–31, 134), found under Oswald’s name but not present in the main manuscripts, seems very probable. These songs are preserved without their melodies, but one (in the Lohengrin manuscript, D-Mbs Cgm 4871) is a contrafactum text, Mir dringet zwinget fraw dein güt (Kl 131) to be sung to the melody of Binchois’s ballade Je loe amours. On the other hand, the attribution to Oswald of the anonymous Medlin zartt stein (Kl 132; Wolkenstein archive, D-Ngm) is doubtful. Strohm (1986–7) attributed to Oswald the monophonic song Heya, nun wie sie grollen, extant only in an anonymous four-part setting in I-TRmp 89.

The 131 lieder (including those of doubtful authenticity) and Oswald’s two poems in rhyming couplets (the calendar poem Genner beschnaid, Kl 67, and the autobiographical Mich fragt ein ritter, Kl 112), which survive without their melodies, amount to a considerable body of poetry. 57 monophonic melodies and 37 polyphonic settings in two to four parts for the songs in the main manuscripts have been preserved, a matter of particular musicological interest. Eleven of the monophonic melodies are used several times, two of them for seven songs each. However, only two polyphonic settings were used more than once: an archaically simple setting for Des himels trone (Kl 37) and the two-part version of Francesco Landini’s ballata Questa fanciulla, used by Oswald for his song Mein herz, das ist versert (Kl 65) and Weiss, rot, mit brawn verleucht (Kl 66). These two contrafacta are clearly different in strophic structure, which shows that Oswald could write new poems of very different kinds for the same melody and thus did not take the Italian text as a model.

Textual content was one of the factors determining whether a song had a monophonic or a polyphonic setting: autobiographical and sacred narratives, contemplative and instructional subjects are set monophonically, while polyphony predominates in the love songs and in the lieder on comic or light-hearted subjects. Particularly interesting in the polyphonic group are the six two-part songs that present dialogue of the Minnesang type both in their musical and textual structures (Kl 49, 52, 56, 62, 71 and 93), and the setting Stand auff, Maredel/Frau ich enmag (Kl 48), an aubade adapted as a comic dialogue between mistress and maid, to be sung to the melody of the widely distributed rondeau Jour a jour la vie.

Concordances for 16 of the 37 polyphonic settings of Oswald’s works have been found in other manuscripts. He resorted principally to French chansons in his choice of contrafactum models; only Landini’s Questa fanciulla is taken from an Italian source, and the sacred strophic song Ave mater O Maria (often called a lauda), for which Oswald wrote a German translation (Ave mütter, küniginne, Kl 109b), is found in both northern and southern sources and also appears in a setting by Johannes de Sarto. Finally, concordances are found in the German-speaking areas for only one song, Wach auff, mein hort (Kl 101).

The polyphonic settings can be divided into four groups on the grounds of structure and transmission patterns; this division also corresponds to the order and position of the songs in the main manuscripts. The first group, comprising songs Kl 46–56, refers back to an older layer of an international repertory and typically has a large number of concordances in the manuscripts F-Pn n.a.fr.6771 and F-Sm C.22. The second group consists of the canons Kl 70–2, one of which, Die minne füget niemand (Kl 72), is a contrafactum of the chace Talent m’est pris. The canon Gar wunniklich (Kl 64), found in both manuscripts outside the second group, may also be a contrafactum. Oswald annotated the canons as ‘fuga’. A third group exhibits peculiarities of notation and composition that can be explained as features of local tradition. For instance, red and void notes are used to denote melismas, groups of notes, and note values smaller than semibreves. Contrary motion and parallel movement in perfect consonances are typical of these settings, and the phrasing in the upper voice-parts is strongly formulaic. The group includes the three songs Wol auff, wol an, Ain graserin and Simm Gredlin, Gred (Kl 75–7), which are notated consecutively in both manuscripts. It also includes songs from elsewhere in the manuscripts: Des himels trone (Kl 37), Mein herz jüngt sich (Kl 68) and Frölich so wil ich aber singen (Kl 79); however, Kl 37 and 68 appear only in monophonic settings in manuscript B. The settings of the third group have been described by Ivana Pelnar as ‘indigenous Tenorlieder’. The unique notation of this group also appears in the songs Ain rainklich weib and Sweig, güt gesell (Kl 80–1), which are preserved only with monophonic settings and appear in immediate proximity to songs in the third group. The red and void notation in the monophonic songs Kl 26, 89, 100 and 116 is probably to be interpreted as coloration in line with mensural theory. A fourth group consists of the late entries in both manuscripts and the song settings found only in the Innsbruck manuscript (Kl 88, 91, 96 and 101 in MS A and Kl 103 and 107–9 in MS B). Of these lieder the settings Vier hundert jar auff erd (Kl 88), Wer die ougen wil verschüren (Kl 103) and Kom, liebster man (Kl 107) have been identified as contrafacta on models deriving from a repertory closer to Oswald’s own time: three rondeaux, Pierre Fontaine’s A son plaisir, Nicolas Grenon’s La plus jolie et la plus belle, and the anonymous Venés oir vrais amoureus. Ave mater O Maria (the model for Ave mütter, Küniginne, Kl 109b) certainly belongs to this later layer, and so probably do the songs Grasselick lif (Kl 96) and Ich klag (Kl 108), although they have not yet been identified as contrafacta.

The double-texted song Von rechter lieb krafft/Sag an, gesellschaft (Kl 62) is difficult to assign to any of the four groups: it is a contrafactum of an anonymous rondeau, Alé vous en de moy melancolie/Je pren congé, and while it appears quite early in the Wolkenstein manuscripts, like the examples from the first group based on earlier models, a concordance is not found until later, in the chansonnier F-Pn n.a.fr.4917. The song Mein herz, das ist versert (Kl 65; based on Landini’s ballata) is entered outside these groups in both manuscripts but has been transmitted in a similar way to the songs in the first group, with concordances in D-Mbs 14274 and F-Sm C.22. The setting, rhythm and formal structure of the song Mich tröst ain adeliche mait (Kl 78) suggest that it too is the (as yet unidentified) contrafactum of a ballade; but in both manuscripts the setting appears in connection with the third, local group. Finally it seems likely that there are also some contrafacta among the songs given only in monophonic settings: among these may be the lieder Herz, müt (Kl 89) and Treib her, treib überher (Kl 92).

The comparatively small number of polyphonic settings of Oswald’s works shows remarkable variety. The large number of settings taken from earlier songs is the first significant feature. It may well be that Oswald learned such melodies from collections circulating in central Europe (the considerable number of chansons popular particularly in that area would support that theory). He could have become acquainted with the later repertory on his travels, particularly his visits to the Councils of Konstanz and Basle: interestingly, these settings occur in Oswald’s works not much later than their main sources. It is difficult to decide how far the settings of the third group, with their evidence of local compositional traditions, are by Oswald himself, but it seems most likely that he was using melodies already composed by musicians in that area.

His monophonic songs are a different matter; few of them have directly identifiable models for their melodies, a fact that is particularly striking where the poet uses strophic forms widespread in Meistergesang, adopting only the textual structure and providing new tunes: here he employs Regenbogen’s Grauer Ton and Frauenlob’s Vergessener Ton. The Grauer Ton features prominently at the very beginning of the collections, with the first melody for seven songs (Kl 1–7), a second from three further songs (Kl 11, 12 and 95) and a third melody for the final setting of manuscript A, the passion song In oberland (Kl 111). In manuscript B two songs in Frauenlob’s Vergessener Ton appear after the first seven in the Grauer Ton. The fact that Oswald or his scribe gave such prominence to the two Töne from the Meistergesang tradition would suggest that the poet was close to it himself; however, he refrained from adopting the melodies that go with the verse forms, which does not support that impression. His new melodies appear to be made up of phrases and formulae, so that entire sections are used several times as set pieces (a good example occurs in the rhythmically identical closing sections of Kl 16 and Kl 20, where the opening sections are different). On the other hand, it is clear that textual content bears some relation to musical content (for instance in a high-pitched melisma on the word ‘beseuftte’ (‘lament’) in the serenade Ain tunckle farb, Kl 33). This led Bruno Stäblein to describe Oswald as the ‘creator of the individual lied’. However, in general, individual melodic elements such as high or low notes or specific intervals cannot be related to specific words or syllables. This is clear from differences between the manuscript versions: in 16 songs the variants are so considerable that Koller printed both versions in his edition. However, comparison shows that the underlying melodic line often remains the same despite obvious differences of detail. If we assume that the poet himself supervised the compilation of both manuscripts, it can be concluded that Oswald reinterpreted his poems at each performance, while retaining the same melodic model. Where the two manuscripts provide different versions we may suppose that they derive from different actual performances.

A similar aspect of variation is to be found in the rhythmic structure of the songs, where sometimes the content of the text denotes the presence or absence of rhythmic differentiation. The three songs Erwach an schrick (Kl 40), Zergangen ist meins herzen we (Kl 116) and Frew dich, durchleuchtig junckfraw zart (Kl 126) use the same melody (without its closing section in the case of Kl 126). The reading in manuscript A, however, provides for various levels of rhythmic differentiation: the dance song Zergangen ist meins herzen we has an unvarying rhythm of semibreves and minims throughout, the aubade Erwach an schrick is notated in a series of semibreves with only hints at rhythmic interpretation (for instance on the upbeats), and the incipit of the melody of the sacred song Frew dich, durchleuchtig junckfraw zart is notated in neumes instead of semibreves, without any rhythmic indication. These observations suggest that the melody could be given a different rhythmic interpretation depending on the nature of the text.

The two main manuscripts of Oswald’s work document the work of ‘perhaps the most important poet writing in the German language between Walther von der Vogelweide and Goethe’ (Müller, 1980) and are also invaluable evidence of secular musical culture in German-speaking regions in the late Middle Ages. They record the core of an international repertory together with the large repertory manuscripts such as F-Pn 6771; they offer information on the state of local polyphonic composition against a background of old traditions and an increasing familiarity with western models; and in their divergent versions of monophonic songs they provide insight into the opportunities and liberties allowed in the performance of melodic models. Thus Oswald is less important as a composer – nothing is known about his qualifications in that field – than as a poet, singer and politician, a man who through the extant documentation becomes very accessible.




Oswald von Wolkenstein


Editions:Oswald von Wolkenstein: Geistliche und weltliche Lieder, ein- und mehrstimmig, ed. J. Schatz [text] and O. Koller [music], DTÖ, sviii, Jg.ix (1902/R) [K]Oswald von Wolkenstein: Frölich geschray so well wir machen, ed. J. Heimrath and M. Korth, commentary by U. Müller and L. Okken (Munich, 1975)Oswald von Wolkenstein-Liederbuch, ed. H. Ganser and R. Herpichböhm (Göppingen, 1978)Oswald von Wolkenstein: die Lieder mittelhochdeutsch–deutsch, ed. and trans. K.J. Schönmetzler (Munich, 1979)Die mehrstimmigen Lieder Oswalds von Wolkenstein, ed. I. Pelnar (Tutzing, 1981)Text editions:Die Lieder Oswalds von Wolkenstein, ed. K.K. Klein with W. Weiss and N. Wolf, music suppl. ed. W. Salmen (Tübingen, 1962, rev. 3/1987 by H. Moser)Oswald von Wolkenstein: eine Auswahl aus seine Liedern, ed. and trans. B. Wachinger (Ebenhausen, 1964)Facsimiles:Oswald von Wolkenstein: Abbildungen zur Überlieferung, I: Die Innsbrücker Wolkenstein-Handschrift B, ed. H. Moser and U. Müller (Göppingen, 1972)Oswald von Wolkenstein, Handschrift A in Abbildung, ed. U. Müller and F.V. Spechtler (Stuttgart, 1974)Oswald von Wolkenstein: Handschrift A, ed. F. Delbono (Graz, 1977)

Music in the Wolkenstein manuscripts A [A-Wn 2777] and B [A-Iu, no shelf-mark] unless otherwise stated.

Works numbered according to Klein’s edition.

monophonic lieder

Kl 1

Ain anefangk, K 2 [melody used for Kl 2–7]

Kl 2

Wach, menschlich tier, K 71 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 3

Wenn ich betracht, K 72 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 4

Hör, kristenheit, K 32 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 5

Ich sich und hör, K 35 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 6

Ich spür an tier, K 37 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 7

Loblicher Got, K 44 [same melody as Kl 1]

Kl 8

Du armer mensch, lass dich dein sünd hie reuen ser, K 14

Kl 9

O welt, O welt, ain freund der franken mauer, K55 [melody used for Kl 10]

Kl 10

Wenn ich mein krank vernunft, K 73 [same melody as Kl 9]

Kl 11

O snöde werlt, K 54 [melody used for Kl 12 and Kl 95]

Kl 12

In Frankereich, K 38 [same melody as Kl 11]

Kl 13

Wer ist, die da durchleuchtet, K 75

Kl 14

Gesegnet sei die frucht Benedicite, K 29a [grace for before meals]

Kl 15

Wol auff, als das zu himel sei Gracias, K 29b [grace for after meals]

Kl 16

Ich spür ain lufft aus külem tufft, K 36

Kl 17

Var, heng und lass, halt in der mass, K67

Kl 18

Es fügt sich, do ich was von zehen jaren alt, K 19 [written 1416, autobiographical, see Röll, 1975]

Kl 19

Es ist ain altgesprochner rat, K20

Kl 20

Es seusst dort her von orient, K 24

Kl 21

Ir alten weib, nu freut eu[ch] mit den jungen, K 41

Kl 22

Des grossen herren wunder, K 12 [melody used for Kl 23–5]

Kl 23

Wie vil ich sing und tichte, K 78 [same melody as Kl 22]

Kl 24

Kain freund mit klarem herzen, K 58 [c1423; same melody as Kl 22]

Kl 25

Ain burger und ain hofman, K3 [same melody as Kl 22]

Kl 26

Durch aubenteuer tal und perg, K 16

Kl 27

Ich hab gehört durch mangen granns, K 34

Kl 28

Menschlichen got, beschnitten schon, K 47 [title ‘Cisioianus id est Kalendergedicht’ (cf Kl 67); melody used for Kl 29–32, 81, 117]

Kl 29

Der himel fürst heut bewar, K 9 [same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 30

Kain ellend tet mir nie so and, K 43 [same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 31

Der oben swebt, K 10 [same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 32

Durch toren weis, K 15 [same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 33

Ain tunckle farb von oocident, K7 [melody used for Kl 34–6]

Kl 34

Es leucht durch graw die vein lasur, K 22 [same melody as Kl 33]

Kl 35

In Suria ain braiten hal, K 40 [same melody as Kl 33]

Kl 36

Zwar alte sünd pringt neues laid, K 83 [same melody as Kl 33]

Kl 39

Mein sünd unch schuld eu[ch] priester klag, K 46

Kl 40

Erwach an schrick, vil schönes weib, K 18 [melody (without repetitio) used for Kl 126]

Kl 41

Von Wolkenstain wolt ich zu Cölen gütter lawn, K 70

Kl 42

Vil lieber grüsse süsse, K 68

Kl 44

Durch Barbarei, Arabia, K 17 [melody used for Kl 45]

Kl 45

Wer machen well sein peutel ring, K 76 [same melody as Kl 44]

Kl 55

Wes mich mein bül ie hat erfreut, K 77

Kl 57

Ain mensch von achzehen jaren klüg, K 5

Kl 58

Mein bül laisst mir gesellschaft zwar, K 45

Kl 59

Solt ich von sorgen werden greis, K 62

Kl 60

Es nahet gen der vasennacht, K 23

Kl 61

Gelück und hail ain michel schar, K 28

Kl 63

Wol mich an we der lieben stund, K 81

Kl 67

Genner beschnaid Crist wirdikleich [no melody, in rhythming couplets; title ‘Cisioianus, id est Kalendergedicht’ (cf Kl 28)]

Kl 69

Do fraig Amors, K 13 [in 7 languages with Ger. trans.]

Kl 73

O herzen lieber Nickel mein, K 51 [not in A; melody used for Kl 74]

Kl 74

Sweig still, gesell, dem ding ist recht, K 64 [same melody as Kl 73]

Kl 80

Ain rainklich weib, durch jugent schön, K 6

Kl 81

Sweig, güt gesell, schimpflichen lach, K 63 [same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 82

Got geb eu[ch] ainen güten morgen, K 30

Kl 83

Ain jetterin, junck, frisch, frei, früt, K 4 [melody used for Kl 87]

Kl 85

‘Nu huss’ sprach der Michel von Wolkenstain, K 46 [not in A]

Kl 86

O phalzgraf Ludewig, K 52

Kl 87

Rot, weiss, ain frölich angesicht, K 59 [same melody as Kl 83]

Kl 89

Herz, müt, leib, sel und was ich han, K 31

Kl 90

Ach got, wër ich ain bilgerin, K 1

Kl 92

Treib her, treib überher, K 65

Kl 95

O rainer got, K 53 [same melody as Kl 11]

Kl 97

Senlich mit langer zeit und weil vertreib, K 60

Kl 98

O wunnikliches paradis, K 57

Kl 99

Für allen schimpf, des ich vil sich, K 27

Kl 100

O wunniklicher, wolgezierter mai, K 56

Kl 102

Sich manger freut das lange jar, K 61 [not in A]

Kl 104

Von trauren möcht ich werden taub, K 69 [not in A; same melody as Kl 105]

Kl 105

Es komen neue mër gerant, K21 [not in A; melody used for Kl 104]

Kl 106

Nempt war der schönen plüde früde, K 48 [not in A]

Kl 110

Ich hör, sich manger freuen lat, K 119; [Stollen melody inc. in B]

Kl 111

In oberland, K 39 [title ‘Passio domini nostri Jhesu Christi completa Anno 36’]

Kl 112

Mich fragt ein ritter angevar [no music; not in A; ‘anno 1438 hec fabula completa per me’; in 205 rhyming couplets]

Kl 113

Ir bäpst, ir kaiser, du pawman, K 42 [not in A]

Kl 114

Hört zü, was ellentleicher mër, K 33 [not in A; title ‘Compassio beate virginis Marie’]

Kl 115

Wer hie umb diser welde lust, K 74 [not in A; text cento on Freidank’s Erfahrungssprüche]

Kl 116

Zergangen ist meins herzen we, K 82

Kl 117

Und swig ich nu die lenge zwar, K 66 [not in A; same melody as Kl 28]

Kl 118

Wol auf und wacht, K 80 [in B only, added in a different hand]

Kl 119

Bog dep’ mi was dustu da, K 8 [not in B; 3 stanzas, each in two sections: (i) Rhaeto-Romanic, Lat., Ger.; (ii) Ger. trans. to same melody]

Kl 122

Wol auf, gesellen, an die vart, K 79 [not in B]

Kl 123

Der seines laids ergeczt well sein, K 11 [not in B]

Kl 124

Ain ellend schid durch zahers flins, K 117 [not in B; complete in A (contrary to Koller)]

Kl 125

Ain eren schacz, K 118 [not in B; complete in A (contrary to Koller)]

Kl 126

Frew dich, durchleuchtig junckfrau zart, K 25 [not in B; same melody as Kl 40]

Kl 128

Sy hat mein hertz getroffen [no music; not in A or B; doubtful; 4 sources]

Kl 129

Der werlde vernewung lawter klar [no music; adaptation of the hymn Mundi renovacio, A-Wn 2975, 4696, D-Mbs Cgm 715, Cgm 1115]

Kl 130

Von Got so wart gesant [no music; adaptation of sequence Mittit ad virginem, A-Wn 2975, 4696, D-Mbs Cgm 715, Cgm 1115]

Kl 132

Medlin zartt stein [no music, 3 stanzas in D-Ngm Wolkenstein-Archiv, leaf of fasc. 12a]

Kl 133

Wilt du haben zü sorgen [no music; 2 rhyming couplets attrib. Wolkenstein in GB-Lbl Add.16581]

Kl 134

Got müs fur uns vechten [no music; 4 couplets with cross-rhymes, only in Stadtmuseum, Regensburg, R 58 (shortly after 1431)]

polyphonic lieder

Kl 37

Des himels trone entpfärbet sich, 2vv, K 88 [B has tenor only; melody used for Kl 38]

Kl 38

Keuschlich geboren, 2vv, K 99 [same melody as Kl 37]

Kl 43

Ain güt geboren edel man, 3vv, K 86 [A has tenor only]

Kl 46

Du ausserweltes schöns mein herz, 4vv, K 90 [contrafactum of ballade Je voy mon cuer (anon.), F-Pn n.a.fr.6771 (3vv), F-Sm C.22 (3vv), CZ-Pu XI E 9 (2vv)

Kl 47

Fröleichen so well wir schir singen, 2vv, K 26, 124 b [B has tenor only, contrafactum of M. Fabri: Bien ay je cause]

Kl 48

Stand auff, Maredel, liebes Gredel, 4vv, K 106 [B has 2vv only; contrafactum of rondeau Jour a jour la vie (anon.), F-Pn it.568 (2vv), F-Pn n.a.fr.6771 (4vv), GB-Lbl Cotton Tit.A.xxvi (3vv), I-Fn Panciatichiano 26 (3vv); also in F-Sm C.22 as Ave virgo mater pia, D-Mbs Clm 14274 with text ‘Cristus rex pacificus’ (4vv); 2 intabulations in I-FZc 117]

Kl 49

Sag an, herzlieb, 3vv, K 105, K 124a [B has 2vv only]

Kl 50

Der mai mit lieber zal, 2vv, K 87 [contrafactum of J. Vaillant: Par maintes foys]

Kl 51

Ach, senliches leiden, 2vv, K 84

Kl 52

Wolauff, gesell! wer jagen well, 3vv, K 113 [contrafactum of ballade Fuyés de moy (anon.), F-Pn n.a.fr.6771 (3vv), CZ-Pu XI E 9 (2vv), A-M 391 (2vv), F-Pn n.a.fr.23190; also in F-Sm C.22 as Quam pulchra es]

Kl 53

Frölich, zärtlich, lieplich, 2vv, K 94 [contrafactum of rondeau En tes doulz flans (anon.), F-Pn n.a.fr.6771 (3vv), F-Sm C.22 as Felix Dei genitrix]

Kl 54

Frölich geschrai so well wir machen, 3vv, K 93 [contrafactum of rondeau Qui contre fortune (anon.), I-Fn Panciatichiano 26 (2vv), also in A-Wn 5094 and F-Sm C.22 as Schack melodye]

Kl 56

Tröstlicher hort, wer tröstet mich, 2vv, K 107 [also in D-Gs Lüneb.78, in D-TRs 322/1994 and in D-WH 118 (89) as Tonat agmen]

Kl 62

Von rechter lieb krafft, 2vv, K 109 [contrafactum of rondeau Alé vous/Je pren congé (anon.), F-Pn n.a.fr.4917]

Kl 64

Gar wunniklich hat si mein herz besessen, 2vv, ‘fuga’, K 95

Kl 65

Mein herz, das ist versert, 2vv, K 101 [contrafactum of F. Landini: Questa fanciulla (3vv); music also used for Kl 66]

Kl 66

Weiss, rot, mit brawn verleucht, 2vv, K 111 [not in A; same music as Kl 65]

Kl 68

Mein herz jüngt sich in hoher gail, 2vv, K102 [B has tenor only]

Kl 70

Her wiert uns dürstet also sere, ‘fuga’, 3 vv, K 97 [frags in D-Mbs Cgm 715]

Kl 71

Mit günstlichem herzen, ‘fuga’, 2vv, K 104

Kl 72

Die minne füget niemand, ‘fuga’, 2vv, K 89 [contrafactum of chace Talent m’est pris (anon.), I–IVc, CZ-Pu XI E 9; also in F-Sm C.22 as Der summer kumt]

Kl 75

Wol auff, wol an, 2vv, K 115

Kl 76

Ain graserin durch külen tau, 2vv, K 85

Kl 77

Simm Gredlin, Gred, mein Gredelein, 2vv, K 123 [B has tenor only (discant staff empty)]

Kl 78

Mich tröst ain adeliche mait, 2vv, K 103

Kl 79

Frölich so wil ich aber singen, 2vv, K 120

Kl 84

Wol auff, wir wellen slauffen, 2 vv, K 114

Kl 88

Vier hundert jar auff erd, 2vv, K 108 [contrafactum of P. Fontaine: A son plaisir]

Kl 91

Freuntlicher blick, 2 vv, K 92

Kl 93

Herz, prich, 2vv, K 121

Kl 94

Lieb, dein verlangen, 2vv, K 122 [B has tenor only (discant staff empty)]

Kl 96

Grasselick lif, 3vv, K 96

Kl 101

Wach auff, mein hort, es leucht dort her, 2vv, K 110 [tenor also in D-Bsb 40613 (Lochamer Liederbuch, 1452-60) and D-ROu 100 (Rostocker Liederbuch, c1465 with later additions); intabulation in D-Bsb 40613, 2 in D-Mbs Mus.ms.3625]

Kl 103

Wer die ougen wil verschüren mit den brenden, 2vv, K 111 [not in A; contrafactum of N. Grenon: La plus jolie]

Kl 107

Kom, liebster man, K 100 [not in A; contrafactum of rondeau Venés oir (anon.), F-Pn n.a.fr.10660]

Kl 108

Ich klag, 3vv, K 98 [not in A]

Kl 109a

Ave mater, O Maria [see Kl 109b]

Kl 109b

Ave mütter küniginne, 3 vv [not in A, preceded in B by Lat. version (Kl 109a); also in I-Bu 2216 (4vv), I-Vnm 7554 (olim IX 145) (3vv), PL-Wn III 8054 (Krasinski 52) and D-Mbs Mus.ms.3725 (intabulation)]

Kl 120

Freu dich, du weltlich creatur, 3vv, K 91 [not in B]

Kl 121

Nu rue mit sorgen, canon, 2vv, K 50 [not in B]

Kl 131

Mir dringet zwinget fraw dein güt [no music; text in D-Mbs Clm 4871 (dated 1461), with heading ‘Techst vber das geleyemors Wolkenstainer’; probably contrafactum of Binchois: Je loe amours]

Oswald von Wolkenstein


W. Marold: Kommentar zu den Liedern Oswalds von Wolkenstein (diss., U. of Göttingen, 1926), ed. A. Robertshaw (Innsbruck, 1995)

J. Müller-Blattau: ‘Wach auff, mein hort!: Studie zur deutschen Liedkunst des 15. Jahrhunderts’, Festschrift für Guido Adler (Vienna, 1930/R), 92–9

H. Loewenstein: Wort und Ton bei Oswald von Wolkenstein (Königsberg, 1932)

W. Salmen: ‘ Werdegang und Lebensfülle des Oswald von Wolkenstein’, MD, vii (1953), 147–73

J. Wendler: Studien zur Melodiebildung bei Oswald von Wolkenstein (Tutzing, 1963)

T. Göllner: ‘Landinis “Questa fanciulla” bei Oswald von Wolkenstein’, Mf, xvii (1964), 393–8

C. Petzsch: ‘ Text- und Melodietypenveränderung bei Oswald von Wolkenstein’, DVLG, xxxviii (1964), 491–512

W. Röll: ‘ Oswald von Wolkenstein und Graf Peter von Arberg’, ZDADL, xcvii (1968), 219–34

C. Petzsch: ‘ Westeuropäisches bei Oswald von Wolkenstein’, Mf, xxii (1969), 315–16

C. Petzsch: ‘ Zum Freidank-Cento Oswalds von Wolkenstein’, AMw, xxvi (1969), 125–39

C. Petzsch: ‘ Oswald von Wolkenstein Nr.105 “Es komen neue mer gerant”: Text-Form-Korrespondenz als Kriterium bei Fragen der Datierung und Überlieferung’, Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, xci (1972), 335–51

B. Stäblein: ‘Oswald von Wolkenstein, der Schöpfer des Individualliedes’, DVLG xlvi (1972), 113–60

E. Timm: Die Überlieferung der Lieder Oswalds von Wolkenstein (Lübeck, 1972) [see also review in Mf, xxvii, 1974, 484–6]

L. Townsley: A Glossary to the Songs of Oswald von Wolkenstein (diss., U. of Maryland, 1972)

Oswald von Wolkenstein: Novacella 1973 [with extensive bibliography; see also U. Müller and F.V. Spechtler, Mf, xxvii (1974), 66–7]

W. Röll: ‘ Der vierzigjährige Dichter: anlässlich des Liedes “Es fügt sich” Oswalds von Wolkenstein’, Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, xciv (1975), 377–94

D. Kühn: Ich, Wolkenstein: eine Biographie (Frankfurt am Main, 1977, 3/1996)

600-Jahrfeier Oswalds von Wolkenstein: Seis am Schlern 1977

I. Pelnar: ‘ Neu entdeckte Ars-Nova-Sätze bei Oswald von Wolkenstein’, Mf, xxxii (1979), 26–33

U. Müller, ed.: Oswald von Wolkenstein (Darmstadt, 1980)

H. Brunner, H.W.Ganser, K.-G. Hartmann: ‘Das Windsheimer Fragment einer Musikhandschrift des 15. Jahrhunderts’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, i (1980–1), 185–222

W. Röll: Oswald von Wolkenstein (Darmstadt, 1981)

I. Pelnar: Die mehrstimmigen Lieder Oswalds von Wolkenstein (Tutzing, 1982) [for music edn see work-list]

R. Hausner: ‘ Thesen zur Funktion frühester weltlicher Polyphonie im deutschsprachigen Raum (Oswald von Wolkenstein, Mönch von Salzburg)’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, iii (1984–5), 45–78

R. Strohm: ‘ Native and Foreign Polyphony in Late Medieval Austria’, MD, xxxviii (1984), 205–30

K. Baasch and H.Nürnberger: Oswald von Wolkenstein: mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten dargestellt (Hamburg, 1986, 2/ 1995)

R. Strohm: ‘ Die vierstimmige Bearbeitung (um 1465) eines unbekannten Liedes von Oswald von Wolkenstein’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, iv (1986–7), 163–74

D. Fallows: ‘ Two equal voices: a French Song Repertory with Music for Two More Works of Oswald von Wolkenstein’, EMH, vii (1987), 227–41

L. Welker: ‘ New Light on Oswald von Wolkenstein: Central European Traditions and Burgundian Polyphony’, EMH, vii (1987), 187–226

L. Welker: ‘ Some Aspects of the Notation and Performance of German Song Around 1400’, EMc, xviii (1989), 235–46

L. Welker: ‘ Mehrstimmige Sätze bei Oswald von Wolkenstein: eine kommentierte Übersicht’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, vi (1990–1), 255–66

R. Strohm: The Rise of European Music 1380–1500 (Cambridge, 1993, 2/1996)

C. Berger and T.Tomasek: ‘Kl 68 im Kontext der Margarethe-Lieder Oswalds von Wolkenstein’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, ix (1996–7), 157–77

R. Strohm: ‘ Song Composition in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries: Old and New Questions’, Jb der Oswald von Wolkenstein-Gesellschaft, ix (1996–7), 523–50
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