(b Yokohama, 3 Jan 1948). Japanese musicologist. He graduated from the Tōhō Gakuen College of Music in Tokyo (BM 1970) and from the Graduate School of the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music (MA 1972). He undertook extensive Haydn studies in Europe (1978–9) and was visiting professor at the University of Mainz (1986–7). He became full professor at the Tōhō Gakuen College of Music in 1993. His research interest has centred around the performing practice of Western (especially German) music of the 18th and 19th centuries. He has approached this from the point of view of the social context of music, orchestral practice and music printing, and has made a contribution to advancing research on the meaning of musical performance in different social contexts and on the function of musicology.
Ōkesutora no shakai-shi: doitsu no ōkesutora to gakuin-tachi no ayumi [A social history of the orchestra: the courses of orchestras and their musicians in Germany] (Tokyo, 1990)
Gakufu no bunka-shi [A cultural history of music publication] (Tokyo, 1993)
Ongaku-ensô no shakai-shi: yomigaeru kako no ongaku [A social history of musical performance: the sound of the past revived] (Tokyo, 1993)
Osanz, Miguel Antonino
(b Botaya, Huesca, 1760; d Soria, 28 May 1825). Spanish composer. After staying at the monastery of S Juan de la Peña, near Jaca, he arrived at Soria in 1781. He was appointed maestro de capilla at Soria from 1781 until his death in 1825. In total, 168 of his works survive, and a further 13 works have been attributed to him; all his music was composed for Soria Cathedral. The voices and instruments he used depended on the varying membership of the chapel, which decreased during this time. His style employs the homophony and vocal ornamentation that were typical at the time, though he used counterpoint in his more solemn works.
MSS in the cathedral of S Pedro Apostol, Soria
Vocal: 24 masses; 2 requiems; 8 grads; 4 seqs; 20 villancicos; 6 Mag; 11 Lamentations; 26 responsories; many pss, 1 (Laudate Dominum omnes gentes) ed. J. López Calo and others, Las edades del hombre: la música en la iglesia de Castilla y Leon: Polifonia y organo (Valladolid, 1991), hymns, ants, etc.
Inst: Concerto, fl, vns, hns, b; Versos, vns, hns, va, b
M. MONTSERRAT SÁNCHEZ SISCART
(b Berlin, 11 July 1905; d Basle, 8 June 1955). British pianist of German birth. He was educated at Berlin University. His piano studies were mainly with Schnabel, and he also studied composition with Schreker and conducting with Fritz Busch. The rise of the Nazi regime caused him to leave his native country in 1933, by which time he had won an international reputation as a discerning pianist. He became a British subject in 1946. In London his association with Max Rostal led to many distinguished performances, especially of Classical sonatas for violin and piano. Osborn also won high praise for his performances of Mozart's later concertos and Beethoven’s sonatas and concertos. Earlier in his career he had given a number of important premières, including those of Prokofiev’s Fifth Sonata and Hindemith’s Klaviermusik op.37.
Osborne, Charles (Thomas)
(b Brisbane, 24 Nov 1927). British writer on music, poet and critic of Australian birth. He studied the piano, composition and singing privately in Brisbane and Melbourne, and moved to England in 1953. He was assistant editor of the London Magazine from 1958 before being appointed assistant literature director of the Arts Council in 1966 and director in 1971. Besides his writings on literary topics Osborne has written mainly on vocal music, particularly 19th-century opera, including a useful descriptive survey of Verdi’s operas; he is also known as a critic and broadcaster.
The Complete Operas of Verdi (London, 1969)
ed. and trans.: The Letters of Giuseppe Verdi (London, 1971)
ed. and trans.: Richard Wagner: Stories and Essays (London, 1973)
The Concert Song Companion (London, 1974)
Wagner and his World (London, 1977)
The Complete Operas of Mozart (London, 1978)
The Complete Operas of Puccini (London, 1981)
The Dictionary of Opera (London, 1983)
Verdi: a Life in the Theatre (London, 1987)
The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss (London, 1988)
The Complete Operas of Richard Wagner (London, 1990)
The Bel canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini (London, 1994)
Osborne, Conrad L(eon)
(b Lincoln, NE, 22 July 1934). American music critic. He was educated at Columbia University and also studied singing with Cornelius Reid and acting with Frank Corsaro. He has acted in the theatre and on television and has sung operatic baritone roles with various musical organizations in the New York area. As a writer, he was chief vocal critic and contributing editor of High Fidelity (1959–69), and New York music critic of the London Financial Times (1962–9). In 1970 he was appointed advisory editor of the Musical Newsletter and in 1978 his critical guide The Complete Operas of Mozart (New York, 1978/R) was published.
Osborne has contributed numerous articles to publications in the USA and England, including detailed critical discographies of the operas of Verdi (1963), Mozart (1965), Wagner (1966–7) and Russian composers (1974–5) for High Fidelity, and articles and reviews for Opus (from 1984). His chief interest is opera, and his background as a performer has strongly influenced his critical writing on the subject. Since the early 1970s he has devoted more of his time and interest to private singing teaching than to journalism. Osborne is widely regarded as one of the most discriminating vocal critics in the USA.
PATRICK J. SMITH