Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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Orvieto, Ugolino of.

See Ugolino of Orvieto.

Ory, Kid [Edward]

(b La Place, LA, 25 Dec c1890; d Honolulu, 23 Jan 1973).American jazz trombonist and bandleader. Between 1912 and 1919 he led one of the most prominent bands in New Orleans. He then moved to California, where he also led a group; in Los Angeles in 1922, as Spikes’ Seven Pots of Pepper, it became the first of the black New Orleans-style jazz bands to issue a recording, Ory’s Creole Trombone/Society Blues (Nordskog). In 1925 Ory went to Chicago, where he participated in some of the period’s most important jazz recording sessions, with Louis Armstrong’s Hot Five, Jelly Roll Morton’s Red Hot Peppers, the New Orleans Wanderers and King Oliver’s Dixie Syncopators. He returned to Los Angeles in 1930 and in 1933 abandoned music to work on a poultry farm and in a railway post office; in 1942, however, he resumed playing, and in 1944 regained prominence through his performances on Orson Welles’s radio broadcasts. He then toured extensively with his band until 1966, when he retired to Hawaii. Ory’s playing was highly rhythmic; he made full use of slurs and glissandos in the early tailgate trombone style, of which he was the most famous exponent, and was also notable for his use of mutes. He composed the well-known Muskrat Ramble (1926, OK).


M. Ertegun: ‘Just Playing Music I Love, Says Kid Ory’, Down Beat, xviii/16 (1951), 2

Giltrap and Dixon: Kid Ory (London, c1958)

G. Marne: ‘The Kid Ory Story’, International Musician, lxiii/6 (1964), 18–19, 30 only

J.J. Lucas: ‘Kid Ory’, Jazz Journal, xviii/1 (1965), 6–8

M. Williams: ‘The Kid’, Jazz Masters of New Orleans (New York, 1967/R), 205–21

A. Hubner: ‘Kid Ory’, Selections from the Gutter: Jazz Portraits from the ‘The Jazz Record’, ed. A. Hodes and C. Hansen (Berkeley, CA, 1977) 112–15

B. Bigard: With Louis and the Duke (London, 1985)

J. Darensbourg: Telling it Like it is, ed. P. Vacher (London, 1987; Baton Rouge, LA, 1987, as Jazz Odyssey: the Autobiography of Joe Darensbourg)

Oral history material in LNT


Oryema, Geoffrey

(b Uganda, 1953). Ugandan composer. Born into a prominent musical family, Oryema received a privileged education in Western music. His father, a prominent government minister, was one of the last great inanga (seven-string harp zither) players in Acholiland, and taught him to play, together with the myamulere (flute), the lukeme (thumb piano) and other indigenous percussion instruments. While still young, Oryema also received training from his mother, director of the Ugandan national dance company, and attended the Kampala School of Dramatic Arts, where he founded a theatre company. At the age of 24 his father was murdered by Idi Amin, forcing him to flee in the trunk of a car to Kenya. Today, Oryema is a respected musician-songwriter, maintaining the songs of his youth and experimenting with the diversity of musical cultures offered in Paris. Oryema's moody and contemplative music reflects an original combination of acoustic African rhythms with ambient electronic pop. He has recorded three albums with Peter Gabriel's Real World label, accompanied by such pop luminaries as Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois. He has performed on the 1993–4 WOMAD USA tours, at the 1994 Reebok Human Rights Awards and at the 1995 Rainforest Foundation International Benefit.


Exile, Real World Records CDRW14 (1990)

Beat the Border, Real World Records CDRW37 (1993)

Night to Night, Real World Records CDRW58 (1996)



[Ochranny Svaz Autorsky]. See Copyright §VI, (under Czech Republic).


City in Japan. It is the country's second largest city and is musically the most active town in west Japan. The traditional musical style of Osaka and Kyoto is known as the Kamigata style, in contrast to the Edo style of Tokyo. When European music was introduced to Japan (after 1868), Osaka, Kyoto and Kōbe (west of Osaka) formed an important musical centre second only to Tokyo.

The musical distinction of Osaka began in the 17th century when gidayū singing for the bunraku puppet play became popular there. Asahi-za (formerly Bunraku-za) is the main theatre for puppet plays; for kabuki there is the Osaka New Kabuki-za. The major concert halls are the Nakanoshima Kōkaidō (built in 1918), the Festival Hall (1958; also used for opera), the Osaka Kōsei-nenkin Hall (1968) and the Symphony Hall (1982), while the small Izumi Hall (1990) is used for chamber music. In Kōbe there is the Kōbe Bunka Hall (1973).

The Osaka PO (founded in 1947 as the Kansai SO and renamed in 1960) and the Osaka Century Orchestra (founded in 1989) are the two major orchestras, while the Telemann Chamber Orchestra specializes in Baroque music. Choral groups are active in Osaka and its vicinity, including the Kwansei Gakuin Glee Club, a student organization founded in the 1890s. The Kansai Opera Company (founded in 1949) is the major opera company in west Japan.

The annual Osaka International Festival was founded in 1958. Almost all Japanese composers participated in Expo ’70 in Osaka, as did several from abroad including Stockhausen and Xenakis. The Fourth Symposium of the IMS in July 1990, entitled ‘Tradition and its Future in Music’, was the first international musicological congress held in Asia. The three major newspapers in Japan, each with its own broadcasting stations and musical sponsorship, have their headquarters in Osaka: they are the Asahi, the Mainichi and the Yomiuri.

Osaka Music School (founded in 1915) became Osaka College of Music in 1958. Several other colleges have competent music departments, for example Ōsaka Geijutsu Daigaku, Osaka University of Education, Sōai Women’s College and Kōbe Jogakuin Daigaku (Kōbe Women’s College). In Hiroshima (west of Osaka) the Elizabeth Music College (founded as a conservatory in 1948, and a college since 1963) specializes in sacred music.

For bibliography see Japan.


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