Oakeley, Sir Herbert (Stanley)

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O'Carolan, Turlough.

See Carolan, Turlough.


(It.: ‘eye’).



See Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Očenáš, Andrej

(b Selce, central Slovakia, 8 Jan 1911; d Bratislava, 8 April 1995). Slovak composer and teacher. After graduating from the teachers' institute in Banská Bystrica he studied composition with Alexander Moyzes and conducting with Josef Vincourek at the Academy of Music and Dramatic Art in Bratislava (1932–7); thereafter he took part in Novák’s master classes at the Prague Conservatory. Appointments followed in the music department of Bratislava radio (1939–50) and at the Bratislava Conservatory (1943–73), which he directed between 1950 and 1954. From 1956 to 1962 he was head of music at Bratislava radio, and was teacher of composition at the Academy of Music thereafter. He received several state awards, including the title National Artist (1978).

After a period of experimentation culminating in the neo-classical Piano Suite no.2, Očenáš drew his inspiration from folklore, which, in a refined form, became one of the permanent aspects of his compositional style. In comparison with Moyzes and composers of his own generation, the use of folk material in Očenáš's music is more straightforward, his musical imagination being decisively affected by the archaic modality of folksong and by the mysterious world of folktales and myths. While Janáček-like compactness is typical of his less extensive pieces (eg. Nová jar, ‘A New Spring’, and Fresky, ‘Frescoes’), his programmatic compositions tend to be monumental and assertive, which, after 1948, was in tandem with the requirements of socialist realism. His works from the latter half of the 1950s and from the 60s, namely chamber pieces, show a trend towards introversion (i.e. Poéman o srdci, ‘Poem of the Heart’) and a typically direct confrontation between material derived from folk music (including harmonic and melodic elements as well as figures typical of folk instruments) and a textural sound world (i.e. Ruralia slovaca). The last period of his career saw a return to large, monumental forms and variations of tried and tested procedures.


(selective list)

Stage: Na zbojníckom tanci [At the Brigands' Ball] (pantomime, 4, Očenáš after L'. Ondrejov), 1941; Jánošíkova smrt' [Jánošík's Death] (stage cant. J. Botto), 1948; Marína (stage cant. A. Sládkovič), 1948; Vrchárska pieseň [Highlander Song] (ballet, 4, Očenáš, after O. Jariabek), 1956; Román o ruži [Novel About a Rose] (choreog. sym., 3), op.41, solo vv, chorus, orch, 1970

Vocal: Prortoctvá [Prophecies] (cantata, tetralogy, P. Országh Hviezdoslav), op.6, chorus, orch, 1949–52; Marína (cycle, A. Sládkovič), op.15, chorus, 1957; Pamätníky slávy [Memorials of Glory] (R. Fabry), sym. poem tetralogy, T, chorus, orch, 1961; Ako hviezdy padajú [As the Stars Fall] (P. Koyš), song cycle, op.31, high v, pf, 1964; O zemi a človeku [Of the Country and Man] (V. Mihálik, M. Válek, V. Mayakovski), sym., op.43, chorus, orch, 1970; Miloval som t'a [I loved you] (laudatorio, A. Plávka, J. Kostra), op.46, solo vv, chorus, orch, 1973; O vlasti [About the Native Land] (cycle, P. Koyš), op.48, chorus, 1973; Cesta k slnku [The Way to the Sun] (cycle, P. Koyš), op.56, Mez, chorus, orch, 1980

Orch: Povesti o rodnom kraji [Legends about the Native Land], Suite, op.3, 1943; Vzkriesenie [Resurrection], trilogy of sym. poems, op.4, 1945, rev. 1953 as op.8; Mǒjmu národu [To my People], sym. cycle, op.5, 1947; Vc Conc., op.7, 1952; Ruralia slovaca (orig. Rozlúčka s mladost'ou) [Farewell to Youth], suite, op.19, cimb, chbr orch, 1957; Pf Conc., op.20, 1959; Concertino, op.27, fl, str, pf, 1962; Sinfonietta, op.35, 1966; Plamene mája [The Flames of May], ov., op.45, 1973; Vn Conc., 1974; Českaslovenská preddra [Czechoslovak Ov.], op.53, 1977

Chbr: Obrázky duše [Pictures of the Soul] (Str Qt no.1), 1942; Pf Trio, op.36, 1967; Fresky [Frescos], op.37, vn, pf, 1967; Poéma o srdci [Poem of the Heart], op.38, vn, 1967; Donquijotská suita [Quixotic Suite], op.40, vn, vc, 1969; Etude Qt, op.42, str qt, 1970; Ozveny št'astia [Echoes of Happiness], op.54, str qt, 1981

Kbd: L'udové pastorálie zo Seliec [Folk Pastoral from Selce], org, 1949; Nová jar [a New Spring], op.11, pf, 1954; Mladost' [Youth], suite, op.14, pf, 1956; Organové pastely [Organ Pastels], op.26, org, 1961; Portréty [Portraits], op.39, org, 1968; Zvony [Bells], pf sonata, op.44, 1972; Svadobné tance [Wedding Dances], op.52, pf, 1977

Principal publishers: Opus, Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatúry, Sloveknský hudobný fond, Supraphon, Štátne hudobné vydavatel'stvo


J. Fišer: Andrej Očenáš: profil skladatel’a [Očenáš: profile of the composer] (Bratislava, 1955)

I. Hrušovsky: Slovenská hudba v profiloch a rozboroch [Slovak music in profiles and analyses] (Bratislava, 1964), 286–300

L. Burlas: Slovenská hudobná moderna [Slovak avant garde music], 148–50

T. Mažáriová: Andrej Očenáš: katalóg hudobnej tvorby [Očenáš: catalogue of musical works] (Banská Bystrica, 1991)

M. Palovčik: ‘Anrej Očenáš’ 100 slovenských skladateľov, ed. M. Jurík and P. Zagar (Bratislava, 1998)


Ocharte [Ochart], Pedro

(b Rouen, 1531–2; d Mexico City, 1592). Mexican music printer of French origin. Of the 13 known liturgical books with music printed in Mexico City between 1556 and 1589, the earliest in the New World, six were printed by Ocharte. He lived in Rouen until 1546 or 1547, when he moved to Seville; he probably emigrated to Mexico about 1549. In 1561–2 he married María de Figueroa, daughter of the printer Juan Pablos whose press he leased for two years from 1563, following Pablos’s death; later he apparently bought it. In 1563 Ocharte printed a Psalterium Chorale for Dominican use (unknown until 1963, when a copy was found in an Amerindian village in Guatemala). In 1568 he issued a Manuale Sacramentorum, secundum usum almae Ecclesiae Mexicanae, duplicating one printed by Pablos; most of the plainchant in it is for the Office for the Dead. A Graduale Dominicale paid for by Ocharte and printed by Antonio Espinosa was probably published before 1572; a copy found in an Amerindian village contains five pre-Tridentine sequences not in later Mexican versions.

In 1572, when he was finishing the printing of 100 passioners ordered by the Bishop of Michoacán (in a press run of 310), Ocharte was imprisoned by the Inquisition; he arranged for Espinosa to finish the printing. This passioner was unknown until a few leaves from the book were found in an Indian village in the 1930s. An Antiphonale Dominicale that Espinosa began printing in 1572 at Ocharte’s expense was finished about 1575. Three editions of a new Graduale Dominicale were published in 1576, one printed by Espinosa at Ocharte’s expense and two by Ocharte himself; this, issued as a result of Pius V’s 1571 reform, was said to include graduals, alleluias, tracts, offertories and communions by Juan Hernández (1545–1621). In 1584 Ocharte published a Psalterium, An[t]iphonarium Sanctorale, cum Psalmis & Hymnis, including illustrative prints (some hand coloured), probably for use by the Jesuits. A copy of his 1589 Antiphonarium de tempore, probably for Franciscan and Dominican use, contains marginal notations indicating that chant was accompanied by organ in some Mexican churches. Except for Juan Navarro’s passioner of 1604, this was the last collection of music printed in Mexico before the 18th century.


J.T. Medina: La imprenta en México, 1539–1821 (Santiago de Chile, 1907–12/R)

L.M. Spell: ‘The First Music Books Printed in America’, MQ, xv (1929), 50–54

R. Stevenson: ‘A Newly Discovered Mexican Sixteenth-Century Musical Imprint’, YIAMR, ii (1966), 91–4

R. Stevenson: Music in Aztec and Inca Territory (Berkeley, 1968), 180–92

E.P. Housty: The Graduale Dominicale (Mexico: Pedro Ocharte, 1576) of Juan Hernández(diss., Catholic U. of America, 1970)

M.E. Duncan: A Sixteenth-Century Mexican Chant Book: Pedro de Ocharte’s Psalterium, An(t)iphonarium Sanctorale cum Psalmis & Hymnis (1584) (diss., U. of Washington, 1975)

A.A.M. Stols: Pedro Ocharte, el tercer impresor mexicano (Mexico City, 1990)


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