Muhl 331: Music History III from Romanticism to the Present Fall Semester 2011

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MuHL 331: Music History III

From Romanticism to the Present

Fall Semester 2011
Instructor: Prof. Bruce Alan Brown Lecture: Tu/Th 10:00-11:20, CSS G156

Office hours (by appointment): Tu 1:00-2:00, Th 3:00-4:00, WPH 304A

Tel.: 213/740-3212 (Dept. Asst.: -3211)

Teaching Assistant: Jessica Gresham (

The purpose and organization of this course will be essentially the same as for MuHL 232, but the nature of the material studied will change greatly by the end of the semester. In place of a fairly well-defined central tradition, more recent music exhibits a fragmentation of styles and forms, and a less coherent pic­ture historically. Thus it will be even more crucial that you keep up with listening and reading assign­ments, and bring up any areas of misunderstanding, ei­ther in office hour or in class.

Required texts (available at the University Bookstore; you should already have most of these from MuHL 231/232);

  • Piero Weiss and Richard Ta­ruskin, eds., Music in the Western World: A History in Documents, re­vised edition (New York: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008) ML160.M865 2008 ref.

  • Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, media update edn. (Belmont, CA: Schirmer Cengage,, 2010)

  • Timothy Roden, Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Anthology for Music in Western Civiliza­tion, vol. 2: The Enlightenment to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) MT6.A575 2006, v.2, ref.

  • 7-CD set for Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, vol. 2: The En­lighten­ment to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) 11005 v.2

  • Supplementary Score Anthology (of shorter pieces not in­clu­ded in the Roden/Wright/Simms Antho­logy).

Other (partial) versions of the texts, on re­serve or in the reference section in the Music Library):

  • Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, vol. 2: The Enlightenment to the Pre­sent (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) ML160.W955 2006b v.2

  • or: Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, vol. C: Romanticism to the Pre­sent (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) ML160.W955 2006 v.C

  • Timothy Roden, Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Anthology for Music in Western Civiliza­tion, vol. C: Romanticism to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) MT6.A575 2006, v.C

  • 5-CD set for Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, vol. C: Romanticism to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006) 11003 v.C

Our basic text will be Wright/Simms, which will be useful both for gene­ral back­ground, as well as for analysis of specific works. Reading assignments are gi­ven for each lecture, but you should feel free also to browse, inclu­ding in sections not yet assigned. NB: the textbook is not a substitute for the lectures, on which the exams will primarily be based.

Weiss and Taruskin's anthology of primary writings on music aims to give a more di­rect feeling for the history of music by presenting the documents themselves, rather than a filtered interpretation of them. You should try to keep ahead of the readings in both this book and the main textbooks.

The choice of pieces has been dictated in large part by the selection offered in the Roden/Wright/ Simms An­thology. These are pieces that history has "canonized" as first-rate, historically significant ex­amples of their forms and styles. The main advantages to using an anthology are: 1) ease of reference while listen­ing in class, or away from the libra­ry, 2) freedom to mark the scores – which you may not do with lib­rary scores! – and 3) low cost, compared to what you'd pay for all these scores sepa­rately. Bring your anthology to every class in which we will cover works included there (see schedule below).

Scores of shorter works not included in the Wright/Simms anthology will be in a custom-pub­lished Supplementary Score Anthology, available for purchase in the USC bookstore. Please look ahead in the syllabus and bring this text to any lectures at which we will be studying pieces from it.

Scores of longer works not in either anthology are on reserve in the Music Library. Most reserve and ref­erence scores may be used in the Music Library only.

Some readings and images will be on electronic reserve on the Ares system; others may be post­ed on Blackboard (I will direct you to one or the other site as appropriate).
Source readings (in addition to Weiss/Taruskin):

Oliver Strunk, ed., Source Readings in Music History, rev. edn. by Leo Treitler (New York: Nor­ton, 1998)

ML60 S89 1998 ref.

The new edition of The Oxford History of Western Music:

Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music. 6 vols. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Vol. 3: The Nineteenth Century; vol. 4: The Early Twentieth Century, vol. 5: The Late Twentieth Century. ML160.T18 2005 v. 3-5 ref.

Various Grove dictionaries (in the Music Library's reference section):

Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, revised edn. (London: Macmillan, 2001; online version at

ML100.N48 200 ref.

Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (London: Macmillan, 1992; online version at ML102.O6N5 1992 ref.

H. Wiley Hitchcock, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (London: Macmillan, 1986)

ML101.U6N48 1986 ref.

Barry Kernfeld, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan, 2002; online version at ML102.J3N48 2001 ref.
Online sources of scores:

Classical Scores Library: go to, then click on “Subject Areas” (under “Research Support”) > “Music” > “Find Scores” tab, and then scroll down to “Scores Databases.”

International Music Score Library Project:
Listening: Assigned listenings are largely available in vol. 2 of the CD set that accompanies the Wright/ Simms textbook. Supplemental assigned listenings are available on a class website (; MuHL 280b was the number for a previous version of this course), accessible with a user i.d. and password (to be given out in class). As a necessary copy­right precaution, ac­cess to the class website is restric­ted to USC IP addresses; if using the site from an outside system (e.g., cable or DSL), or even USC’s WiFi, you will have to install USC’s VPN (virtual private network) software; see

For these pieces on the website, you can listen from any computer with an In­ternet connection and the (free) RealPlayer program on it. For those few pieces for which scores are on reserve, you will need to make a photo­copy if you want to listen via the website, since the Music Lib­rary's computers are not equipped with RealPlayer. A separate sheet of instruc­tions for the web­site will be distributed in class.

You can also listen to assigned pieces on one of the Music Library’s streaming audio services, such as Classical Music Library or Naxos Music Library. Follow the same instructions as for the Classical Scores Library (above), but click the “Find Sound Recordings” tab. Classi­cal Music Library has a play­list that duplicates the content of the Simms/ Wright CD antholo­gy (though with different performan­ces); click the “Playlists” tab and search for “Wright”; this will bring up a list of the indi­vidual discs.

Wherever and however you listen, you should plan a regular schedule of at least two listening ses­sions per week, in order to keep up with lectures. Do not leave all your listening to just before exams! You may also check out the Music Li­brary's regular CDs (see Homer catalogue), for use in the library, or purchase commercial record­ings of some of the pieces from the listening list, on your own. Performan­ces of many of our pieces can also be found on

Attendance: Attendance is mandatory, and will be checked most days. You are re­sponsible for all material, whether you were there when it was presented or not. If for some legitimate reason you must miss class, arrive late, or leave early, please inform me in advance (in person, by phone or by e-mail). Un­excused absences or tardiness will cause your grade in the class to be lowered. Legitimate excuses include illness, personal emergencies, or occasional conflicts with master classes or rehearsals of large ensembles, but not lessons, or outside gigs.
General expectations: Regardless of educational, linguistic, or national background, all stu­dents in this course are expected to have a good command of spoken and written English. You should come to class prepared to take full and accurate notes on lectures, and to par­ticipate in discuss­ions. If you are having trouble following the lectures, try 1) sitting closer to the front of the room, 2) recording lectures, and 3) getting help outside of class, on lecture materi­al and/or English com­pre­hension. But if you are still hav­ing trouble, or spending too much time on course­work, after trying these remedies, you should consider dropping the class and waiting to take it until you are better pre­pared. Please feel free to talk to me or the teaching assistant about any problems you are having.

Written work, apart from tests, will normally be submitted electronically. On a title page in­clude your name (student identification number is not necessary), the course number, the date the work was sub­mitted, and the title of the assignment ; your main text should be double spaced. All work must be entirely your own, unless you are specifically instructed to col­laborate. See the guide­lines on acade­mic integrity (the URL is given below) if you are uncertain as to what constitutes plagiarism, or proper and improp­er use of sources.

Since this class covers a large amount of material, it is to your advantage to make use of my of­fice hours – not only if you are having problems with the material, but also simply in order to find out on a topic more than can be covered in class, or so that we can become better acquainted. The pieces and in­formation covered in class are only a starting point; don't limit yourself to just that!

The teaching assistant will also be holding office hours (though not always in an actual office). Times and places will be announced in class.

You may use computers for note-taking during lecture, and for occasional Internet searches as directed by me, but please refrain from e-mail, phones, and other electronic activities that are unrelated to class. Abuse of USC’s free WiFi in class may result in a grade penalty, blocking of WiFi, or both.

All students enrolled in MuHL 331 MUST have completed, with a passing grade, MuCO 132a-b and MuCO 133a-b, or their equivalents at another institution – as measured by the MuTC Equiva­lency Exam. Recommended preparation includes MuCO 232a-b and 233a-b.
Any student requesting academic accommodations based on a disability is required to register with Disa­bility Services and Programs (DSP) each semester. A letter of verification for ap­proved accommodations can be obtained from DSP. Please be sure the letter is delivered to me as early in the semester as possible. DSP is located in STU 301 and is open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday; phone: 213/740-0776.

  • 2 midterm exams and a final exam (20-25% ea., at my discretion); these involve defi­nitions and term/per­son identifications, listening and objective questions, and short essays. Exams are based on lectures, and assigned readings and listenings, and are not cumulative.

  • 2-3 short listening/(reading) quizzes (unannounced, but approximately 2-3 weeks be­fore each exam; 5% total). No make-ups are possible; if you miss one of the quizzes due to a verifiable illness or emergency, you may average your scores for the other quiz­(zes). NB: I reserve the right to cancel quizzes if we need the time for lecture instead.

  • 1 or 2 written assignments (25-30% total), either analytical or historical in nature, on pieces or topics to be assigned; due as an­nounced in class.

  • Class participation (5%): active, productive participation in class and online (Blackboard) dis­cussions, and demonstra­tion of good acquaintance with assigned readings and listening ex­cerpts are required; lack of participation and/or preparation and/or disruption of class will lower your grade.


except in cases of a verified illness or emergency,

of which I am informed in advance.

(these are banned by University regulations)
Do not skip class in order to finish writing a paper. Late papers and any other written work will nor­mally be graded down by one increment (e.g., B to B-) for each day late, except in cases of a veri­fied illness or emergency. If you think you may not be able to meet a deadline, please see me, before it arrives, to discuss your options.
In the event of an emergency, please contact the USC Emergency Information office at 213/740-9233. Students are also encouraged to enroll in USC’s new TrojansAlert system, which allows University of­ficials to contact members of the campus community during an emergency by sending messages (text or voice) to e-mail accounts, cell phones, pagers, BlackBerries, smart phones, and land-line phones; see, and also the more general website

The USC Code of Academic Integrity applies to all portions of this course; see summary below, and the pertinent sections of the Student Judicial Affairs website, and especially the online publications there “Guide to Avoiding Plagiarism” and “Understanding and Avoiding Academic Dishonesty.”

Academic Dishonesty Sanction Guidelines


Recommended Sanction for Undergraduates*

Copying answers from other students on exam.**

F for course.

One person allowing another to cheat from his/her exam or assignment.

F for course for both persons.

Possessing or using material during exam (crib sheets, notes, books, etc.) which is not expressly permitted by the instructor.

F for course.

Continuing to write after exam has ended.

F for course.

Taking exam from room and later claiming that the instructor lost it.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Changing answers after exam has been returned.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Fraudulent possession of exam prior to administration.

F for course and recommendation for suspension.

Obtaining a copy of an exam or answer key prior to administration.

Suspension or expulsion from the university; F for course.

Having someone else take an exam for oneself.

Suspension or expulsion from the university for both students; F for course.


F for course.

Submission of purchased term papers or papers done by others.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Submission of the same term papers to more than one instructor, where no previous approval has been given.

F for both courses.

Unauthorized collaboration on an assignment.

F for the course for both students.

Falsification of information in admission applications (including supporting documentation).

Revocation of university admission without opportunity to reapply.

Documentary falsification (e.g., petitions and supporting materials; medical documentation).

Suspension or expulsion from the university; F for course when related to a specific course.

Plagiarism in a graduate thesis or dissertation.

Expulsion from the university when discovered prior to graduation; revocation of degree when discovered subsequent to graduation.

*Assuming first offense

**Exam, quiz, tests, assignments or other course work.

R = piece in the Roden/Wright/Simms anthology on reserve)

r = piece in score on reserve in Music Library

S = piece in Supplementary Score Anthology

WS = reading (listed by chapter and/or page numbers) in Wright/Simms textbook

WT = reading (listed by reading number, not page number) in Weiss/Taruskin, Music in the Western World, 2nd edition (2008)
week date topics, readings, assignment
I Tu 23 Aug. Nationalism in Eastern Europe and Russia
Listening: R 161 Modest Musorgsky (Модест Мусоргский, 1839-1881), ”Within four walls” (“В четырех стенах”) from Sunless (Без солнца)

R 162 Pyotr Il’ich Chaikovsky (Пётр Ильич Чаиковский, 1840-1893), excerpt (I/8) from The Nutcracker (Щелкунчик, 1892)

Reading: WS Ch. 57 (p. 556-57), Ch. 59

WT #115, #116, #117

Th 25 Aug. Verdi’s middle and later periods
Listening: S Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), scene and aria “Quale d’armi fragor” from Il Trovatore (1853)

R 156 Verdi, excerpt (IV/3) from Otello (1887)

Reading: WS Ch. 56 (pp. 552-end)

WT #121

II Tu 30 Aug. Realism/verismo in French and Italian opera
Listening: S Georges Bizet (1838-75), “Séguedille” (I/10) from Carmen (1873-4)

S Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1857-1919), aria “Vesti la giubba” (I/4) from Pagliacci (1892)

R 167 Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), aria “Dovunque al mondo” (Act I) from Madama Butterfly (1904)
Reading: WS Ch. 62
Th 1 Sept. Brahms and Bruckner in late-nineteenth-century Vienna
Listening: R 158 Johannes Brahms (1833-97), first movement from Symphony No. 3 in F, op. 90 (1883)

R 159 Brahms, “Feldeinsamkeit,” op. 86/2 (ca. 1879)

R 160 Anton Bruckner (1824-1896), “Christus factus est” (1884)
Reading: WS Ch. 58

WT #119, #120

III Tu 6 Sept. Mahler in fin-de-siècle Vienna
Listening: R 163 Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), “Um Mitternacht” (1901)

R 164 Mahler, fourth movement from Symphony No. 5 (1902)

Reading: WS Ch. 60

WT #123
Th 8 Sept. Richard Strauss in Munich and Berlin

Listening: r Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Don Juan, op. 20 (1889)

R 173 Strauss, final scene from Salome (1905)

Reading: WS Ch. 64

WT #124
F 9 Sept. add/drop deadline

IV Tu 13 Sept. Guest presentation on library resources and research techniques
Th 15 Sept. Paris in the Belle époque
Listening: R 169 Claude Debussy (1862-1918), “Reflets dans l’eau” from Images (1905)

R 170 Debussy, Nuages from Trois Nocturnes (1899)

R 171 Gabriel Fauré (1845-1924), “Dans la forêt de septembre” from La Bonne Chanson (1902)
Reading: WS Ch. 63

WT #125

V Tu 20 Sept. Russian post-tonality: Skryabin and Stravinsky
Listening: R 177 Aleksandr Skryabin (Александр Скрябин, 1872-1915), Piano Prelude op. 74/5 (1914)

S Igor Stravinsky (Игорь Стравинский, 1882-1971), first section of Пе­трушка (Pe­trushka, 1911)

Reading: WS Ch. 65, Ch. 66 (pp. 646-end)
Th 22 Sept. Review
VI Tu 27 Sept. Midterm 1
Th 29 Sept. Russian primitivism: Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring

Viewing in class of Rite with reconstructed original choreography
Listening: R 174 Stravinsky, excerpt from Part I of Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring, 1913)
Reading: WS Ch. 65 (review)

WT #132

VII Tu 4 Oct. Ravel and Satie
Listening: R 178 Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), “Rigaudon” from Le Tombeau de Couperin (1914-17)

S Ravel, excerpt from L'Enfant et les sortilèges (1925)

S Erik Satie (1866-1925), “Sonatine bureaucratique” (1917)
Reading: WS Ch. 67

WT #140, #145

Th 6 Oct. Atonality and Expressionism: The Second Viennese School
Listening: R 176 Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), No. 8, “Nacht (Passacaglia)” from Pierrot lunaire (1912)

R 183 Anton Webern (1883-1945), second movement from Symphony, op. 21 (1928)

R 182 Schoenberg, first movement from String quartet No. 4, op. 37 (1936)
Reading: WS Ch. 66 (pp. 639-45), Ch. 69

WT #128, #129, #130, #131

VIII Tu 11 Oct. Musical theater in the Weimar Republic
Listening: R 184 Alban Berg (1885-1935), excerpt (III/2) from Wozzeck (1914-22)

R 185 Kurt Weill (1900-1950), “Die Moritat von Mackie Messer” (“Ballad of Mac the Knife”) from Die Dreigroschenoper (The Three-penny Opera, 1928)

Reading: WS Ch. 70

WT #148 (first two sections), #151

Th 13 Oct. Neoclassicism and Jazz Influences
Listening: R 188 Scott Joplin (1868-1917), ”Maple Leaf Rag” (1899)

R 181 Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), “Botafogo” from Saudades do Brazil (1920)

R 180 Stravinsky, first movement from Octet (1923)

- - - - Louis Armstrong (1901-71), ”West End Blues” (1928, on CD 12)

S Ravel, second movement (”Blues”) from Violin sonata (1923-7)
Reading: WS Ch. 68, Ch. 72

WT #137, #138

IX Tu 18 Oct. Folk music and modernism: Bartók
Listening: R 186 Béla Bartók (1881-1945), “Fekete Főd” from Eight Hungarian Folksongs (ca. 1907)

R 187 Bartók, first movement from Concerto for Orchestra (1943)

Reading: WS Ch. 71

WT #134 (first section)

Th 20 Oct. Review

X Tu 25 Oct. Midterm 2
Th 27 Oct. American experimentalism: Ives, Partch, Seeger, Cowell
Listening: R 192 Charles Ives (1874-1954), “Feldeinsamkeit” (1897)

R 193 Ives, The Unanswered Question (1906)

R 194/S Ruth Crawford Seeger (1901-1953): third and fourth movements from String quartet (1931)

S Henry Cowell (1897-1965), “The Banshee” (1925)

S Harry Partch (1901-1974), “The Letter: A Depression Message from a Hobo Friend” (1943)
Reading: WS Ch. 75

WT #127, #146

XI Tu 1 Nov. Neo-tonality in the United States and England

Remember to vote!
Listening: R 197 Aaron Copland (1900-90), Variations on a Shaker hymn from Appalachian Spring (Suite version, 1945)

R 202 Benjamin Britten (1913-76), Agnus dei from War Requiem (1961)

Reading: WS Ch. 76 (pp. 729-35), Ch. 78 (pp. 724-27)

WT #148 (last part)

Th 3 Nov. Post-war serialism, eclecticism, and mysticism
Listening: R 205 Stravinsky, “Bransle double” from Agon (1953-57)

R 206 Pierre Boulez (b. 1925), “L'artisanat furi­eux” from Le Marteau sans maître (1955)

R 208 Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992), “Mode de valeurs et d’intensités” (1949)

S Messiaen, Et exspecto (1964): IV

Reading: WS Ch. 79, Ch. 80 (pp. 785-87)

WT #153, #157 (first section)

XII Tu 8 Nov. Indeterminacy, advanced techniques
Listening: R 207 John Cage (1912-1993), Book I of Music of changes (1951)

WS Cage, Sonata No. 5 from “Sonatas and interludes” (1946-48; part of score is on pp. 742-43)

- - - - Pauline Oliveros (b. 1932), “The Greeting” (Meditation IX from Sonic Me­ditations, 1971-72) (to be performed in class)

R 209 Luciano Berio (1925-2003), “stinging” from Circles (1960)

Reading: WS Ch. 80 (pp. 778-85 top), Ch. 82 (pp. 761-66)

WT #159, #169 (first section)

Th 10 Nov. Soviet realism and avant-garde
Listening: R 190 Sergei Prokofiev (Сергей Прокофьев, 1891-1953), third movement of Piano Sonata No. 7 (1939-42)

S Arvo Pärt (b. 1935), first movement from Tabula rasa (1977)

S Sofia Gubaidulina (София Губайдулина, b. 1931), “Weib, siehe, das ist dein Sohn” from Sieben Worte (1982)
Reading: WS Ch. 74, Ch. 83 (pp. 818-19)

WT #149, #150

F 11 Nov. withdrawal deadline

XIII Tu 15 Nov. Electronic music
Listening: - - - - Karlheinz Stockhausen (b. 1928), Gesang der Jünglinge (1955-6)

- - - - Edgard Varèse, Poème électronique (1958, on CD 13)

- - - - Milton Babbitt (b. 1916), Section I of Philomel (1964)
Reading: WS Ch. 80 (pp. 745-48)

WT #153 (review), #167

Th 17 Nov. Textural music
Listening: R 203 Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933), Ofiarom Hiroszimy: Tren (1960)

S György Ligeti (1923-2006), “Lux æterna” (1966)

Reading: WS Ch. 78 (pp. 764-end), Ch. 83 (pp. 809-13)

XIV Tu 22 Nov. The music of quotation
Listening: S Peter Maxwell Davies (b. 1934), No. 7, “Country dance” from Eight songs for a mad King (1969)

r Berio, third movement from Sinfonia (1968-9)

S George Crumb (b. 1929), II/1-2, “Pavana Lachrymae” and “Threnody II: Black Angels!” from Black angels (1970)
Reading: WS Ch. 82 (pp. 798-803)

WT #165
W 23-Th 24

XV Tu 29 Nov. Minimalism, syncreticism
Listening: R 214, “News” from Nixon in China (1987)

r Steve Reich (b. 1936), first movement from Different trains (1988)

- - - - Osvaldo Golijov (b. 1960), excerpts from La Pasión según San Marcos (2000)
Reading: WS Ch. 82 (pp. 806-end), Ch. 83 (pp. 813-16)

WT #163, #164, #170

Th 1 Dec. Review
Tu 13 Dec. Final exam (8:00—9:50 a.m. – sorry!)

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