Muhl 331: Music History III from Romanticism to the Present Fall Semester 2015

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MuHL 331: Music History III

From Romanticism to the Present

Fall Semester 2015
Instructor: Prof. Bruce Alan Brown Lecture: Tu/Th 10:00-11:20, UUC B2

Office: MUS 318 Office hours (by appointment): M 2:00-3:00, Th 12:00-1:00

Tel.: 213/740-3212 (Dept. Asst.: -7416) E-mail:

Teaching Assistant: Keenan Reesor (

The purpose and organization of this course will be essentially the same as for MuHL 232, but the nature of the material studied will change greatly by the end of the semester. In place of a fairly well-defined central tradition, more recent music exhibits a fragmentation of styles and forms, and a less coherent picture historically. Thus it will be even more crucial that you keep up with listening and reading assignments, and bring up any areas of misunderstanding, either in office hour or in class.
Required texts, available (with one exception) directly from the publisher, and/or from online retailers such as Amazon and Barnes & Noble, whether in hard copy (by purchase or rental) or as eBooks. Texts listed below with call numbers are in the reference section of the Music Library. This semester I am not having the University Bookstore order our textbooks, since their markup of prices is too high. You may already have some or all of these texts, if you were in my section of MuHL 232:

  • Piero Weiss and Richard Taruskin, eds., Music in the Western World: A History in Documents, revised edition (New York: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008) ML160.M865 2008 ref.

  • Craig Wright and Bryan Simms, Music in Western Civilization, media update edn. (Belmont, CA: Schirmer Cengage, 2010)

NB: This book is no longer available from Cengage, but can be purchased (new or used) or rented (cheaply) from Amazon and Barnes & Noble (and maybe from other sources as well). We will also be posting PDFs of assigned chapters or sections weekly, to a folder on Blackboard.

  • Timothy Roden, Craig Wright, and Bryan Simms, Anthology for Music in Western Civilization, vol. C: Romanticism to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006)


  • Timothy Roden, Craig Wright, and Bryan Simms, Anthology for Music in Western Civilization, vol. II: The Enlightenment to the Present (Belmont, CA: Thomson/Schirmer, 2006)

In addition, we will be using a

  • Supplementary Score Anthology (of shorter pieces not included in the Roden/Wright/Simms Anthology; on Blackboard, under “Content”).

Our basic text will be Wright/Simms, which will be useful both for general background and for analysis of specific works. Reading assignments are given for each lecture, but you may also find it helpful to browse in other chapters or sections, and in the glossary. Note: the textbook is not meant as a substitute for the lectures (on which exams will primarily be based).

Weiss and Taruskin's anthology of primary-source writings on music gives a more direct feeling for the history of music by presenting the documents themselves, rather than a filtered interpretation of them. For some Weiss/Taruskin readings there may be required discussion questions on Blackboard.

The choice of pieces has been largely dictated by that in the Roden/Wright/Simms Anthology. These are works that history has “canonized” as first-rate, historically significant examples of their forms and styles. The main advantages to using an anthology are: 1) ease of reference while listening in class,, 2) low cost, compared to what you'd pay for all these scores separately, and 3) translations (for vocal works) and measure numbers, which online IMSLP scores frequently lack. Bring your anthology (in whatever form) to every lecture in which we will cover works included there (see schedule below).

Scores of some shorter works not included in the Roden/Wright/Simms anthology will be in a Supplementary Score Anthology, available on Blackboard (individual PDF files withing a folder, under “Content”). Please look ahead in the syllabus and either print out the score(s) you’ll need for a given lecture, or bring your laptop or tablet to that lecture so you can read the score(s) online.

Scores and/or recordings of works not in either anthology (i.e., items used for writing projects) may be put on reserve in the Music Library. Reserve and reference scores may be used in the Music Library only.

Some readings and images will be put on electronic reserve on the Ares system; others may be posted on Blackboard (I will direct you to one or the other site as appropriate).
Suggested Further Readings
Source readings (in addition to Weiss/Taruskin):

Oliver Strunk, ed., Source Readings in Music History, rev. edn. by Leo Treitler (New York: Norton, 1998)

ML60 S89 1998 ref.

The Oxford History of Western Music:

Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, vols. 3-5 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005) ML160.T18 2005 v. 3–5 ref. (or electronic version)

Various Grove dictionaries (in the Music Library's reference section):

Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, revised edn. (London: Macmillan, 2001; online version at

ML100.N48 200 ref.

Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (London: Macmillan, 1992; online version at ML102.O6N5 1992 ref.

H. Wiley Hitchcock, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (London: Macmillan, 1986)

ML101.U6N48 1986 ref.

Barry Kernfeld, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan, 2002; online version at ML102.J3N48 2001 ref.
Online sources of scores:

Classical Scores Library: go to, hover over “Research”, > “Research Guides,” > “Music & Dance” > “Music” > “Find Scores” tab, scroll down to “Scores Databases.”

International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library):

~ ~ ~

Listening: Most assigned listenings are available on a CD set that accompanies the Wright/Simms textbook, but because of its high cost I am not requiring that you purchase it. But see below for information on a streamed, virtual version of this CD set on Classical Music Library.

You can listen to many of the assigned pieces on one of the Music Library’s streaming audio and video services, such as Classical Music Library, Naxos Music Library, or Opera in Video. Follow the same instructions as for the Classical Scores Library (above), but click the “Find Sound Recordings” or “Find Videos” tab, and then choose a resource under “Streaming Audio Services” or “Video Databases,” respectively. For Classical Music Library, choose “Music & Performing Arts” and then click the “Classical Music” tab. Classical Music Library has playlists that duplicate the contents of the Simms/ Wright CD anthology (though with different performances); click “Playlists” and search for “Companion to Wright”; this will bring up the playlists.

I have also prepared a YouTube playlist (MuHL 331-Brown) that includes most, if not quite all, of our assigned pieces, though not necessarily in the same performances as I will use in class. It’s a private playlist, so after the start of classes I’ll e-mail you a link that will allow you to have access to it.

Wherever and however you listen, you should plan a regular schedule of at least two listening sessions per week, in order to keep up with lectures. Do not leave all your listening to just before quizzes and exams! You may also check out the Music Library's regular CDs (see Homer catalogue), for use in the library, or purchase commercial recordings of some of the pieces from the listening list, on your own. Performances of many of our pieces can also be found on iTunes and/or Spotify, in addition to YouTube.

Attendance: Attendance is mandatory, and will be checked most days. You are responsible for all material, whether you were there when it was presented or not. If for some legitimate reason you must miss class, arrive late, or leave early, please inform me in advance (in person, by phone or by e-mail). Unexcused absences or tardiness will cause your grade in the class to be lowered. Legitimate excuses include illness, personal emergencies, or occasional conflicts with master classes or rehearsals of large ensembles, but not lessons, or outside gigs.
General expectations: Regardless of educational, linguistic, or national background, all students in this course are expected to have a good command of spoken and written English. You should come to class prepared to take full and accurate notes on lectures, and to participate in discussions. If you are having trouble following the lectures, try 1) sitting closer to the front of the room, 2) recording lectures, and 3) getting help outside of class. Please feel free to talk to me or the TA about any problems you are having.

Written work, apart from tests, will normally be submitted electronically on Blackboard. On a title page include your name (USC identification number is not necessary), the course number, the date the work was submitted, and the title of the assignment; your main text should be double spaced. All work must be entirely your own, unless you are specifically instructed to collaborate. See the guidelines on academic integrity below.

Since this class covers a large amount of material, it is to your advantage to make use of my office hours – not only if you are having problems with the material, but also simply in order to find out on a topic more than can be covered in class, or so that we can become better acquainted. The pieces and information covered in class are only a starting point; don't limit yourself to just that!

The TA will also be holding office hours (though not always in an actual office). Times and places will be announced in class.

You may use laptop computers or tablets for note-taking during lecture, and for accessing electronic resources as directed by me, but please refrain from e-mailing, phoning, texting, checking Facebook, and other activities unrelated to class. Non-class-related electronic activity during lecture may result in confiscation of phones, expulsion for the rest of the lecture, and/or a grade penalty.

All students enrolled in MuHL 331 MUST have completed, with a passing grade, MuCO 132a-b and MuCO 133a-b, or their equivalents at another institution – as measured by the MuTC Equivalency Exam. Recommended preparation includes MuCO 232a-b and 233a-b.
Any student requesting academic accommodations based on a disability is required to register with Disability Services and Programs (DSP) each semester. A letter of verification for approved accommodations can be obtained from DSP. Please be sure the letter is delivered to me as early in the semester as possible. DSP is located in GFS 120 (mc 1692) and is open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday; phone: 213/740-0776; see

  • 2 midterm exams (20% each) and a final exam (25%); these involve definitions and term/person identifications, listening and objective questions, and short essays. Exams are based on lectures, and assigned readings and listenings, and are not cumulative. A failing grade on all three exams will mean a failing grade in the course.

  • 2-3 short listening quizzes (as announced – see schedule below; 5% total). No make-ups are possible; if you miss one of the quizzes due to a verifiable illness or emergency, you may average your scores for the other quiz(zes). Note: I reserve the right to cancel a quiz if we need the time for lecture instead.

  • written assignments and/or oral presentations (20% total), either analytical or historical in nature, on pieces or topics to be assigned; due as announced in class and on Blackboard. Available topics may involve Operawise and/or Visions and Voices events (see schedule below). The main final project is likely to be a collaborative one, involving different perspectives on a recently composed work (stay tuned).

  • Class participation (5%): active, productive participation in class discussions, and demonstration of good acquaintance with assigned readings and listening excerpts are required; lack of participation and/or preparation and/or disruption of class will lower your grade.

  • Blackboard participation (5%): active, productive, pertinent, and original posts and contributions to discussions (both assigned and optional).


except in cases of a verified illness or emergency,

of which I am informed in advance.

(these are banned by University regulations)
Do not skip class in order to finish writing a paper. Late papers and any other written work will normally be graded down by one increment (e.g., B to B-) for each day late, except in cases of a verified illness or emergency. If you think you may not be able to meet a deadline, please see or contact me before it arrives, to discuss your options.
In the event of an emergency, please contact the USC Emergency Information office at 213/740-9233. Students are also encouraged to enroll in USC’s TrojansAlert system, which allows University officials to contact members of the campus community during an emergency by sending messages (text or voice) to e-mail accounts, cell phones, pagers, smart phones, and land-line phones; see, and also the more general website
The USC Code of Academic Integrity applies to all portions of this course; see summary below, and the pertinent sections of the Student Judicial Affairs website, and especially the online publications there “Guide to Avoiding Plagiarism” and “Understanding and Avoiding Academic Dishonesty.”

Academic Dishonesty Sanction Guidelines


Recommended Sanction for Undergraduates*

Copying answers from other students on exam.**

F for course.

One person allowing another to cheat from his/her exam or assignment.

F for course for both persons.

Possessing or using material during exam (crib sheets, notes, books, etc.) which is not expressly permitted by the instructor.

F for course.

Continuing to write after exam has ended.

F for course.

Taking exam from room and later claiming that the instructor lost it.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Changing answers after exam has been returned.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Fraudulent possession of exam prior to administration.

F for course and recommendation for suspension.

Obtaining a copy of an exam or answer key prior to administration.

Suspension or expulsion from the university; F for course.

Having someone else take an exam for oneself.

Suspension or expulsion from the university for both students; F for course.


F for course.

Submission of purchased term papers or papers done by others.

F for course and recommendation for further disciplinary action (possible suspension).

Submission of the same term papers to more than one instructor, where no previous approval has been given.

F for both courses.

Unauthorized collaboration on an assignment.

F for the course for both students.

Falsification of information in admission applications (including supporting documentation).

Revocation of university admission without opportunity to reapply.

Documentary falsification (e.g., petitions and supporting materials; medical documentation).

Suspension or expulsion from the university; F for course when related to a specific course.

Plagiarism in a graduate thesis or dissertation.

Expulsion from the university when discovered prior to graduation; revocation of degree when discovered subsequent to graduation.

*Assuming first offense

**Exam, quiz, tests, assignments or other course work.

C = recording(s) is/are available in Classical Music Library (streaming audio)

M = recording(s) is/are available in Met on Demand (streaming video)

N = recording(s) is/are available in Naxos Music Library (streaming audio)

O = recording(s) is/are available in Opera in Video (streaming video)

OW = Los Angeles Opera Operawise event (free visit to orchestra tech rehearsal)

R = in Roden/Wright/Simms anthology

r = score on reserve in Music Library

S = in Supplementary Score Anthology (on Blackboard)

VV = Visions and Voices event with connection to material we’re covering

WS = reading (listed by chapter and/or page numbers) in Wright/Simms textbook

WT = reading (listed by reading number, not page number) in Weiss/Taruskin, Music in the Western World, 2nd edition (2008)

Y = recordings on YouTube playlist (MuHL 331-Brown) for this class

week date topics, readings, assignment
I Tu 25 Aug. Introduction; Verdi’s late operas
Listening: R 156 Verdi, excerpt (IV/3) from Otello (1887) – M, O, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 56 (pp. 552–end)

WT #121
Th 27 Aug. Realism/verismo and exoticism in French and Italian opera

Listening: S Georges Bizet (1838–75), “Séguedille” (I/10) from Carmen (1873–74) – M, O, N, Y

S Ruggiero Leoncavallo (1857–1919), aria “Vesti la giubba” (I/4) from Pagliacci (1892) – C, M, N, O, Y

R 167 Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924), aria “Dovunque al mondo” (Act I) from Madama Butterfly (1904) – M, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 62
II Tu 1 Sept. Exoticism and nationalism in Russia
Listening: R 161 Modest Musorgsky (Модест Мусоргский, 1839–1881), ”Within four walls” (“В четырех стенах”) from Sunless (Без солнца, 1874) – Y

R 162 Pyotr Il’ich Chaikovsky (Пётр Ильич Чаиковский, 1840–93), excerpt (Act I, no. 8) from The Nutcracker (Щелкунчик, 1892) – Y

S Chaikovsky, divertissement (Act II, no. 12) from The Nutcracker – Y
Reading: WS Ch. 57 (pp. 556–57), Ch. 59

WT #115, #116, #117

Th 3 Sept. Brahms and Bruckner in late-nineteenth-century Vienna
Listening: R 158 Johannes Brahms (1833–97), Symphony No. 3 in F, op. 90 (1883): I – Y

R 160 Anton Bruckner (1824–96), “Christus factus est” (1884) – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 58

WT #119, #120

Sa 5 Sept.

OW event: Los Angeles Opera orchestral tech rehearsal of Leoncavallo, Pagliacci (limited attendance, by prior sign-up)
III Tu 8 Sept. Strauss and Mahler
Listening: R 173 Richard Strauss (1864–1949), Salome (1905): final scene – M, O, Y

R 163 Gustav Mahler (1860–1911), “Um Mitternacht” (1901) – Y

R 164 Mahler, Symphony No. 5 (1902): IV – Y
Reading: WS Chs. 60, 64

WT #123, #124

Th 10 Sept. Paris in the Belle époque
Listening: R 169 Claude Debussy (1862–1918), “Reflets dans l’eau” from Images (1905) – Y

R 170 Debussy, Nuages from Trois Nocturnes (1899) – Y

R 171 Gabriel Fauré (1845–1924), “Dans la forêt de septembre” from La Bonne Chanson (1902) – Y

R 172 Lili Boulanger (1893–1918), “Elle est gravement gaie” from Clairières dans le ciel (1914) – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 63

WT #125
F 11 Sept. add/drop deadline

IV Tu 15 Sept. Presentation on library resources and research techniques

Listening quiz 1
Th 17 Sept. Ravel and Satie
Listening: R 178 Maurice Ravel (1875–1937), “Rigaudon” from Le Tombeau de Couperin (1914–17) – Y

S Ravel, “Menuet” from Le Tombeau de Couperin – Y

S Ravel, excerpt from L'Enfant et les sortilèges (1925) – C, N, Y

S Erik Satie (1866–1925), Sonatine bureaucratique (1917) – C, N, Y

Reading: WS Ch. 67

WT #140, #145

V Tu 22 Sept. Russian post-tonality: Skryabin and Stravinsky
Listening: R 177 Aleksandr Skryabin (Александр Скрябин, 1872–1915), Piano Prelude op. 74/5 (1914) – Y

S Igor Stravinsky (Игорь Стравинский, 1882–1971), Петрушка (Petrushka, 1911): first tableau – C, N, Y

Reading: WS Ch. 65, Ch. 66 (pp. 646–end)
Th 24 Sept. Review
VI Tu 29 Sept. Midterm 1
Th 1 Oct. Russian primitivism: Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring

Viewing in class of Rite with reconstructed original choreography
Listening: R 174 Stravinsky, excerpt from Part I of Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring, 1913) – Y
Reading: WS Ch. 65 (review)

WT #132
VII Tu 6 Oct. Atonality and Expressionism: The Second Viennese School

Listening: R 176 Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951), No. 8, “Nacht (Passacaglia)” from Pierrot lunaire (1912) – Y

R 183 Anton Webern (1883–1945), Symphony, op. 21 (1928): II – Y

R 182 Schoenberg, String Quartet No. 4, op. 37 (1936): I – Y
Reading: WS Ch. 66 (pp. 639–45), Ch. 69

WT #128, #129, #130, #131

Th 8 Oct. Musical theater in the Weimar Republic
Listening: R 184 Alban Berg (1885–1935), excerpt (III/2) from Wozzeck (1914–22) – M, O, Y

R 185 Kurt Weill (1900–50), “Die Moritat von Mackie Messer” (“Ballad of Mac the Knife”) from Die Dreigroschenoper (The Three-Penny Opera, 1928) – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 70

WT #148 (first two sections), #151

VIII Tu 13 Oct. Tin Pan Alley; the Broadway musical
Listening: R 199 George Gershwin (1898–1937), The Man I Love (1924) – Y

R 200 Richard Rodgers (1902–79), “I Cain’t Say No!” from Oklahoma (1943) – Y

R 201 Leonard Bernstein (1918–90), “Cool,” from West Side Story (1957) – Y
Reading: WS Musical Interlude 9, “Music in the Movies, Ch. 77
Th 15 Oct. Neoclassicism and jazz influences
Listening: R 188 Scott Joplin (1868–1917), Maple Leaf Rag (1899) – Y

R 181 Darius Milhaud (1892–1974), “Botafogo” from Saudades do Brazil (Memories of Brazil, 1920) – Y

R 180 Stravinsky, first movement from Octet (1923) – Y

- - - - Louis Armstrong (1901–71), West End Blues (1928, on CD 12) – Y

S Ravel, Violin sonata (1923-27): II (”Blues”) – C, N, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 68, Ch. 72

WT #137, #138

Sa 15 Oct.

VV event: The Metropolitan Opera in HD: Verdi’s Otello (12:00 pre-opera discussion; 1:00 broadcast, Eileen Norris Cinema Theatre, Frank Sinatra Hall; reservations required – see

IX Tu 20 Oct. Folk music and modernism: Bartók

Listening quiz 2
Listening: R 186 Béla Bartók (1881–1945), “Fekete Főd” from Eight Hungarian Folksongs (ca. 1907) – Y

R 187 Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra (1943): I – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 71

WT #134 (first section)

Th 22 Oct. Review
X Tu 27 Oct. Midterm 2
OW event: Los Angeles Opera orchestral tech rehearsal of Heggie, Moby-Dick (limited attendance, by prior sign-up)
Th 29 Oct. American experimentalism: Ives, Partch, Seeger, Cowell
Listening: R 193 Charles Ives (1874–1954), “Charlie Rutlage” from 114 Songs (ca. 1920) – Y

R 194 Ives, The Unanswered Question (1908, rev. 1930-35) – Y

R 195 Ruth Crawford Seeger (1901–53): String Quartet (1931): III – Y

S Seeger: String Quartet (1931): IV – Y

S Henry Cowell (1897–1965), The Banshee (1925) – C, N, Y

S Harry Partch (1901–74), The Letter: A Depression Message from a Hobo Friend (1943) – C, N, Y

Reading: WS Ch. 75

WT #127, #146

XI Tu 3 Nov. Neo-tonality in the United States and England
Listening: R 197 Aaron Copland (1900–90), Variations on a Shaker hymn from Appalachian Spring (Suite version, 1945) – Y

R 202 Benjamin Britten (1913–76), Agnus dei from War Requiem (1961) – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 76 (pp. 729–35), Ch. 78 (pp. 724–27)

WT #148 (last part)

Th 5 Nov. Post-war serialism, eclecticism, and mysticism
Listening: R 205 Stravinsky, “Bransle double” from Agon (1953–57) – Y

R 208 Olivier Messiaen (1908–92), Mode de valeurs et d’intensités (1949) – Y

S Messiaen, Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum (1964): IV – C, N, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 79, Ch. 80 (pp. 785–87)

WT #153, #157 (first section)

XII Tu 10 Nov. Indeterminacy, advanced techniques
Listening: R 207 John Cage (1912–93), Book I of Music of changes (1951) – Y

S/WS Cage, Sonata No. 5 from Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48; part of score is on pp. 742–43) – C, N, Y

- - - - Pauline Oliveros (b. 1932), “The Greeting” (“Meditation IX” from Sonic Meditations, 1971–72) (to be performed in class)

Reading: WS Ch. 80 (pp. 778–85 top), Ch. 82 (pp. 798–803)

WT #159, #169 (first section)
Th 12 Nov. Soviet realism and avant-garde
Listening: R 190 Sergei Prokofiev (Сергей Прокофьев, 1891–1953), Piano Sonata No. 7 (1939–42): III – Y

S Sofia Gubaidulina (София Губайдулина, b. 1931), II, “Weib, siehe, das ist dein Sohn” from Sieben Worte (1982) – N, Y

R 216 Arvo Pärt (b. 1935), Credo from Berlin Mass (1990) – Y
Reading: WS Ch. 74, Ch. 83 (pp. 818–19)

WT #149, #150

F 13 Nov. withdrawal deadline
XIII Tu 17 Nov. Electronic music
Listening: - - - - Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928–2007), Gesang der Jünglinge (1955–56) – Y

- - - - Edgard Varèse (1883–1965), Poème électronique (1958, on CD 13) – Y

Reading: WS Ch. 80 (pp. 782–87)

WT #153 (review), #167

Th 19 Nov. Textural music

Possible listening quiz 3
Listening: R 203 Krzysztof Penderecki (b. 1933), Ofiarom Hiroszimy: Tren (Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima, 1960) – Y

S György Ligeti (1923–2006), Lux æterna (1966) – N, Y

Reading: WS Ch. 78 (pp. 764–end), Ch. 83 (pp. 809–13)
XIV Tu 24 Nov. The music of quotation
Listening: S Peter Maxwell Davies (b. 1934), No. 7, “Country Dance” from Eight Songs for a Mad King (1969) – Y

r Berio, Sinfonia (1968–69): III – N, Y

S George Crumb (b. 1929), II/1-2, “Pavana Lachrymae” and “Threnody II: Black Angels!” from Black Angels (1970) – C, N, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 82 (pp. 798–803)

WT #165

XV Tu 1 Dec. Minimalism, syncreticism
Listening: R 214 John Adams, “News” from Nixon in China (1987) – M, N, Y

S Steve Reich (b. 1936), Different Trains (1988): I – N, Y

S Osvaldo Golijov (b. 1960), chorus “¿Por qué?” and aria “Lúa descolorida”from La Pasión según San Marcos (2000) – C, N, Y
Reading: WS Ch. 82 (pp. 806–end), Ch. 83 (pp. 813–16)

WT #163, #164, #170

Th 3 Dec. Team presentations on final projects (review session will be outside of class)

Tu 15 Dec. Final exam (8:00–10:00 a.m. – sorry!)

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