English the language of power.
Few printed books
Irish associated with poverty
Rediscovering Gaelic Literature
3rd oldest written language in Europe.
European scholars came over and Irish scholars followed their example.
Douglas Hyde collected stories, poems and songs.
1892 Hyde gave a lecture called ‘The Necessity of De-Anglicising the Irish People’. This led to the founding of the Gaelic League in 1893 by Hyde and Eoin MacNeill.
Fr. Eugene O Growney’s ‘Simple Lessons in Irish’ helped spread the League.
1899 ‘An Claidheamh Soluis’ Pearse was editor for 6 years.
Strong social aspect. Singing and dancing classes, feiseanna and ceilidhe were meeting places for the young.
From 1898 An tOireachtas held every year (a festival of culture)
Succeeded in getting the Post Office to accept addresses in Irish
Shopkeepers could use Irish names on shop
Irish compulsory for entry to NUI
Pearse said he dreamed of ‘Ireland, not free merely but Gaelic as well; not Gaelic merely but free as well’
Gained control of the League in 1915 and Hyde resigned.
Hyde had hoped it would be a unifying influence between nationalist and unionist.
9.5 The Irish Literary Revival
A distinctively Irish literature in English.
Discovered interest in Irish folklore in London
Childhood holidays in Sligo influenced him.
Mad about Maud Gonne and became involved with IRB
1892 helped start the National Literary Society
1898 with Galway landlords Edward Martyn and Lady Augusta Gregory founded the Irish Literary Theatre.
They found good actors and Anne Horniman bought the Abbey and subsidised it.
The Countess Cathleen (his first)
Cathleen Ni Houlihan (young men dying for Ireland)
A prayer for my Daughter
Based plays on folktales. Lived on Aran Islands to learn Irish. ‘The Shadow of the Glen’ a young wife runs away with a tinker. Big row.
1907 ‘The Playboy of the Western World’ a riot. Perceived as mocking Irish people. So most nationalists were more concerned about showing Irish people in a good light than good plays.
Synge died shortly after.
The rows and sectarianism which excluded protestants marked the end of the Revival
No other great playwright until O Casey in the 1920s
NEW IDEAS FOR A NEW CENTURY
10.1 Griffith and Sinn Fein
Griffith (early years)
Joined Gaelic League and IRB
Believed in ‘inclusive nationalism’. Nationalism a commitment to Ireland.
Went to work in South Africa for a year
Returned 1898 and founded ‘The United Irishman’ newspaper (anniversary of 1798) to express republican views.
Many writers of the cultural revival contributed to the newspaper.
1900 set up Cumann na nGaedheal to spread cultural nationalism Griffith scorned Irish anglophiles.
He was annoyed at the Home Rule Party for dumping Parnell.
1900 set up Cumann na nGaedheal to spread cultural nationalism.
He realised that most Irish people were not looking for a republic and looked for other ways.
1904 ‘The Resurrection of Hungary’
Griffith adapted this to Ireland:
Irish MPs would withdraw and together with County Councils set up a Council of 300 that would peacefully replace the British government.
A Dual Monarchy to appease unionists and ease British security fears.
German economist Frederick List espoused protectionism and it had worked in Bismarck’s Germany.
This would have damaged big industries like brewing and shipbuilding but was popular with small business. Unionists not impressed.
1905 Sinn Fein
A very good name.Self reliance
Withdrawal from Westminster
A national bank and Stock Exchange to finance industry
A merchant navy
A ‘buy Irish’ campaign
First party to accept women as full members
Looked promising in 1908 but then Home Rule got going in 1909 and the IRB became the organisation of Republicanism and support for Sinn Fein nearly died out.
Only the name remained important.
Griffith was almost bankrupt but persevered turning down better jobs.
Postponed his marriage for 15 years.
Then the ‘Sinn Fein Rebellion’ happened
10.2 D.P. Moran and the Catholic Identity
Middle class Catholic journalist.
Invented the terms ‘Irish Ireland’, ‘West Briton’ and ‘Seonin’ (little John Bull)
1905 started weekly newspaper ‘The Leader’. Good articles made it a financial success.
Supported cultural nationalism and ‘buy Irish’
Criticised the writers of the Irish Literary movement for using Irish culture to become popular in England.
Criticised corruption in the Home Rule Party
A bitter rival of Griffith
Believed that the Irish language and Catholicism were marks of Irishness.
Wanted the language to insulate us from ‘evil’ English ideas.
Moran’s ideas were popular among educated middle class Catholics who resented the fact that banks, big business and good government jobs were in Protestant hands.
1902 he helped to found ‘The Catholic Association’ to highlight this discrimination but it failed.
D.P. Moran did a lot to alienate unionists. Easy to conclude Home Rule = Rome Rule.
1908 ‘Ne Temere’ by Pius X forbade mixed marriages unless children were raised Catholic. Also damaged relations with Protestants.
10.3 The Revival of the IRB
Had died out after the Phoenix Park murders and Parnell achievements.
The cultural revival helped to revive it.
Denis McCullough and Bulmer Hobson from Belfast set up the Dungannon Clubs. These were discussion groups.
Sean MacDiarmada cycled around the country recruiting young men into the IRB
1909 Hobson and Countess Markieviec set up The Fianna boyscouts.
Hobson set up the Irish Freedom newspaper.
By 1912 these young men of action controlled the Supreme Council
They wanted a small, well-disciplined secret organisation that infiltrated other bigger organisations (Sinn Fein, GAA, Gaelic League and Irish Volunteers.
10.4 Feminism and the Struggle for Women’s Rights
Up to 1860s once a woman married, her husband got her wealth and control of the children
Not many girls Secondary schools and no woman attended university up to 1880s
Work in the home not recognised
Very few jobs for women in Ireland.
Early Campaigns for Women’s Rights
Isabella Tod in Belfast and Anna Haslam in Dublin campaigned for property rights along with campaigners in Britain. By 1882 women had these rights.
Both these women worked to improve women’s education.
1871 Tod set up the ‘Northern Ireland Society for Women’s Suffrage’ but achieved little by her death in 1896.
Haslam and her husband did the same in Dublin.
Both women were speaking to a largely Protestant audience.
Education led to more confident women.
Change began with local government as women had the right to vote and sit on district councils.
Inghinidhe na hEireann
Maud Gonne Mac Bride a wealthy Englishwoman who became nationalist and Jennie Wyse Power a successful business woman organised demonstrations against Queen Victoria’s visit in 1900.
This grew into Inghinidhe na hEireann, a republican women’s organisation.
Buy Irish campaigns
Irish, history and music classes for children
Ceilidhe and plays
They were one of the groups that formed Sinn Fein in 1905.
Hannah Sheehy Skeffington
A University graduate. Married Frank Skeffington, also a feminist.
Inspired by the suffragettes in Britain, Hannah and others set up the Irish Women’s Franchise League in 1908.
Speeches, demonstrations and a newspaper ‘The Irish Citizen’
‘Home Rule for Irish women as well as men’ was demanded.
All Home Rule leaders were against this.
1912 Hannah and 5 others were jailed for breaking windows in government buildings.
3 English suffragettes came over and attacked Redmond and Asquith.
Violence lost them support.
Jailed women went on hunger strike.
The Cat and Mouse act and forced feeding were not used in Ireland
Home Rule divided the Women’s movement
INDUSTRY AND TOWNS
The only part of Ireland to be industrialised in the 19th century was the Lagan valley.
Belfast was the only town to grow significantly.
Population declined unlike most other countries.
11.2 Industrialisation in the North East
Was a cottage industry that moved to factories.
1860s US Civil War stopped cotton and linen got a boost.
Linen exported to US and GB.
Other cheaper European producers hurt NI by 1900 but WW1 helped.
90% of workers were women and children and cheap.
Damp and warm air. Few workers made it past 45.
10 hour days and half day Saturday in 1900.
1901 children under 12 banned.
Up to 1860 Cork had the biggest yard.
Men well paid.
1840s Belfast harbour drained creating Queens Island where a shipbuilding firm was started.
Edward Harland took over the yard and made a very good iron cargo ship. GH Wolff put up capital and had connections with the White Star line.
1880s tourism and emigration = transatlantic steam liners. H and W changed to steel and designed better engines.
Their first was the ‘Majestic’. The most famous ‘Titanic’
Workman and Clarke specialised in refrigeration ships (New Zealand and Argentina)
11.3 Belfast, the Industrial Capital
By 1900 bigger than Dublin.
New city, no tenements. Small red brick with running water and toilet at back. Built by factory owners near factory.
Still TB and typhoid common.
Middle class in suburbs.
Riots started in 1840s and got worse after 1870 when Home Rule became and issue.
1886 50 people killed.
Orange Order encouraged discrimination.
Catholics pushed out of better paid jobs in shipbuilding and engineering.
Why did Belfast succeed?
‘Protestant ethic’ discredited.
Linen industry created the capital for industrialisation.
Deepening the harbour
Wolff’s contacts with the White Star Line
British business felt safer with Protestants
11.4 Industrial Decline in the South
Before the 1870s there were many small craft businesses in Irish towns. There were distilleries and breweries and mineral water companies also but did not have the capital to invest.
Could not compete with cheap imports.
Railways allowed imports in.
The ‘long depression’, which started in mid 1870s finished off small industry.
Farmers children had to emigrate or migrate.
Big breweries, distilleries, and flour makers succeeded because the invested and exported.
Guiness employed only1/10 of what shipbuilding in Belfast did.
11.5 Dublin and Other Cities
Very low pay = very poor housing. Small cottages in country. Tenements in city.
Malnutrition and disease.
Dublin was a trading city so a lot of work was casual (dockers and carters)
Only 26% of Dubliners had a house to themselves in 1880s
Speculators bought the houses of the rich who moved to suburbs.
If they improved the houses they would get no more rent.
Many families lived in one room and some took a lodger.
One tap and one ‘earth closet’ in the back yard that was emptied once a month by the Corporation.
Worst slums in UK and maybe Europe.
Typhoid common (water borne disease)
TB and measles also killed.
Malnutrition, drunkenness and prostitution common.
Infant mortality 142 per 1000 very high.
Why so bad?
Only those who paid rent of more than 4 shillings could vote for Corporation.
Some members of the Corporation owned tenements.
Most Ratepayers had moved out and paid rates to other councils (Rathmines, Pembroke, Drumcondra)
The Dublin Artisans Dwelling Company and The Iveagh Trust built good houses but wanted to be self-financing and charged a rent of 3 to 5 shillings which was too much for most.
THE IRISH LABOUR MOVEMENT
AND THE 1913 LOCKOUT
12.1 James Connolly and the Start of Socialism
Types of Socialism
Gradualist. Slow and peaceful. Getting reform acts passed.
Marxists or Revolutionary Socialists
Syndicalists. One big trade union would bring about a revolution.
Problems for Irish Socialism
Only one part industrialised
Workers up north divided
Home Rule diverted attention
Work for skilled workers scarce and they were afraid.
Tradesmen better off due to greater demand.
Members of branches of British unions but after 1895 were affiliated to the Irish Trades Union Congress (ITUC).
1900 Keir Hardie (Marxist) elected MP. Founded the Labour Party in Britain.
1896 Connolly a friend of Hardie lost his job in Edinburgh and came to work for the Dublin Socialist Society.
A syndicalist, he set up the IRSP
Newspaper of IRSP was ‘The Worker’s Republic’.
Unlike Marx, Connolly believed in nationalism. First you must get rid of the Empire.
Little support in Ireland and wages often did not come so in 1903 he went to the US and did not return until 1910.
12.2 James Larkin and the Development of Irish Trade Unionism
Early 1900s difficult times for unskilled. Few jobs, low wages, high inflation.
TUs for unskilled set up all over Europe. Strikes.
National Union of Dock Labourers
1907 Strike. Strikers = sympathetic strike. Even police on strike for ovetime.
Dockers got nothing but transport workers got a rise.
Shocked when he came to Dublin.
3 successful Dockers strikes but fell out with his union who felt he was going too far.
In 1910 he was jailed for misuse of Dockers Union funds.
Larkin was a great speaker. Great energy but arrogant and dictatorial.
A syndicalist, he set up ITGWU. Very popular.
William O Brien helped.
Connolly returned and started a branch in Belfast.
Sympathetic strikes made ‘blacklegs’ difficult to find.
12.3 Strike and Lockout (case study, part 1)
William Martin Murphy
A Catholic nationalist.
Made fortune building railways and tramways in GB, Africa and South America.
Owned Dublin Tramway Company and built a power station in Ringsend to power it.
Owned the Irish Independent, Evening Herald and The Irish Catholic (influence)
68 in 1913.
Cold, austere, distinguished and hard-working.
Paid over the odds and housed some of his workers.
But work was part time for the first 6 years.
12 hours a day with few days off. Fined for late trams.
Larkin had no trouble recruiting some of his workers.
Murphy founded the Employer’s Federation.
Sacked 6 ITGWU men and at midnight held a meeting of Tramway men and told them to choose.
Did the same in the ‘Irish Independent’ and 60 were sacked.
Eason’s workers went on sympathetic action.
200 Tramway workers sacked when they also refused to handle the papers.
Larkin called a general strike in the Tramway Co. at the start of Horse Show week (26th August).
Murphy got police to surround the power station and managed to keep trams running.
Murphy had won the battle but Dublin Castle messed it up by trying to help.
They jailed Connolly and others. Larkin got bail.
They banned a big ITGWU meeting for Sackville Street on Sunday 31st August. (contrast with Unionists in Belfast)
On Saturday night a demonstration at Liberty Hall against these measures was baton charged by police, killing 2 and injuring 30.
William O Brien, hoping to avoid more violence moved the Sunday meeting to outside the city and 10000 attended.
Larkin in disguise. Murphy’s ‘Imperial Hotel’.
Police enraged batoned everyone. 500 injured, most not trade unionist at all.
Police invaded ‘Corporation Buildings’, a tenement, beating up innocent people.
On Tuesday tenements in Church Street collapsed killing 2 children.
A wave of sympathy for the ITGWU.
Murphy’s next step
A sympathetic Lockout.
Any worker who would not sign a declaration would be locked out.
This was a threat to all unions so they joined in.
1st September Jacobs locked out 2000.
12.4 Dublin 1913 Defiance and Defeat (Case Study, Part 2)
By October 20000 out of work affecting 100000.
Soup kitchens at Liberty Hall.
Some schools provided breakfast for children.
A threat to all unions so Keir Hardie came to Dublin and promised help.
The British Trade Union Congress (TUC) sent ‘The Hare’ laden with food. In all they sent £100000 in food, clothes and cash between September and April 1914.
However the TUC were not syndicalists and did not approve of sympathetic action and wanted to end the lockout.
Most Home Rulers saw Larkinism as a threat to their property and religion.
They did not like Murphy but very few helped.
Set up the Ashwith Enquiry
A public enquiry where Larkin questioned Murphy
Concluded in October 1913 that sympathetic actions were wrong and so was the ‘declaration’ and proposed ‘conciliation committees’
The employers rejected this proposal.
The Dublin Kiddies Scheme
Wealthy feminist from London, Dora Montefiore, suggested that British working families take in strikers’ children.
Larkin ( a practising Catholic) agreed.
Archbishop William Walsh of Dublin denounced the idea.
Priests intimidated parents. Mobs appeared at ferries and railway stations.
Middle class opposition to Larkin hardened.
Employers fight back
Started using petrol lorries rather than carts. 3 or 4 fewer men needed. These jobs gone forever.
‘Free labourers’ (non union) employed. ‘Scabs’ or ‘blacklegs’ often beaten up. One was killed. Some went back to work rather than lose their jobs for good.
Murphy asked the ‘Shipping Federation’ for help. They supplied special ships to house free labourers who would break the dockers. It also donated £10000 to struggling employers.
Connolly and Larkin respond
Connolly closed the port.
He and Larkin appealed to British trade unionists not to handle Irish goods.
TUC against sympathetic strikes.
Larkin toured Britain abusing TUC leaders.
This annoyed trade unionists in England, who had done a lot to help. Support from GB ceased.
By January it was clear who was going to win.
2000 never got their jobs back.
By April it was over.
No pay rise and most had to leave the ITGWU
Larkin left for the USA.
Connolly and his Irish Citizen Army joined the IRB.
Murphy was hated and never again would anyone treat unions in that way.
The right of workers to organise was not challenged seriously after this