Movements for reform 1870-1914 chapter 1 landlords and tenants




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The Kilmainham Treaty


Both sides needed a compromise

‘treaty’ was an unwritten agreement;



Phoenix Park Murders


Chief Secretary W.E Forster (coercion) replaced by Cavendish. The day he arrived he and T H Burke were murdered by Invincibles (an IRB breakaway group).

This discredited the Fenians. Davitt and many others left the IRB and joined the Home Rule movement. Davitt also pursued his idea of ‘land nationalisation’.


Parnell was now free to follow Home Rule.


CHAPTER 5


THE ELECTIONS OF 1885 AND 1886 AND THE FIRST HOME RULE BILL
5.1 Parnell and the National League

Parnell now the ‘uncrowned king’. No opposition at home.

1882 he replaced the Land League with the ‘National League’. Its aims in order of importance were:


  1. Home Rule

  2. Land Reform

  3. local government. reform

Method was to get MPs elected.
Parnell was in England most of the time (Kitty) and left the running of the National League to Timothy Harrington, William O Brien and Timothy Healy.

By 1885 it was a powerful party.

To win support, priests were asked to get involved. This alienated Protestants (home rule = Rome rule)
What League Branches did.


  • Collected money to pay election expenses

  • Organised elections

  • Chose candidates and imposed the party pledge (disciplined party)



1884 Reform Act


Gladstone gave vote to any man who rented property (200000 to 700000)


5.2 Parnell Negotiating with the British Parties


Parnell adopted Butts policy of ‘independent opposition’= offer to vote for whichever party promised HR.

He was vague about what HR meant to strengthen his negotiating position.


Parnell and the Liberals


Under the Kilmainham treaty, coercion was to have ended but the Phoenix Park murders delayed that. Relationships strained.

Chamberlain’s ‘Central Board Scheme’ proposed County councils should be set up and together with Irish MPs should run Ireland’s internal affairs. O’Shea sounded Parnell out but did not make it clear to Chamberlain that Parnell had rejected it. Chamberlain embarrassed. Things got worse.



Parnell and the Conservatives


Led by Salisbury the Conservatives saw the discord between HR party and the Liberals.

June 1885 Gladstone and Liberals resigned after losing a vote to Tories + HR party. Because of the 1884 Reform act, constituencies were being redrawn so Salisbury was allowed have a caretaker government until a general election could be held in November but he had to reward Parnell:



  • Stop coercion

  • Ashbourne Land Act (£5m.land purchase)

Unionists very upset that Parnell was dealing with both parties.
5.3 Included in 5.4 Unionist Response
5.4 The 1885 Election (Case Study, part 1)
Parnell decided to side with the Conservatives because:

  • Gladstone refused to bargain

  • Leading conservatives Sir Randolph Churchill and Lord Carnarvon (Lord Lieutenant) hinted at support for HR. Salisbury would not meet Parnell.

  • If the Tories backed HR, it would pass the House of Lords.



The Results of the November 1885


A triumph for The Irish National League and Parnell who won 85 of the 103 seats and one in Liverpool.

In Britain, the Liberals defeated the Conservatives by 86 seats.

So Parnell could not get Salisbury back in but Gladstone still needed Parnell’s votes to become PM.
5.5 The First Home Rule Bill (Case Study, part 2)

The Hawarden Kite


Herbert (son) let slip to journalists that Gladstone was to bring in a HR bill.

Salisbury rejected Home Rule and changed the parties name to the Conservative and Unionist Party.

Randolph Churchill changed and said that to stop HR ‘the Orange Card was the one to play’.

Parnell’s bargaining position was gone.


Unionist Reaction


Anglican and Presbyterian landlord and tenants united in their opposition.

The sectarian Orange Order was revived. Orange halls were built. Demonstrations and marches were held.

Ulster Conservatives and Liberals set up the ‘Ulster Loyalist Anti-Repeal Union’. Isabella Tod set up the ‘Liberal Women’s Unionist Association’

1886 Edward Saunderson set up the Unionist Party.



April 1886 The First Home Rule Bill


All Gladstone’s work.

Terms:


  • Irish parliament to deal with all Irish affairs except matters relating to the Crown, war, trade, navigation, coinage, post and foreign affairs.

  • Ireland would pay one fifteenth of the Imperial budget.

Gladstone also proposed a land purchase bill so that tenants could buy out their land. This, he hoped would avoid conflict between unionist landlords and Catholics in a HR situation but he did not understand the depth of anti-HR feeling in Northern Ireland



The Parliamentary Debate


Arguments for Home Rule:

Arguments against:



  • Proper local government would sort out Irelands problems

  • It would lead to demand for full independence and break up the Empire

  • Irish not fit to rule

  • Discrimination



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