Movements for reform 1870-1914 chapter 1 landlords and tenants




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Merits




Demerits


  • ‘Murder machine’



Girls


Aim of a girls’ school was to produce good wives and mothers (manners, needlework, art and music)

Demand for change started in Protestant community.

Anne Jellico set up Alexandra College to train governesses and Alexandra School to give secondary education to middle class girls with jobs in mind.

Isabella Tod did something similar in Belfast. Both women convinced the government to include girls in the Intermediate exams.

Not to be outdone, nuns prepared Catholic girls for exams also (results were published)

Surprise, the girls were slightly better.

Jobs as telephonists and typists encouraged more education.

Educated women = demands for equality.



2.3 :University Education

Only for well off.

Maynooth a seminary since1790s but Trinity was the only university until 1840.
The Struggle for a Catholic University

1840s Queens colleges set up in Cork Galway and Belfast but were not let teach religion so Catholic bishops referred to them as ‘godless colleges’ and forbade Catholics to attend.

1850s a Catholic University set up in Dublin but no government funds.

1879 Disraeli’s government passed the Royal University Act. Like the Intermediate Education Act it gave payment by results. It provided scholarships also.



Women and University


Isabella Tod (NB)and friends got women included the Royal University Act, but there was nowhere to teach women as neither Dublin universities would have men and women in the same class.

Secondary school such as Alexandra College set up third level classes and the Queens colleges let them in. These were for Protestants so the Dominican and Loreto sisters set up colleges for Catholic girls.

Trinity and Catholic colleges let in women in 1904
Solution to Religious squabble.

1908 Universities Act

Trinity stayed separate

National University of Ireland (UCD UCC UCG) with Maynooth as an associate. NUI supposed to be neutral but Catholic bishops had a lot of clout.



Assessment


  • Most children got 3rs

  • Payment by results created equality between religions

  • Brothers and Nuns provide cheap secondary education

  • Third level only for rich


CHAPTER 3


IRELAND IN THE UK

See book page 25 for words you need to understand


3.1 Ireland in the UK

The Act of Union


  • All decisions made in London by people who knew little

  • 28 lords wealthy and conservative

  • 105 out of 655 (more than we were entitled)



Parliament


  • General election every 7 years

  • Conservatives V Liberals

  • 1874 HR party

  • 1900 Labour

  • Bills had to pass both houses and be signed by monarch

  • Suffrage/franchise in 1870 confined to 200000 richest men.

  • 1884 all householders made 700000 men.

  • Open ballot until 1872

Page 27 compares Ireland today with 1870



Government of Ireland


  • Lord Lieutenant (king)

  • Chief Secretary (minister)

  • Under Secretary (head of civil service in Dublin Castle)



Police


  • RIC (armed) and DMP (unarmed)

  • ‘Peeler’ Irishmen but leaders English



3.2 Attitudes to the UK. Nationalist and Unionist
What and who were Unionists and Nationalists

Reasons for being Unionist


  1. Ethnic identity

  2. Religion

  3. Economics (Dublin parliament would be made up of tenant farmer and would start a trade war as well as take land off landlords)



Reasons for being Nationalist


  1. Ethnic identity

  2. Religion

  3. Economics (had done badly. Little industry)



Divisions among Nationalists


    • Revolutionary Nationalist/republican/separatist. Fenian/IRB 1867 total failure

    • Constitutional nationalist wanted Home Rule.


CHAPTER 4


BUTT, PARNELL AND THE EARLY YEARS OF HOME RULE
4.1 Gladstone’s Reforms and the Start of Home Rule

Gladstone and Ireland the early years.

No HR party until 1873 so Liberals appreciated Catholic and Presbyterian vote in Ireland.

Liberal MPs drew Gladstone’s attention to:


  • Privileged position of C of I

  • Land question

  • Catholic education

1868 Gladstone became PM. ‘My mission…’

1869 Disestablishment

1870 Gladstone’s First Land Act (made Ulster Custom law where it existed and made landlords compensate for unjust evictions but did not address fair rent) was the first attempt to redress the balance.

Gladstone’s reforms did not make Irish content. Landlords, tenants, Fenians, Catholics and Anglicans still upset.



Isaac Butt


Had defended Fenians though broke.

Helped get an amnesty from Gladstone for some Fenians. Many were concerned about ill treatment (O Donovan Rossa). So he was popular

1870 Butt set up Home Government Association, a pressure group of the discontented to look for HR.

A very loose and mixed group, it did not have the support of hierarchy as Butt was a protestant and Fenians were involved. Liberals were promising funding for catholic education.

He also set up the Home Rule Confederation in the UK to organise Irish emigrants to support HR.

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