File L – aphnaeini (lycaenidae) Cigaritis phanes. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson




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Document 4

FILE L – APHNAEINI (LYCAENIDAE)

Cigaritis phanes. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson

Compiled by Mark C. Williams


183 van der Merwe Street, Rietondale
PRETORIA 0001
E-mail: mark.williams@up.ac.za

FAMILY LYCAENIDAE
SUBFAMILY THECLINAE

Swainson, 1830

TRIBE APHNAEINI

Distant, 1884

With the exception of the genus Pseudaletis, which has rather different genitalia and facies, the remaining genera are united by similar genitalic morphology. There are about 250 species, the majority of which are found in South Africa, mainly because of the diversity of the genera Aloeides and Chrysoritis in southern Africa. The only genus with members outside the Afrotropical Region (in the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions) is Cigaritis (= Spindasis, Apharitis), one species of this genus even being found in Japan. With the exception of Pseudaletis, members of the other genera are characterized on the underside by almost always having spots or streaks of silvery scales. The larvae of most species in most of the genera are obligately associated with ants, mostly of the genus Crematogaster but are usually phytophagous. A few species have carnivorous larvae (they feed on ant-brood), or are fed by worker ants by means of trophallaxis.


The Afrotropical genera were reviewed by Heath, 1997 (Metamorphosis Occasional Supplement No. 2, April, 1997 (1-60pp.)). The order of genera below follows Heath, 1997.
ALMEIDA SPECIES-GROUP
almeida sub-group
Aloeides almeida (Felder, 1862)
Nais almeida Felder, 1862. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12: 478 (473-496).

Type locality: South Africa: “Cap der guten Hoffnung”. [probably the Knysna district (Pringle, et al., 1994)].

Distribution: South Africa (Eastern Cape Province?, Western Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Eastern Cape Province – Baviaanskloof Mountains (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Western Cape ProvinceKnysna district; Peninsula Mountains; Franschhoek Mountains; Paarl Mountain; Perdeberg; Riebeeck-Kasteel; Riviersonderend Mountains; Durbanville; Robertson Karoo; Swellendam district; Oudtshoorn; Kammanassie Mountains (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Common name: Almeida copper.

Habitat: Mostly in mountainous terrain but some populations are in flat country (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Habits: ?

Flight period: September to April. Sometimes there is a break in emergence in the mid-summer months (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Associated ant: Nothing published.

Aloeides macmasteri Tite & Dickson, 1973
Aloeides macmasteri Tite & Dickson, 1973. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 29: 269 (227-280).

Type locality: South Africa: “Cape Province: Hillmoor, Steynsburg”.

Diagnosis: Differs from A. almeida in that the cilia are lighter in colour

Distribution: South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province, Northern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Eastern Cape Province – Farm Hillmoor, near Steynsburg (Southey; TL); Coega (Clark); Wolvefontein; Glenconnor; Carlton; Sheldon; Eastpoort; Gaika’s Kop; Katberg; Cathcart; Isidenge (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Western Cape Province – Murraysburg (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Northern Cape Province – south of Kamieskroon (Pringle, et al., 1994); Leliefontein (Cottrell).

Common name: McMaster’s copper.

Habitat: Grassy karoo, nama karoo and succulent karoo.

Habits: ?

Flight period: September to April (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Associated ant: Nothing published.

Aloeides susanae Tite & Dickson, 1973
Aloeides susanae Tite & Dickson, 1973. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 29: 253 (227-280).

Type locality: South Africa: “Natal: Muden”.

Diagnosis: Similar to A. trimeni, from which it differs as follows: forewing apex more rounded; wing margins more convex; forewing shorter in proportion to its depth; brown colouration more extensive on both wing surfaces (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: South Africa (Free State Province - north-east, KwaZulu-Natal).

Specific localities:

Free State Province – Witkoppe (G. Henning).

KwaZulu-Natal – Muden (H. Cookson; TL); Karkloof; Balgowan; Bulwer Mountain; Kokstad (Pringle, et al., 1994); Mount Gilboa; Mooi River.

Common name: Susan’s copper.

Habitat: Grassland.

Habits: ?

Flight period: October to January (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Associated ant: Nothing published.

henningi sub-group


Aloeides henningi Tite & Dickson, 1973
Aloeides henningi Tite & Dickson, 1973. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 29: 267 (227-280).

Type locality: South Africa: “Transvaal: Struben’s Valley, Constantia Kloof”.

Diagnosis: Similar to A. almeida but in the male the forewing is shorter; apex more acute; distal margin straighter. In both sexes the tawny orange of the upperside clearer, brighter and covers a greater area. In the forewing underside the spotting in the cell and discal areas has more prominent silver-white centres and tends to be larger but submarginal spots usually smaller and therefore better separated. In the male genitalia recurved hooks on the left side of the aedeagus are prent in almeida but absent in henningi (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: South Africa (Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999), Lesotho.

Specific localities:

Mpumalanga – Volksrust; Barberton; Lydenburg; Pilgrim’s Rest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

North West Province – Potschefstroom (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Gauteng – Stuben’s Valley, near Roodepoort (Henning’s; TL); Johannesburg district; Pretoria district (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Natal midlands (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Eastern Cape Province – Barkly East (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Common name: Henning’s copper.

Habitat:

Habits:

Flight period: September to February (Pringle, et al., 1994). According to Henning the butterfly is only on the wing from September to November at the type locality (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Clark & Dickson, 1971: 225 plate 105 [as Aloeides species, allied to Aloeides almeida (Felder); "El Mirador", near Cathkin Peak, KwaZulu-Natal].

"Egg: Approx. 1 mm diam. x 0.65 mm high. Pale when laid, darkening in time to a pinkish- or purplish-brown colour. The surface pattern consists of a network of fine ridges, with protruberances at their intersections, which form triangular-shaped cells. One egg hatched 19 days after it was laid. Larva: 1st instar about 1.5 mm, growing to 2.75 mm in 14-17 days; 2nd instar growing to 4.25 mm in 17 days; 3rd instar growing to some 5 mm in 21-27 days; 4th instar growing to 6.5 mm in 23 days. A single larva which entered the 5th instar died before the end of this instar. The tubercles are already present in the 1st instar, but the honey-gland is apparently not in evidence until after the 3rd instar. In the 1st instar the head is blackish. Body whitish with vinous-coloured longitudinal streaks and some other markings. Neck-shield and anal-shield of a dark colour, but not as dark as the head. The mainly long, subdorsal setae and those of the extremities of the body are for the most part dark coloured, but generally lightening towards their ends; while the lateral setae, of various lengths, are light coloured. In the 2nd instar the basic colouring and marking are much as before, but with a noticeable darkening in tone. The greyish-black neck- and anal-shields bear numerous small, white specialized setae with expanded heads and setae of the same form occur on the main surface of the body. The tubercles have the usual chitinous casings, in this instar. In the 3rd instar the larva has a more greyish ground-colour (due possibly to the food showing through the surface of the body to some extent). The neck- and anal-shields (especially the anal-shield) are of a lighter, apparent colour owing to the number and density of the pale specialized setae on their surface. In addition to the other vinous markings on the body, there is pronounced marking of the same colour anterior to the anal-shield. The setae as a whole are again much more numerous than before and there is a dorso-lateral series of slender setae some distance above the lateral ridge. In the 4th instar the vinous markings are on the whole finer and there is very prominent marking of this colour towards the anal end of the body. Dark setae which in general increase progressively in length in a backward direction form a conspicuous "fan" on either side of segments 10-11. In the 5th instar the larva is light green, with the reddish markings still present though not as prominent as before. The larva is also partly marked with yellow. The setae, generally, have again increased appreciably in number, but those which formed the conspicuous "fan" on segs. 10-11 are relatively shorter and consequently less prominent. Other details will be apparent from the figures of the larva." "Recorded from eggs from "El Mirador", near Cathkin Peak, Natal."


Larval food:

Aspalathus species (Fabaceae) [Clark and Dickson, 1971: 225].

Hermannia depressa N.E. Br. (Sterculiaceae) [Pringle, et al., 1994: 206].

Associated ant: Nothing published.

Aloeides stevensoni Tite & Dickson, 1973
Aloeides stevensoni Tite & Dickson, 1973. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 29: 250 (227-280).

Type locality: [South Africa]: “Rhodesia: Rusape”. [False locality.]

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province).

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Wolkberg (Swanepoel); near Haenertsburg (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Common name: Stevenson’s copper.

Habitat: Montane grassland at altitudes of about 1 800 m (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Habits: Occurs in very restricted colonies. Males fly fast and close to the ground, defending territories on bare patches of ground or along rocky ridges (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: November and December (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Conservation status: Classified as vulnerable in the South African Red Data List.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Associated ant: Nothing published.


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