Exam 3~ study guide ~ Blood Lymphatics Immunity



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Dr. Vince Scialli

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REV 1/1/09

EXAM 3~ STUDY GUIDE ~ Blood – Lymphatics - Immunity
This guide is intended to provide you with direction into areas of importance. It is also intended to complement your lecture attendance, reading and note taking . . . not replace it..
The questions included are the type you will see on your exam. Some questions may be worded slightly differently on the exam but the answers will be similar but not exact to assure that you understand the material. A few questions may include answer choices while most others are intended for you to figure out.

Use your critical thinking skills to understand why certain choices are correct and others are not. You should begin working on the study guide as soon as we begin the new section. In order for you to confirm your answers for those questions that you are not sure about, an answer key sheet will be provided to you during the lecture session just prior to the exam. This will give you at least two days to confirm your work.
If you wait until just prior to the exam it will be too late and you will not have enough time to properly learn and absorb the material. The highest grades are usually achieved by students who participate with others in study groups during the course. The exam may include multiple choice, multiple matching or fill in the blank type questions.

1. The blood volume in an adult averages approximately?


2. Name hormonal released in the kidney that stimulates red blood cell formation in bone?

3. Which is not a characteristic of red blood cells?


  1. biconcave disc shape

  2. life span approximately 120 days

  3. contain hemoglobin

  4. contain nuclei

  5. do not contain mitochondria



4. The most numerous white cells are?




5. Blood proteins play an important part in?


  1. blood clotting

  2. immunity

  3. maintenance of blood volume

  4. transport of protein bound substances

  5. all of the above



6. White blood cells that releases histamine and other inflammatory chemicals is/are?




7. The most immunologicaly competent blood cell that is most involved with immunity is the?




8. The normal erythrocyte count per cubic millimeter for adults is approximately?




9. The normal pH of the blood is about?

10. If your ABO blood type is AB positive, which is true?


  1. agglutinogens A and B are present on your red blood cells

  2. you are a universal donor

  3. you have to worry about your fetus developing hemolytic anemia

  4. you have anti-A and anti-B agglutins in your plasma

  5. you can donate blood to a Type A individual

11. Lymphatic vessels?



  1. serve as sites for immune survallance

  2. involved in filtering lymph

  3. transport leaked plasma proteins and fluids to the cardiovascular system.

  4. are represented by vessels that resemble arteries, capillaries and veins

  5. all of the above


12. The sac like initial portion of the lymphatic system in the abdomen is the?

13. Entry of lymph into lymphatic capillaries is promoted by which one of the following?



  1. two-way mini-valves formed by overlapping endothelial cells

  2. the respiratory pump

  3. the skeletal muscle pump

  4. greater fluid pressure in the interstitial spaces

  5. all of the above



14. The structural parenchyma framework of lymphoid organs is composed of?

15. Lymph nodes are densely clustered in all of the following body areas, except?


16. The germinal centers in lymph nodes are sites largely composed of?

17. The red pulp areas of the spleen are sites containing?




18. The lymphoid organ that functions primarily during youth and then begins to atrophy is the?

19. Collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that protect mucosal surfaces, include all of the

following, except?


  1. appendix

  2. tonsils

  3. peyer’s patches

  4. thymus

  5. bronchial wall lymph follicles

20. All of the following are part of our innate or non-specific body defenses, except?



  1. complement

  2. phagocytosis

  3. antibodies

  4. lysozyme

  5. inflammation

21. The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in response to

inflammatory stimulation, is called?


22. Antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in?


  1. humoral immunity

  2. secondary response

  3. immediate hypersensitivity

  4. autoimmune disorders



23. Which antibody class is abundant in body secretions and secreted locally?

24. Small molecules that must combine with large proteins to become immunogenic are called?

25. Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the thymus are?

26. Cells that can directly attack target cells include all of the following, except?


27. Which of the following is involved in, or results from the activation of a B-cell?

  1. antigens

  2. helper T-cells

  3. cytokines

  4. plasma cells

  5. all of the above

28. The simplest lymphoid organ or tissue that is located in and around the throat is?


29. The type of lymphoid cell that manages the immune response is the?
30. Vascular spasm during Hemostasis is enhanced by platelet release of?
31. Excessive amounts of fibrin floating in the blood stream would quickly lead to?

  1. clot formation

  2. possible cerebrovascular accidents such as strokes

  3. cerebral hemorrhage

  4. increased levels of hemoglobin

  5. more than one of the above-if so,which ones

32. Another name for a platelet is?


33. Which of the following is a type of passive acquired immunity?

  1. secondary response to a natural exposure to a viral infection

  2. innoculation or vaccine by a weakened or attenuated virus

  3. passage of antibodies from a mother to fetus

  4. receiving tetanus anti-toxin or snake anti-venom antibodies

  5. more than one of the above-if so, which ones

34. Differentiated B-cells that produce antibodies are called?


35. Name the phase that occurs after an antigen challenge where the body is actively

producing B-cell clones but illness occurs because of the overwhelming number of

pathogenic organisms?
36. Cells of the immune system that directly attack foreign invaders?
37. First encounter between an immunocompetent B-lymphocyte and an antigen is called the?
38. Which one of the cell types below do not become phagocytic?
39. Which of the following is the primary mechanism where antibodies affect antigens?
40. What non-specific defense substance is produced by the skin that is toxic to bacteria?
41. Which one of the following is not a symptom or result of inflammation?
42. During phagocyte mobilization during the inflammatory process, what occurs first?
43. The resulting initial immunity caused by the first encounter of a B-lymphocyte with an

antigen, is called?


44. Region of an immunoglobulin that forms the stem and determines the type of antibody?
45. The most abundant type of plasma protein is?
46. Which of the following is not required for proper blood clot formation if any?

  1. erythrocytes

  2. lymphocytes

  3. platelets

  4. prothrombin

  5. vitamin K

47. Which one of the following is not associated with hemolysis of red blood cells?



  1. hemolysis results in decreased oxygen to tissues

  2. hemolysis results from rupturing of red blood cells

  3. hemolysis results in excessive hemoglobin that could clog the kidneys

  4. hemolysis could result in renal failure

  5. hemolysis results in clumping or agglutination of erythrocytes

48. Plasma and volume expanders are usually given when?



  1. replacement fluid is needed quickly to restore vascular volume

  2. there is adequate time to blood type and match during severe blood loss

  3. platelet or replacement therapy is necessary as a result of chemotherapy

  4. there is adequate time to restore circulation with other fluid therapy

  5. a patient is suffering from heart failure, pulmonary edema & hypertension

Question 49 – 58. Match left column with the correct antibody class in the right column. There is only one answer per question but a specific antibody class may be the correct answer to more than one question.

Choices

49. __________ reactive antibodies involved in allergic reactions A = IgA


50. __________ local immunity antibodies B = IgG
51. __________ B-cell receptor and activation antibodies C = IgM
52. __________ early protecting antibodies D = IgD
53. __________ most abundant antibody in serum E = IgE

54. __________ antibody found in body secretions

55. __________ most diverse antibody in serum

56. __________ most voluminous antibody of primary and secondary response


57. __________ most abundant antibody found in mothers milk
58. __________ antibody that confers passive immunity to fetus

Questions 59 – 72. Match left column with the correct blood type in the right column. There is only one answer per question but a specific blood type may be the correct answer to more than one question.


59. __________ Universal Donor A = Blood Type A
60. __________ Universal Recipient B = B
61. __________ Contains both A and B antigens C = AB
62. __________ Contains antigen A D = O

63. __________ Contains antigen B E = Rh

64. __________ Contains no A or B antigens
65. __________ Will not make antibodies against A or B antigen
66. __________ Makes anti-A plasma antibodies and contains B antigens
67. __________ Makes anti-B plasma antibodies and contains A antigens
68. __________ Makes both anti-A and anti-B plasma antibodies
69. __________ Can only receive blood from B or O donor
70. __________ Can only receive blood from A or O donor
71. __________ Can only receive blood from O donor
72. __________ Can receive blood from either A, B, AB, or O donor

Question 73 – 97. Match left column with the correct answer in the right column. There is only one answer per question but a specific answer may be the correct answer to more than one question.


73. __________ Cellular component percent of whole blood a. 120 days
74. __________ Liquid component percent of whole of blood b. 10 days
75. __________ Normal packed cell volume for male c. 3 days
76 __________ Normal packed cell volume for female d. 300 days
77. __________ Percent of water in blood plasma e. 1-2%
78. __________ Percent solutes on blood plasma f. 14-20 gm%
79. __________ Percent of solutes containing proteins g. 13-18 gm%
80. __________ Blood percent of body weight h. 12-16 gm%
81. __________ Percent of RBC consisting of hemoglobin i. 250,000- 500,000/cu ml
82. __________ Lifespan of a RBC j. 45%
83. __________ Lifespan of a platelet k. 55%
84. __________ Lifespan of neutrophil l. 47%
85. __________ Lifespan of lymphocyte m. 42%
86. __________ Normal reticulocyte percent of total RBC’s n. 90%
87. __________ Normal hemoglobin for infant o. 10%
88. __________ Normal adult male hemoglobin p. 80%
89. __________ Normal adult female hemoglobin q. 8%
90. __________ Normal white cell count r. <1%
91. __________ Normal neutrophil differential s. 20-45%
92. __________ Normal basophil differential t. 1-4%
93. __________ Normal eosinophil differential u. 0-1%
94. __________ Normal lymphocyte differential v. 4-8%
95. __________ Normal monocyte differential w. 40-70%
96. __________ Normal buffey coat percent of whole blood x. 4000-11,000 per cu ml
97. __________ Normal platelet count in whole blood z. 97%

Question 98 – 177. Fill in the Blanks


98. _________________________ Disease sometimes seen in Rh+ infants born to Rh- mothers?
99. _________________________ List 3 major categories of formed elements in the blood?

_________________________


_________________________
100. _________________________ Name the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
101. _________________________ General name for the type of defense system that is innate and targets any foreign invader?
102. _________________________ Type of immunity where antibodies are formed and protective as a result of a B-lymphocyte recognizing an antigen challenge and differentiating into plasma cells?
103. _________________________ Immunity conferred by activated T-cells, which directly lyse infected or cancerous body cells, and release chemicals that regulate the immune response?
104. _________________________ First encounter between an antigen and immunocompetent lymphocyte?
105. _________________________ Type of proteins that occur on the surface of nearly all cells, not recognized as foreign to self, but are strongly antigenic to others?
106. _________________________ General name for a condition of inadequate oxygen to tissues where circulation is inadequate to meet oxygen demands of tissue?
107. _________________________ Specialized lymph capillaries found in the intestinal mucosa whose function is to drain lymph fluid containing fats?
108. _________________________ Name the special lymph fluid containing fats, found in lymph capillaries of the intestinal mucosa?
109. __________________________ Largest lymphoid organ located in the left side of the abdominal cavity?
110. _________________________ Lymphoid organ located in the lower neck area near the base of the heart that has important functions primarily during the early years of life?
111. _________________________ Type of T-cell that is destroyed by HIV?
112. _________________________ Mediator chemical produced by mast cells and basophils that causes vasodilation, increased capillary permeability and subsequent exudate formation from leukocytosis?
113. _________________________ Chemical protein produced by viral infected cells that prevents viruses from multiplying in other adjacent body cells?

114. _________________________ A circulating blood protein that fixes on bacteria surfaces and makes bacteria more susceptible to body defenses?


115. _________________________ Process whereby neutrophils cling to the endothelial lining of a capillary in preparation for diapedesis?
116. _________________________ Another name for the stem region of an immunoglobulin?
117. _________________________ Inflammatory process whereby neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls toward the site of injury?
118. _________________________ Name the inducing factor that is produced by injured cells that cause a rapid release of neutrophils from red bone marrow. This is the first process in phagocyte mobilization?
119. _________________________ Name a protein circulating in blood that marks bacteria cells thus enhancing phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages?
120. _________________________ Name the chemical substances produced by macrophages and leukocytes following pathogenic exposure that stimulates a febrile response?
121. _________________________ Substances recognized as foreign by the body that are usually large complex molecules?
122. _________________________ Small foreign particles that are not immunogenic by themselves but become immunogenic and reactive when linked to the bodies own proteins?
123. _________________________ The portion of an antigen molecule that is recognized as foreign that causes the immunogenicity of antigens and stimulates the production of antibodies?
124. _________________________ Name the base cell in the bone marrow that can differentiate in either erythrocytes, leukocytes or platelets?
125. _________________________ A type of T-cell that kills invading or damaged cells or destroys cancer cells, bacteria infected cells, and foreign cells?
126. _________________________ The type of immunologic response requiring memory B-cells that is triggered by an incounter with a previous recognized antigen that is faster, longer and more effective than the first encounter response?
127. _________________________ Name 2 types of active humoral immunity?
_________________________

128. _________________________ A type of T-cell that promotes development and proliferation of other T-cells and that release cytokines that attract other leukocytes to the infection site?


129. _________________________ A type of T-cell that releases chemicals which inhibits other T-cells and B-cells to end the immune response after foreign antigens have been destroyed?
130. _________________________ A general classification of immune diseases when the body recognizes itself as foreign and mounts a response against self antigens?
131. _________________________ Give three examples of autoimmune diseases?
_________________________
_________________________
132. _________________________ An abnormally intense reaction to allergens following an initial sensitivity that is caused by histamine release from mast cells and basophils?
133. _________________________ White areas of the spleen that surround arteries of the spleen containing many lymphocytes?
134. _________________________ Red area of spleen tissue containing many erythrocytes and macrophages?
135. _________________________ A general classification of lymphoid tissue that prevents pathogens in the respiratory and digestive tract from penetrating mucous membranes?
136. _________________________ What is the pH of blood?
137. _________________________ Name a protein released by the kidney that stimulates immature red blood cells in red bone marrow to mature quickly?
138. _________________________ What is another name for a circulating immature red blood cell?
139. _________________________ What element is linked to the hemoglobin molecule in blood that binds either oxygen or carbon dioxide?
140. _________________________ What 4 substances are required for red blood cell production?

_________________________


_________________________
_________________________
141. _________________________ A general condition for a lack of blood characterized by lack of oxygen carrying capacity?
142. _________________________ A condition of insufficient number of RBC’s caused by destruction of red blood cells?
143. _________________________ A condition of insufficient number of red blood cells caused by bone marrow failure?
144. _________________________ A condition of decreased hemoglobin content caused by low iron?
145. _________________________ A condition of decreased hemoglobin content caused by low vitamin B12?
146. _________________________ A hereditary condition causing an abnormal hemoglobin molecule structure where the hemoglobin cannot bind oxygen?
147. _________________________ A condition of excessive red blood cell production causing abnormal viscosity of blood?
148. _________________________ Another name for red blood cell production?
149. _________________________ Another name for blood cell production?
150. _________________________ Another name for increased white cell production as seen in bacterial infections?
151. _________________________ Another name for decreased white cell count seen in immunosuppressed individuals?
152. _________________________ Another name for increased neutrophil count characterized by bacterial infections?
153. _________________________ Another name for decreased lymphocyte count characteristic of viral infections or drug therapy?
154. _________________________ Another name for neutrophils?
155. _________________________ Another name for increased eosinophil counts characteristic of parasite infections?
156. _________________________ Another name for overproduction of abnormal leukocytes?
157. _________________________ A highly contageous viral infection caused by excessive production of agranulocytes that runs a 3-4 week course?
158. _________________________ A condition of low platelet count caused by malignancy, radiation therapy, cancer drug therapy, and bone marrow suppression?
159. _________________________ A hereditary sex linked bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of clotting factor VIII?
160. _________________________ A vitamin stored in the liver that is required for factor synthesis in normal blood clotting?
161. _________________________ A series of enzymatic reactions resulting in blood clot digestion and dissolving that is part of the clot healing process that prevents damaged vessels from becoming blocked?
162. ________________________ A protein stored in the liver that is released into the blood and converted to thrombin which in turn is converted to fibrinogen in the plasma that forms a fibrin mesh clot?
163. ________________________ Blood plasma minus the clotting factors and proteins, that is analyzed in selected blood chemistry diagnostic tests?
164. ________________________ A thromboembolic condition in which a blood clot forms in the wrong place, possibly causing occlusion to a blood vessel?
165. ________________________ Another name for a floating clot in a blood vessel?
166. ________________________ A diagnostic blood test that includes an RBC count, WBC count with differential, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count is called?
167. ________________________ A diagnostic blood test determining the relationship percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes is called?
168. ________________________ A diagnostic serum blood test and blood chemistry profile is called?

169. ________________________ These large lymphatic vessels that drain lymph from the lymphatic system into the blood vascular system at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins in the neck are called?


170. ________________________ These large lymph collecting areas are formed by the union of the largest lymphatic collecting vessels and ducts?
171. ________________________ Another name for lymph organs and lymph tissue clustered along lymph vessels?
172. ________________________ A tubular offshoot of the first part of the large intestine at the ileal cecal junction containing large numbers of lymph follicles is call the?
173. ________________________ A protein enzymatic secretion present in saliva of the oral cavity and in lacrimal secretion that destroys bacteria is?
174. ________________________ A thick, sticky material produced by mucous membranes in the intestine, throat, nose and sinuses that traps bacteria is called?
175. ________________________ Hair like projections lining the upper respiratory tract and trachea that trap dust and bacteria which are then coughed into the mouth and swallowed is called?
176. ________________________ The absolute first activity of the inflammatory process that involves affected vessels and causes increased blood flow where chemical mediators are released into the extracellular spaces of damaged tissue is?




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