European and mediterranean plant protection organization

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european and mediterranean plant protection organization


organisation europeenne et mediterraneenne pour la protection des plantes

WP PR Point 14.2

Report of a Pest Risk Assessment
This summary presents the main features of a pest risk assessment which has been conducted on the pest, according to EPPO Standard PP 5/3(1) Pest Risk Assessment Scheme.


Malacosoma parallela

PRA area:

Non-Asian part of the EPPO region


EPPO Panel on Quarantine Pests for Forestry


April, 2003


1.1 Reason for doing PRA:

Study of the risk of forest pests occurring on the territory of the former USSR for the western part of the EPPO region

1.2. Taxonomic position of pest:

Malacosoma parallela Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)


2.1 Entry

2.1.1 Geographical distribution:

EPPO region: Kyrgyzstan, Russia (North Caucasus: Dagestan and Chechnya), Turkey.

Europe: Absent

Asia: Armenia, northern Iran, eastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan.

EU: Absent.

North America: Absent

Central America & Caribbean: Absent

South America: Absent

Oceania: Absent

Main outbreaks of M. parallela occur in mountain forests at an altitude of 1000 – 1800 m where the pest finds optimal conditions for its development. It can occur up to 2400 m.

2.1.2 Major host plants:

M. parallela is extremely polyphagous and damages many different species of deciduous trees and shrubs from many families: Amygdalus bucharica, Amygdalus communis, Atraphaxis pyrifolia, Berberis integerrima, Cerasus verrucosa, Chaenomeles japonica, [Cotoneaster acutiuscula]1, Cotoneaster insignis, Cotoneaster suavis, Crataegus hissarica, Crataegus pontica, Crataegus turkestanica, Cydonia oblonga, Fraxinus sogdiana, Hippophae rhamnoides, Juglans regia, Lonicera korolkowii, Lonicera nummulariifolia, Malus domestica, Malus sieversii, Myricaria bracteata, Padus asiatica, Populus alba, Populus tremula, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus divaricata, Prunus dulcis, Prunus persica, Pyrus communis, Quercus boissieri, Quercus macranthera, Quercus robur subsp. robur, Ribes nigrum, Ribes rubrum, Rosa canina, Rosa corymbifera, Rosa kokanica, Rosa maracandica, Rubus idaeus, Rubus turkestanicus, Salix excelsa, Salix tenuijulis, Sorbus persica, Sorbus turkestanica and Ulmus sp. The most important damage occurs on Amygdalus bucharica, Amygdalus communis, oak and wild apple trees. Important damage also occurs on Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Rosa, Salix and Sorbus species. Other plants are damaged occasionally.

2.1.3 Which pathway(s) is the pest likely to be introduced on:

M. parallela is associated with leaves and branches of host plants. Eggs, larvae and pupae (cocoons) may be associated with wood containing bark. All stages of the life cycle can be transported on host plants moving in trade, particularly plants for planting and cut branches. Natural spread is possible with flights of adult moths.

In decreasing order of risk, main pathways for M. parallela are:

  1. Plants for planting

  2. Cut branches

  3. Wood with bark

2.2 Establishment

2.2.1 Crops at risk in the PRA area:

The most important risk is expected on Amygdalus and oak. Important damage also occurs on Berberis, Chaenomeles, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Cydonia, Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Rosa, Salix and Sorbus species. The biggest risk exists for ornamentals, forest and fruit plants.

2.2.2 Climatic similarity of present distribution with PRA area (or parts thereof):

The Central and the Southern parts of the EPPO region have similar climatic conditions with the area of origin and present distribution of the pest.

2.2.3 Aspects of the pest's biology that would favour establishment:

The pest is extremely polyphagous and genetically adaptable.

2.2.4 Characteristics (other than climatic) of the PRA area that would favour establishment:

Host plants are widely distributed within the PRA area. Suitable ecological niches are available throughout the PRA area.

2.2.5 Which part of the PRA area is the endangered area:

The endangered part of the PRA area covers most of central and southern regions of the EPPO territory including mountain areas (up to 2400 m).


3.1 Describe damage to potential hosts in PRA area:

M. parallela is a defoliator. It may attack both stressed and healthy trees of different ages considerably reducing the yield of fruits and sometimes leading to the death of ornamental and forest trees.

3.2 How much economic impact does the pest have in its present distribution:

M. parallela is an important defoliator of many deciduous trees in several countries of the former USSR. Its outbreaks often last for two consecutive years. It was especially noted as a very dangerous pest of oak in the mountains of Armenia and of forests, fruit trees and shrubs of Rosaceae, Fagaceae and Elaeagnaceae in the mountains of Tajikistan. It attacks both stressed and healthy trees of different ages. Its outbreaks occur throughout large mountain areas, often result in 100% defoliation and sometimes lead to the death of trees and forests as well as to losses of fruit yield, either itself or in association with Yponomeuta padellus, Euproctis kargalica, Erschoviella musculana, Lymantria dispar and/or other defoliators. The pest may damage mountain forests up to 2400 m.

3.3 How much economic impact would the pest have in the PRA area:

Considering the similarity of ecological conditions, the damage in the endangered part of the PRA area could be similar to that in the present area of the pest.


4.1 Summarize the major factors that influence the acceptability of the risk from this pest:

This pest

  • comes from an area with similar climatic conditions to those of the PRA area and could easily establish throughout a large part of it;

  • can cause serious economic damage there;

  • is the pest of many ornamental, forest and fruit trees, which are important in the PRA area.

4.2 Estimate the probability of entry:

high with plants for planting, medium with cut branches and low with wood with bark

4.3 Estimate the probability of establishment:

high with plants for planting, low for other pathways

4.4 Estimate the potential economic impact:


4.5 Degree of uncertainty

There is little uncertainty in this assessment


The endangered part of the PRA area covers most of central and southern regions of the EPPO territory. The pest entry with plants for planting and establishment have a high probability. Its impact within the endangered area would be the direct damage to plantations of many ornamental, forest and fruit trees, which would consist in fruit yield losses, stress or death of ornamental and forest plants. M. parallela is of limited distribution in the EPPO region (only in Kyrgyzstan, South-European Russia, and Turkey). Phytosanitary measures could prevent its introduction into the endangered area.
M. parallela is proposed for the A2 list.

1 the name used in Soviet literature and not found in European databases is placed in square brackets

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