Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification



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FOTG Section II. Natural Resources Information F. Ecological Site Descriptions

F161BY501HI Kona Weather Pattern Dry Forest




Ecological Site Description

Ecological Site Characteristics


Site Identification

Site Type: Forestland

Site ID: F161BY501HI

MLRA: 161B

Colloquial Site Name: Kona Weather Pattern Dry Forest

Official Site Name: South Kona Dry Forest; Diospyros sandwicensis-Psydrax odorata/Osteomeles anthyllidifolia-Dodonaea viscosa/Peperomia


Physiographic Features

This ecological site occurs on lava flows on sloping mountainsides of shield volcanoes. Lava flows are `a`a (loose, cobbly) or pahoehoe (smooth, relatively unbroken). Overlying ash flows in some areas are very deep on top of the original lava flows.




Landform: (1) `a`a lava flow
Landform: (2) pahoehoe lava flow
Landform: (3) volcanic ash flow

Minimum

Maximum

Elevation (feet):

50

2500

Slope (percent):

2

70

Water Table Depth (inches):

>60

>60

Flooding:
Frequency:
Duration:


none
none



occasional
very brief


Ponding:
Depth (inches):
Frequency:
Duration:


  
none





  
none




Runoff Class:

negligible

very high

Aspect: (1) W
Aspect: (2) SE








Climatic Features

Average annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 60 inches. On westward-facing slopes (South Kona and part of Kau), most of the precipitation falls from March through June, with May being the wettest month. On southeastward-facing slopes (part of Kau), most of the precipitation falls from November through March, with January being the wettest month. Average annual temperature ranges from 68 to 74 degrees F. The climate can be generally classified as dry ustic and tropical in nature.


Climate chart for westward-facing slopes




Minimum

Maximum

Frost Free Period (days):

365

365

Freeze Free Period (days):

365

365

Mean Annual Precipitation (inches):

30

60




Monthly Precipitation (inches) and Temperature (0F)

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip. Min.

0.0

0.5

2.0

1.0

2.0

0.7

1.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

0.4

Precip Max.

12.0

11.0

11.0

14.0

17.0

16.0

10.0

16.0

9.0

17.0

9.0

12.0

Temp. Min

60

60

60

62

63

63

64

65

65

64

63

62

Temp. Max

76

77

77

78

78

80

80

81

80

81

80

80

Climate Station: (1)
Climate Station: (2)

2.0 Manuka 1929 to 1966
     



Climate chart for southeastward-facing slopes




Minimum

Maximum

Frost Free Period (days):

365

365

Freeze Free Period (days):

365

365

Mean Annual Precipitation (inches):

30

60

Monthly Precipitation (inches) and Temperature (0F)

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precip. Min.

1.3

4.1

4.9

2.5

0.4

0.2

0.5

1.7

1.9

1.5

0.4

0.5

Precip Max.

28.7

20.0

20.0

20.4

14.0

6.6

6.1

15.5

13.6

12.5

19.8

25.7

Temp. Min

63

62

63

64

65

67

68

68

68

67

67

64

Temp. Max

76

69

70

70

71

73

74

74

75

74

73

71

Climate Station: (1)
Climate Station: (2)

14.0 Naalehu 1890-1966 (precipitation), 1950-1966 (temperature)
     



Influencing Water Features

There are no water features influencing this site.



Representative Soil Features

Typical soils are of three types: highly decomposed plant materials, either moderately deep in `a`a or shallow over pahoehoe; very shallow to shallow medial silt loams and medial sandy loams formed in rapidly weathered volcanic ash deposited over pahoehoe; and moderately deep to deep silt loams and silty clay loams formed in rapidly weathered volcanic ash deposited over `a`a or pahoehoe. Soils in intact lama forests often have a distinctive brown organic surface layer. The soils are somewhat excessively to well drained. Available water capacity (AWC) in most soils ranges from 1 to 3 inches; some deep ash soils have available water capacity of 5 to 8 inches. AWC refers to the volume of water available to plants in the upper 40 inches of soil, including rocks, at field capacity. Permeability is rapid in soils but can be very slow in underlying pahoehoe. Runoff potential ranges from negligible in `a`a to very high over pahoehoe. Moist colors range from black and very dark brown to dark reddish brown and very dusky red. Soil reactions (pH) range from strongly acid to neutral in surface horizons and strongly acid to neutral in deeper subsurface layers. Extremes of pH (CaCl2) range from a low of 4.1 in Fluvents (a localized soil) to a high of 7.5 (horizons of Noio, Punalu`u, and Waiaha series). Erosion potential is slight. Soil temperature regimes range from isohyperthermic to isothermic. Soil moisture regimes are ustic (in most years, dry for more than 90 cumulative days but less than 180 days).




Predominant Parent Materials:
Kind: highly decomposed plant materials or volcanic ash
Origin:      

Surface Texture: (1) 
Surface Texture: (2) 
Subsurface Texture Group: 

Surface Fragments <=3" (%Cover): 0-40
Surface Fragments >3" (%Cover): 0-40

Rock Fragments <=3" (%Volume): 0-75
Rock Fragments >3" (%Volume): 0-75

Drainage Class: well to excessively

Permeability Class: impermeable to rapid




Minimum

Maximum

Depth (inches):

2

79

Electrical Conductivity (mmhos/cm):

0

2

Sodium Adsorption Ratio:

0

0

Soil Reaction (1:1 Water):

5.6

7.3

Soil Reaction (.0-1M CaC12):

5.2

7.5

Available Water Capacity (inches):

1

8


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