Commodore Matthew Perry – in 1853, Commodore Perry went to Tokyo Bay with four warships and asked to trade. Japan told him to come back later. He did and got a treaty of trade with Japan
Treaty of Kanagawa – open two ports to US trade in Japan, who had been isolationist until then
An Age of Imperialism
Imperialism – creation of large, powerful empires by gaining economic and/or political control over weaker nations
Countries used imperialism to gain trade markets or resources
Asia and Africa – targets of most imperialism by European nations
William Seward – Sec of State under Lincoln, Seward purchases Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
Seward’s Folly - Most thought purchase of Alaska was a waste of money as everyone thought Alaska was a frozen wasteland. However, gold and oil were discovered there in the late 1890s
Manifest Destiny – many still believe US has a calling to help weaker nations “rise up” with our help. Racist idea that we are better than others. Many thought we should export our religion and culture to Africa, Latin America, and Asia
Monroe Doctrine (1823) – James Monroe stated Latin and South America were closed to European colonization and the US would supervise this.
US Naval Power – during the 1880s, US converts from sails to steam and wooden to steel hulls. US Navy is now one of great power.
Section Two – Imperialism in the Pacific
Has 8 large islands and 100 smaller ones 2000 miles west of California
Traded with US and European nations
US missionaries arrive in 1820 and translate Bible into Hawaiian language, create schools
Sugarcane – introduced to Hawaii by US in 1830 and American growers there make huge profits. US businesses begin to buy up all the land they can.
China was weak as a result of war and lack of industry in late 1890s
Spheres of Influence – ports in which only one foreign power is alloed to trade. Germany, Japan, Great Britain, France and Russia all had spheres of influence in China, but the US did not.
Open Door Policy – US wants to trade in China so Sec State John Hay creates the Open Door policy. This states that any country is allowed to trade anywhere in China. China has no control over who trades in its own country
Boxer Rebellion – A secret group called the “Boxers” in China resent foreign control. The Boxers attack and kill many foreigners. Foreign nations join with US to defeat the Boxers and enforce the Open Door policy
As a result of US industrial help, Japan gains power quickly
Russo-Japanese War (1904 – 1906) – bloody war creating weakness in both Russia and Japan. US negotiates and end to war
Japan quickly learns it must have a more powerful navy
Many Japanese citizens decide to move to California
US discriminates against these immigrants (San Francisco orders Asians to attend separate schools. Japanese govt protests – looks like trouble
“Great White Fleet” - TR sends 16 new battleships on a world tour that stops in Japan. This mild threat solved the issues between the US and Japan (“Speak softly and carry a big stick”).
Dollar Diplomacy – As President, Taft looked to move away from TR’s military ideas and instead “substitute dollars for bullets.” This meant the US would invest in other countries that could help American interests rather than send troops.
Some nations resent the US tampering in other countries
Relations with Mexico
Mexico was a very poor country in which a small group of landowners controlled the nation