Australian Human Rights Commission




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191 See, for example, WA Gender Project, Comment 125; {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107; Sydney and Melbourne roundtables.

192 A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 21. See also National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112, p 8.

193 A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 21.

194 WA Gender Project, Comment 125A, p 18.

195 Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82, p 12.

196 See, for example, Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Queensland Association for Healthy Communities, Comment 43; Law Council of Australia, Comment 132; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107. See also Section 7.3 above.

197 Canadian Human Rights Act 1985 (Canada) as amended by Bill C-389.

198 Equality Act 2010 (UK), ss 4, 7, 11 and 12.

199 New Zealand Government, ‘Crown Law opinion on transgender discrimination’ (Media Release, 2 August 2006). At: www.beehive.govt.nz/release/crown-law-opinion-transgender-discrimination (viewed 25 March 2011).

200 A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 20.

201 Law Council of Australia, Comment 132, p 26.

202 See, for example, Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82; Name withheld, Comment 75; Sex and Gender Education Australia and Australian Health and Education Centre, Comment 73; Name withheld, Comment 70; Name withheld, Comment 69; Name withheld, Comment 68; Name withheld, Comment 58; Name withheld, Comment 54; Name withheld, Comment 51; Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27 (‘intergender’ was also suggested); Name withheld, Comment 22; Name withheld, Comment 9; Gina Wilson, Comment 8; Name withheld, Comment 7; Name withheld, Comment 2; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112; Youth Affairs Council of Victoria, Comment 152.

203 Sex and Gender Education Australia and Australian Health and Education Centre, Comment 73, p 12.

204 Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27A.

205 Youth Affairs Council of Victoria, Comment 152, p 14-15.

206 AIS Support Group Australia, Comment 117, p 3.

207 Above.

208 Above, p 4.

209 See, for example, AIS Support Group Australia, Comment 117; Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82; Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 21; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90.

210 AIS Support Group Australia, Comment 117, p 4. See also Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90, p 7; Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82, p 12.

211 Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82, p 11.

212 Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), pt 3A div 5 (‘transgender’ vilification), pt 4C div 4 (‘homosexuality’ vilification); Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), s 124A (vilification on grounds of ‘sexuality’ and ‘gender identity’); Discrimination Act 1991 (ACT), pt 6 (‘sexuality vilification’); Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas), ss 3 (‘public act’ (inciting hatred on the ground of ‘sexual orientation’)), s 19. These vilification provisions do not extend to the relationship grounds.

213 Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), ss 38R, 49ZS, 49ZT(1); Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), ss 4A, 124A; Discrimination Act 1991 (ACT) ss 65, 66; Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas), s 19.

214 See eg, Turner v State Transit Authority [2004] NSWADT 89; JM and JN v QL and QM [2010] NSWADT 66; M v S and G [2008] QADT 24; Menzies v Owen [2008] QADT 20.

215 Anti-Discrimination Act 1992 (NT), s 20(1)(b) (in that context harassment is not defined or explained).

216 The Tasmanian Act provides that a person must not engage in any conduct which ‘offends, humiliates, intimidates, insults or ridicules’ a person on the ground of their relationship, in circumstances in which a reasonable person would have anticipated that the complainant would be ‘offended, humiliated, intimidated, insulted or ridiculed’: Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas), s 17(1). This approach is similar to the legislative formulation of sexual harassment. See, for example, Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth), s 28A.

    217 NSW Gay & Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94; Victorian Women Lawyers, Comment 93; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; GRAI (GLBTI Retirement Association Inc), Comment 140; Law Council of Australia, Comment 132; Victorian Child Safety Commissioner, Comment 138; Anti-discrimination Commission Queensland, Comment 131; Women’s Legal Centre (ACT & Region), Comment 106; Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Comment 121; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97.

218 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Comment 121, p 9.

219 ACON, Comment 109; Victorian Child Safety Commissioner, Comment 138; Law Council of Australia, Comment 132; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97. See Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), pt IIA; Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth), pt II div 3.

220 See Section 6.4, Concerns about legal protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and sex and/or gender identity.

221 See for example, National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112.

222 Some State and Territory anti-discrimination statutes use the terminology of exemptions and exceptions, whilst other statutes refer solely to exceptions. This discussion paper adopts the terminology of exemptions alone. Note that these exemptions are not generally applicable in relation to allegations of sexual harassment.

223 New South Wales v Amery (2006) 230 CLR 174, [138] (Kirby J); Qantas Airways Limited v Christie (1998) 193 CLR 280, [152] (Kirby J).

224 Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), ss 38S(2), 49ZT(2); Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), s 124A(2); Discrimination Act 1991 (ACT), s 66(2); Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas), s 55. Note that the Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas) does not contain a reasonableness requirement and the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW) additionally refers to the purposes of religious instruction and discussion.

225 See, for example, Christian Schools Australia, Comment 24; Anglican Public Affairs Commission, Comment 36; Anglican Church Diocese of Sydney, Comments 76 and 108; Name withheld, Comment 127; New Hope Baptist Church, Comment 129; Catholic Commission for Employment Relations, Comment 150.

226 See, for example, {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; Tasmanian Council for Sexual and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; Inner City Legal Centre, Comment 142; Victorian Child Safety Commissioner, Comment 138; Name withheld, Comment 136; WA Gender Project, Comment 125; Women’s Legal Services NSW, Comment 116; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Name withheld, Comment 8.

227 See, for example, Kingsford Legal Centre, Comment 149; Erinyes Autonomous Activist Lesbians, Comment 143; Women’s Legal Services NSW, Comment 116; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112; ACON, Comment 109; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97.

228 See, for example, Job Watch, Comment 95a; WayOut, Comment 72; Kingsford Legal Centre, Comment 149; Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council, Comment 113; Women’s Legal Centre (ACT & Region), Comment 106; WayOut, Comment 103; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97; NSW Gay & Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94; Name withheld, Comment 92; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107.

229 Redfern Legal Centre, Comment 91; Victorian Bar, Comment 148; WA Equal Opportunity Commission, Comment 137; ACON, Comment 109; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Comment 131.

230 Tasmanian Gay and Lesbian Rights Group, Comment 153, p 5.

231 Tasmanian Council for Sexual and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; Tasmanian Gay and Lesbian Rights Group, Comment 153; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90.

232 Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90, p 7.

233 Victorian Bar, Comment 148, p 6.

234 Name withheld, Comment 96; {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; Tasmanian Council for Sexual and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; Inner City Legal Centre, Comment 142; Victorian Child Safety Commissioner, Comment 138; Name withheld, Comment 136; WA Gender Project, Comment 125; Women’s Legal Services NSW, Comment 116; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Name withheld, Comment 8.

235 Name withheld, Comment 96, p 2.

236 Women’s Legal Services NSW, Comment 116, p 3.

237 National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112, p 10. See also ACON, Comment 109A, p 10.

238 See also Section 6.4 above.

239 Christian Schools Australia, Comment 24, p 2.

240 Anglican Public Affairs Commission, Comment 36, p 13. See also Anglican Church Diocese of Sydney, Comment 108, p 5.

241 Equal Opportunity Act 1995 (Vic), ss 19, 61, 82; Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), ss 104, 105; Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (SA), ss 47, 85ZB(2), 85ZK; Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (WA), ss 31, 35ZD; Discrimination Act 1991 (ACT), s 27; Anti-Discrimination Act 1992 (NT), s 57; Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 (Tas), ss 25, 26. As the grounds in Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW) – homosexuality and transgender – provide protection only to members of the LGBTI communities, and not to, for example heterosexuals, a special measures exemption is not needed for the purpose of moving towards equality.

242 Law Council of Australia, Comment 132, p 27. See also Victorian Bar, Comment 148, p 7.

243 {Also} Foundation, Comment 84, p 7.

244 NSW Gay & Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94; {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Name withheld, Comment 9.

245 NSW Gay & Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94, pp 16-17.

246 See, for example, Tasmanian Council for Sexual and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Redfern Legal Centre, Comment 91; South Australian Equal Opportunity Commission, Comment 110, Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission, Comment 121.

247 National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112, p 1.

248 See above, p 10.

249 See Name withheld, Comment 9; Tasmanian Council for Sexual and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; Name withheld, Comment 51; {Also} Foundation, Comment 84; NSW Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97.

250 Name withheld, Comment 9, p 3.

251 See {Also} Foundation. Comment 84; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97; Youth Affairs Council of Victoria, Comment 152.

252 Youth Affairs Council of Victoria, Comment 152, p 9.

253 Sydney roundtable on sex and/or gender identity, 28 October 2010.

254 Sex and Gender Education Australia and Australian Health and Education Centre, Comment 73, p 15.

255 Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112.

256 Fiona David and Peter Bailey, Comment 147, p 3.

257 See, for example, The Gender Centre, Comment 48; Redfern Legal Centre, Comment 91; WA Gender Project, Comment 125.

258 WA Gender Project, Comment 125, p 11.

259 The Gender Centre, Comment 48, p 3.

260 Sex and Gender Education Australia and Australian Health and Education Centre, Comment 73, p 13.

261 See, for example, Lara Kacelnik, Comment 58; Name withheld, Comment 120; Rachel Wallbank, Comment 122; Inner City Legal Centre, Comment 142.

262 Melbourne roundtable on sex and/or gender identity, 9 November 2010.

263 The Gender Centre, Comment 48, p 4.

264 Rachel Wallbank, Comment 118, p 4. See also A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 24.

265 See, for example, Gina Wilson, Comment 8; Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112; Inner City Legal Centre, Comment 142; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107.

266 Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82, p 4. See also Inner City Legal Centre, Comment 142.

267 Marriage Act 1961 (Cth), s 5, amended by the Marriage Amendment Act 2004 (Cth). The Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) contains a similar version of marriage, s 43(1)(a).

268 See, for example, David Chad, Comment 5; Dr Paul Howat, Comment 7; Gina Wilson, Comment 8; Julie Webster, Comment 15; Queensland Association for Healthy Communities, Comment 43; Sally McMaster, Comment 52; Lara Kacelnik, Comment 58; Name withheld, Comment 68; Name withheld, Comment 69; OUTthere, Comment 72; Name withheld, Comment 75; Name withheld, Comment 79; Mark Le Gros, Comment 83; Name withheld, Comment 85; Amnesty International Australia, Comment 89; Redfern Legal Centre, Comment 91; NSW Gay & Lesbian Rights Lobby, Comment 94; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97; Name withheld, Comment 104; Women’s Legal Centre (ACT & Region), Comment 106; Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW, Comment 115; Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland, Comment 131; Kingsford Legal Centre, Comment 149; Name withheld, Comment 136.

269 Amnesty International Australia, Comment 89, pp 4-5.

270 Name withheld, Comment 79, p 3.

271 David Chad, Comment 5, p 1.

272 Kingsford Legal Centre, Comment 149, p 6.

273 Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW, Comment 115. See also David Chad, Comment 5; Name withheld, Comment 75.

274 Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82, p 7.

275 Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27, p 3.

276 Tasmanian Baptists, Comment 101; Organisation of Rabbis Australasia, Comment 100; Australian Christian Lobby, Comment 87; Anglican Church Diocese of Sydney, Comment 76; Presbyterian Church, Comment 56; Name withheld, Comment 49; Family Voice Australia, Comment 41.

277 Anglican Church Diocese of Sydney, Comment 76, p 2.

278 Name withheld, Comment 136, p 1.

279 Sydney roundtable on sexual orientation, 28 October 2010.

280 A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 24.

281 Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97, p 2.

282 Name withheld, Comment 12.

283 Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90.

284 See Gina Wilson, Comment 8; Organisation Intersex International, Comment 82.

285 National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112, p 10.

286 Australian Human Rights Commission, Sex Files: the legal recognition of sex in documents and government records (2009). At: www.humanrights.gov.au/genderdiversity/sex_files2009.html (viewed 25 March 2011).

287 Above.

288 National LGBTI Health Alliance, Comment 112. See also Fiona David and Peter Bailey, Comment 147A; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90.

289 See, for example, The Gender Centre, Comment 48; Name withheld, Comment 55; Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Name withheld, Comment 120.

290 A Gender Agenda, Comment 107, p 15.

291 Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27, p 4.

292 See, for example, Colleen Cartwright and Tania Lienert, Comment 31; Dr Jo Harrison, Comment 78; Hawkesbury Nepean Community Legal Centre, Comment 97; A Gender Agenda, Comment 107; GRAI (GLBTI Retirement Association Inc), Comment 140.

293 See, for example, Colleen Cartwright and Tania Lienert, Comment 31; See also Dr Jo Harrison, Comment 78.

294 Dr Jo Harrison, Comment 78, p 2.

295 GRAI (GLBTI Retirement Association Inc), Comment 140, p 3.

296 Name withheld, Comment 54, p 2.

297 Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27B, p 2.

298 Tasmanian Council for Sex and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33; Name withheld, Comment 79; Amnesty International Australia, Comment 89.

299 Amnesty International Australia, Comment 89, p 5.

300 Tasmanian Council for Sex and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33.

301 Melbourne roundtable on sexual orientation, 9 November 2010; Name withheld, Comment 1; Women’s Legal Centre (ACT & Region), Comment 106; Erinyes Autonomous Activist Lesbians, Comment 143.

302 Tasmanian Council for Sex and Gender Diverse People, Comment 33.

303 Name withheld, Comment 51.

304 Melbourne roundtable on sexual orientation, 9 November 2010.

305 Above.

306 Above.

307 Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Name withheld, Comment 104. See Criminal Code 1995, ss 227, 229; See also Criminal Code Act 1899 (Qld), ss 229B, 208.

308 See, for example, Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld), s 28; as cited in Freedom! Gender Identity Association, Comment 90; Romanadvouratrelundar Starfield, Comment 27.

309 Melbourne roundtable on sexual orientation, 9 November 2010. For an explanation of the Homosexual Advance Defence see Santo De Pasquale, ‘Provocation and the Homosexual Advance Defence: The Deployment Of Culture As A Defence Strategy’ (2002) 6 Melbourne University Law Review 110.

310 Mark Le Gros, Comment 83.

Australian Human

Rights Commission

ABN 47 996 232 602


Level 8 Piccadilly Tower

133 Castlereagh Street

Sydney NSW 2001


GPO Box 5218

Sydney NSW 2001

General enquiries

Complaints infoline

TTY


www.humanrights.gov.au

1300 369 711

1300 656 419

1800 620 241





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