Ap world history change and Continuity Analysis Chart Unit




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AP WORLD HISTORY

Change and Continuity Analysis Chart

Unit: Modern era (1750-1900) Region (circle one): (Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania)

THEME

Characteristics at the beginning of the period

Key Changes

-at least TWO

-give evidence for each


Characteristics at the end of the period

Analysis of changes


Key Continuities

-At least TWO

-give evidence for each


Analysis of continuities


Human-Environ

Interaction

(Demography, disease,

Migration, technology)


Before Europe invasion, the Africans were less technologically advanced, and lived simpler, agriculture-based, hunter and gathering lives.

Before the Belgians arrived, the population was 20 million. A couple decades later, the population decreased to 8.5 million)

  • Mass migrations of Africans were moved involuntarily to other places in the world

Between 1750 and 1870, about 1.7 million Africans were moved to the Americas to work on sugar and coffee plantations in Brazil or the Caribbean.

The Europeans introduced and exposed new diseases to Africans, which these natives had no resistance to.

This exposure to new diseases has dramatically decreased the native African population. Traces of migration from the 18th and 19th century can be seen today, as the demographics of Africa and other parts of the world are more diverse than before.

  • Europeans did not wish to

Divide Africans among themselves. They wanted to create indigenous political entities to consolidate their authority and later form them into nation-states. (Ashanti in West Africa)

  • The majority of the population were still native Africans.

The Europeans did not wish to destroy the African peoples, but instead, only wanted power. They thought the easiest way to do this was to have African peoples organize themselves into small states, which are easier to govern than individual peoples. Some of these tribes that were created solely for this purpose existed for a period of time before disappearing, and some exist to this day.

Culture

(Religions, philosophies,

Science, technology, art,

architecture)



The Africans practiced many of their own beliefs, native to their land and people. They had not yet developed much infrastructure or technology.

Global growth increased, and the modern communications revolution occurred. There were building of railroads, expansion of steamship travel, and other innovations that made the movement of people, goods, and capital worldwide easier.

  • New faiths and religions

spread to Africa

Propelled by new communications technology, Christian missionaries of various denominations spread their faith to native Africans.



The Europeans brought technological advancements, innovations, and infrastructure to Africa, as well as their culture, religions, and languages.

The Europeans brought their culture with them to Africa when they conquered the territories. Their influence of religious beliefs, philosophies, science, technology, art, and architecture played a major role in the development of Africa.

Even with interfering European powers, some natives managed to keep their traditions and cultures alive.

Politics

(State-building,

conflict, Political structures, Empires,

Revolts and revolution)




Before the 1750s, Europeans had traded with Africa, but had set up very few colonies. Instead, free African states existed everywhere.

In the 1800s, 10% of Africa was governed by foreigners. By the 1900s, all except 2 small countries in Africa were foreign-ruled. (Those being Ethiopia and Liberia)

  • Spread of nationalism

The leaders of states encouraged nationalism, and became an important factor in politics.

By the end of this period, virtually the entire continent was colonized by a competing European power.

The long-term political and economic effects of Europe’s exploitation of Africa still reverberate in the 21st century, long after the continent’s decolonization.


  • (Before 1850s)

African trading companies continued to control most parts of eastern and western Africa

  • Some previously existing tribal leaders still continued to lead their groups of people.

The British did not wish to destroy the Africans within themselves, but let the tribes and leaders live and rule.

Economics

(Agric, trade, commerce, labors systems,

industrialization,

capitalism, socialism)



Slave trade was prominent in Africa before it was made illegal in 1867. Africa was not even close to industrializing, and was almost fully supported by agriculture.

  • Changes in the global

economy and moral pressure brought the end of trans-Atlantic slave trade by 1867.

advancements and mechanization reduced the cost of human labor, making slave labor transported from Africa to the Americas relatively more expensive

The Europeans had brought industries to Africa, as well as increased trade with other parts of the world.

The Europeans encouraged more trade, as to gain more revenue and profit to build their empires. The economy and trade market for Africa grew.

in revenue, and played a huge part in Africa’s economy

  • Peasant farming, and coerced labor

Trade has always been a big part of Africa’s economy, as well as farming and agriculture.

Social

(Gender roles/ relations, family, racial & ethnic constructions,



social and economic classes)

In earlier African societies, women and men were almost equal; their roles were very similar. There wasn’t an obvious class structure before the Europeans arrived.

  • Families were torn apart

Males went to work on mines and plantations, while women stayed in the villages to tend the sick, and take care of children

  • Increased racial conflicts,

discrimination, sense of superiority by the Europeans, White Man’s Burden

After the Europeans invaded Africa, there was a much more organized social structure, with the Europeans at the top. Although African societies were never completely equal, and were patriarchal, with the arrival of the Europeans, the gap between the roles of women and men grew larger.

The Europeans had separated families to their advantage and self-benefit. They had brought discrimination, racial conflicts, and hatred to Africa, as long as viewed themselves as superiors that needed to “civilize” these “barbarians”.

  • Remained patriarchal

Male-dominated.

  • Europeans always felt superior to Africans

The societies remained male-dominated and patriarchal, and the Europeans had always felt superior to the Africans, supported by their theory of Social Darwinism.


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