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- ance (ence)

Define the tense of the verbs. Translate the sentences:
1. Although the patient had been receiving the injections of streptomycin for several days he showed little improvement. 2. The red blood cell count has been gradually returning to normal as the patient is being given plasma transfusions. 3. My friend will have been living in Moscow for a month when I come there.

Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense:

1. Fever (to persist) for about three weeks and the patient’s condition is still very poor. 2 .The investigator (to estimate) the origin of the inflammation for about a week before he came to a definite conclusion. 3. Some symptoms of the vascular impairment of the brain (to develop) gradually for along time before they became clearly marked.

Choose the appropriate word from those given in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. (Dry, moist) rales were caused by diffuse bronchitis. 2. The shadow at the base of the left lung was particularly marked due to the (enlargement, decrease) of the lymphatic glands. 3. (Mild, severe) forms of lobular pneumonia are difficult to differentiate from pulmonary tuberculosis and pleurisy. 4. The patient was prescribed bromide and luminal (to improve, to impair) his sleep.
Define “ing-forms”. Translate the sentences:
1.Having been affected by the benign process the lungs of the patient showed a marked shadowing at their base. 2. Having revealed the occlusion of numerous bronchioles and alveoli and the decrease in the respiratory surface of the lungs the physician determined the cause of breathlessness and cyanosis. 3. Being examined by the therapeutist the patient said that he had an accelerated pulse rate and reduced arterial pressure a month before.

Choose the proper verb from those given in brackets. Use it in the necessary tense:
1. The patient’s general condition (to improve, to recover) gradually since he was administered streptomycin injections. 2. The most characteristic symptoms of primary tuberculosis such as loss of appetite and weight, short periods of fever and slow growth (to develop, to produce) in a child since the age of two. 3. As the patient’s temperature (to enlarge, to elevate) constantly since he was admitted to the hospital he had to follow a bed regimen.

Use “one” (“ones”), “that” (“those”)instead of the words in bold type. Translate the sentences:
1. In case of pulmonary gangrene the right lung is more often affected than the left lung. 2. In acute forms of pulmonary gangrene the sputum has a bad smell, like the smell of dead tissues or of a destroyed tooth. 3. In pulmonary edema (отек) the clinical picture reveals some findings like the findings observed in other lung diseases.

Read the passages. Say what respiratory tract disease is described in each of them:
1. The girl had a permanent loss of appetite and she had not been increasing in weight for several months. Her growth was slow. She often had short periods of fever. On physical examination the physician revealed a small number of dry and fine moist rales. The percussion sound was considerably shorter.

2. The patient complained of a general of a general malaise, fatigue and cold profuse perspiration at night. His temperature had been persisting at a level of 38°C for about a month. He had mucopurulent sputum sometimes containing blood. When the doctor was examining him the patient said that he had lost much weight.

3. When the patient was admitted to the hospital his breathing was rapid and there was a marked cyanosis of the face. He complained of chest pain on deep breathing in. the physician determined that his arterial pressure was reduced, his pulse rate was accelerated and there was dullness in the lungs. There were numerous foci of inflammation in the lungs revealed by the X-ray examination.

Use Complex Object instead of the subordinate clause:
1. The therapeutist did not think that chills would recur after this course of treatment. 2. At the follow – up examination the surgeon noticed that the patient had become better nourished. 3. Everybody believed that the initial diagnosis would. Be confirmed by X-ray and laboratory examinations.

Translate the sentences paying attention to the meaning of the word “follow” and its derivatives:
1. The rupture of the lung abscess was followed by a gradual improvement of the patient’s general condition. 2. Her daughter was followed up at the out – patient department because of the possible recurrence of rheumatic endocarditis. 3. Those patients who have suffered tuberculosis must undergo follow – up examinations regularly.
Choose the correct answer:
1. By what disease may the onset of rheumatic endocarditis be precede?

a) It may be preceded by tonsillitis; b) It may be preceded by lung abscess.

2. By what examination can the enlargement of the heart be determined?

a) It can be determined by percussion and X-ray examination; b) It can be determined by electrocardiogram.

3. What must the diet of a patient ill with rheumatic endocarditis contain?

a) It must contain much salt; b) It must contain many vitamins.

Form new words by adding the prefixes. Translate the words:

  1. un – doubtful, favourable, impaired, preserved, treated.

  2. intra – tracheal, abdominal, venous, muscular, cellular.

  3. sub – acute, febrile, cutaneous, sternal, divide.

  4. over dosage, strain, work, estimate, pressure, weight.

Pick out the proper participle. Translate the sentences:
1. … an acute pain in the heart which radiated to the shoulder the patient was administered a strict bed regimen. (being developed; having developed; developing; having been developed)

2. … for rheumatic endocarditis at the in – patient department the patient was discharged from the hospital but had to be followed up at the out – patient department. (having treated; treating; being treated; having been treated)

Substitute the English words for the Russian ones; translate the sentences:
1. Last year for several weeks the patient had been suffering from constant cardiac pain (распространявшуюся вниз по руке). 2. (Нарушения тока крови) were revealed by numerous instrumental examinations. 3. Having undergone a course of (соответствующих инъекций) the patient stated that the cardiac pain considerably decreased. 4. (Физическое и психическое перенапряжение) increases the incidence of heart attacks in persons suffering from angina pectoris.

Pick out the appropriate word:
1. Heart operations must be (preceded, followed) by various physical and laboratory analyses enabling the doctor to make a correct diagnosis. 2. The damage to different organs of the human body may be caused by (blood supply, blood loss). 3. Blood damage, blood circulation is a well-known problem in cardiosurgery. To prevent it external pumping of the blood is used. 4. The findings of Soviet scientists such as Georgi Lang, Alexander Myasnikov and Dmitry Pletnev show, that the main causes of some heart diseases are (the impairment, the arrest) in the nerve regulation of cardiac and vascular functions
Use Complex Object instead of the subordinate clause Translate the sentences:
1. At the Institute of Cardiology in Moscow the researchers have found that the factor causing the infarction in 35% of patients is mental overstrain. 2. They have observed that the direct association between infarctions and the nerves occurs only in the age-group of patients over 40. 3. At the Institute of Experimental Medicine in Leningrad the scientists have found that cholesterin is produced in the body itself in the amounts sufficient to cause atherosclerosis. 4. Cardiologists have observed that children with congenital heart defects have no clinical manifestations of the disease until years after birth, when it may be too late to operate.

Translate the following word combinations:
congenital heart defects; to result in heart failure; to make an incision on the cardiac wall; to radiate to the back and arm; to undergo the course of X-ray treatment; to prevent the rupture of the blood vessel; to administer an adequate dose of medicine; to complain of a general malaise and fatigue.

Pick out the appropriate word from those given in brackets:
1. As the condition of the patient had been gradually improving his temperature … considerably. (reduced, rose) 2. Severe attacks of angina pectoris are accompanied by … pain radiating down the arm. (sharp, moderate) 3. If the patient is suffering from rheumatic endocarditis his pulse becomes … on physical exertion. (accelerated, slow) 4. Partial arrest of blood circulation often results in … to brain cells. (the recovery, the damage)

Find Complex Object. Define the forms of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences:
1. the physician considered the incidence of heart attacks to be associated with the nervous overstrain. 2. The doctor wants me to have undergone the course of treatment by the end of the week. 3. We noticed the most characteristic symptoms of rheumatic endocarditis have been eliminated, since the administration of those preparations.

Answer the following questions:
1. What are the most characteristic clinical manifestations of lobular pneumonia? 2. What treatment is administered to the patient with lobular pneumonia? 3. What is the causative agent of tuberculosis? 4. What do you know about primary tuberculosis? 5. What is the course of lung abscess? 6. What are the patient’s complaints in case of rheumatic endocarditis? 7. What treatment can you administer a patient with rheumatic endocarditis? 8. Describe a severe attack of angina pectoris. 9. What methods of performing operations are employed in cardiosurgery?

Put questions to the words in bold type:
1. Pains intermittent in occurrence are known to be characteristic of gastric or duodenal ulcers. 2. Under the influence of internal and external stimuli the brain cortex sends impulses to all the organs of human body. 3. In the majority of cases acute pains in the abdominal cavity may be clinical manifestation of perforated ulcers.

Define the part of speech of the words in blood type and translate them:
1. Numerous branches of small vessels branch off the coronary vessels.

2. Some students of our group have made a marked progress in English that why their marks are much better now. 3. A bandage was put on the arm to bandage the damaged blood vessels. 4. The patient does not require any preparation to be treated with Adonis preparation. 5. At six sharp the patient felt a sharp pain in the heart area. 6. The treatment resulted in wonderfully good results. 7. Having returned home I took my temperature and observed its return to normal.

Change the sentences using Complex Subject:
1. It is know that spring and autumn are those seasons when the ulcer patients suffer from the recurrence of the disease. 2. It is considered that constant fatigue, the lesions of the nervous system and past diseases contribute to the onset of gastritis. 3. It appeared that the characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease were haemorrhage, vomiting and nausea.
Supply the words of the same root:
extensive, exist, node, evidence, various, characterize, contribution, bleed, support, response, impulsive, ulcerous, associate, preventive.

Recall and supply the most characteristic adjectives to be used with the following nouns:
tumour, bleeding, node, vomiting, ulcer, manifestation, onset, fever, failure.

Pick out the appropriate word. Translate the sentences:
1. (Malignant, benign) tumours are known to cause numerous metastases (involving, improving) various internal organs. 2. In the presence of anaemia the red blood cell count is considerably (increased, reduced). 3. It has been observed that gastric carcinoma is more (common, rate) in the male than in the female.

Define Infinitive functions. Translate the sentences:
1. Chronic gastritis is one of the diseases to be responsible for the development of gastric carcinoma. 2. Academician A.N.Bakulev was the first surgeon in the Soviet Union to perform the operation on the heart. 3. To reveal the early symptoms of malignant tumours is one of the measures contributing to their effective treatment. 4. In ulcer patients pains are known to have cyclic character with periodic remissions.

Use Complex Subject instead of the subordinate clause:
1. It was reported that the patient had been suffering from the digestion disturbances for several years. 2. It seems that the pathologic changes in the gastric mucous membrance due to chronic gastritis are responsible for the development of malignant tumours of the stomach. 3. It was stated that the patient had developed anaemia after profuse bleeding caused by perforating ulcer.

Read and translate the following words:
epigastrium [,epI`gæstrIəm], peritonitis [,perItə`naItIs], metastasis [me`tæstəsIs], barium [`bεərIəm], degeneration [dI,dznə`reI∫n].
Supply one of known to you words of the same root: make up sentences using them:
appear, tender, danger, occur.

Explain the following terms:
hypothermia; fibrillation; leucocytosis; a causative agent; anaemia; malaise; pathogenesis; aetiology.

Translate the sentences:
1. The surgeon considered that he could perform this operation under local anesthesia. 2. Gangrenous forms of appendicitis are dangerous to life because they may result in peritonitis. 3. The retention of stool may be due to the inflammatory process in the appendix. 4. The patient was removed the upper lobe of the lung since a malignant tumour had been revealed there. 5. After the attack of acute appendicitis had been controlled the patient complained of a moderate tenderness on palpation.

Translate the words with the same root:
obstruction, obstruct, obstructive; survive, survival, survivor; suggest, suggestive, suggestion; contribute, contribution, contributory, contributor;

Pick out the sentences with Absolute Participle Construction:
1. Gastric and duodenal ulcers having been proved to result from disturbances in the central nervous system, the corticovisceral theory of the pathogensis of ulcer was developed. 2. Being followed by erosion of the affected area of the stomach, spastic contractions of vessels result in trophic disturbances of this organ. 3. The patient having survived the operation well, the danger of peritonitis was eliminated.

Define Infinitive functions. Translate the sentences:
The prominent Russian scientist S. Botkin was the first to advance the idea of an infectious origin of hepatitis. 2. The patient was known to have been operated on for gangrenous appendicitis a year before his admission to the hospital. 3. The physician did not expect the tissues of the spleen and gallbladder to become involved simultaneously with the liver. 4. The patient had to follow a strict diet to prevent the recurrence of the bile duct obstruction and jaundice.

Read the words and translate the sentences:
1. incubation [,Inkju`beI∫n]. incubation period is the time during which pathogenic microorganisms grow in the body.

2. prodromal [`prodroməl]. prodromal period is the time when the characteristic symptoms of an infectious disease have not appeared yet, but the patient feels a general malaise.

3. parenterally [pə`rentərəlI]. All intramuscular and intravenous injections are given parenterally, i. e. directly into the organisms but not orally.

4. serum [`sIərəm]. serum is the watery fluid which remains after blood has coagulated.

a) Supply words and word combinations having close meaning to the following:
preventive; to rise; about five months; to radiate to; to involve; acute; to result in; to determine; lesion, entire;

  1. Supply words of the opposite meaning:

to elevate, to recover, to diminish, approximately, dry, empty, sharp, base.

Use the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense of the Indefinite group.

Translate the sentences:
1. Products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion (to be absorbed) from the gastrointestinal tract by the liver in which they (to undergo) further chemical processes. 2. The liver (to destroy) toxic substances which usually (to be formed) in the in intestinal tract as well as some poisons which (to enter) the body from without. 3. Jaundice (to be known) to be the disease which (to be due to) the presence of a large amount of bilirubin in the blood and tissues.
Pick out the appropriate form of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences:
1. The patient was know … stool retention accompanied by nausea a month before his present admission to the hospital.

a) to have; b) to had; c) to have been having; d) to be having

2. Sensitivity to antibiotics was reported … only in this patient but in all the other members of the family as well since their early age.

a) to be present; b) to have been present

3. Prophylactic vaccination was found … since no cases of hepatitis were diagnosed after its administration.

a) to be effective; b) to have been effective

4. Skin irritation was revealed … after each parenteral administration of this preparation.

a) to occur; b) to have occurred; c) to be occurring

Make up sentences of your own using each of the given words first as a subject,

and then as an attribute:
heart, blood, lymph, serum, nerve.

Translate the words with the same root:
1. strong, strength, strengthen, strongly; 2. continue, continuous, discontinue, discontinuous, discontinuation; 3. digest, digestive, digestion, indigestion; 4. sense, sensitive, sensitivity, senseless, hypersensitivity; 5. thick, thickly, thickness, thicken, thickened; 6. local, locate, localize, localized, localization, location, locality; 7. wide, widely, width, widen, widened.

Replace each part of the Complex Subject in bold type by the corresponding word or word combination given below:
The female patient was known to complain of skin irritation.

1. the nurse; the physician; the surgeon; the male patient; 2. to suffer from continuous bleeding; to perform an emergency surgery; to give blood and serum transfusion; to reveal digestion disturbances.

Finish the sentences:
1. Acute cholecystitis is known

a) to be characterized by pains radiating to the breastbone and lumbar area; b) to be accompanied by profuse external bleeding.

2. Irregular diet as well as an emotional overstrain have been found.

a) to result in the disturbances of peripheral blood circulation; b) to contribute to the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

3. Clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma prove

a) to vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs; b) to be associated with the lesions of the central nervous system.

Translate the sentences. Find the subject in the main clause and the word acting

as a subject in the Absolute Participle construction:

1. Digestion disturbances having been present for a long period of time, the patient was prescribed a strict diet not containing any fat. 2. The patient suffering from a continuous bleeding, severe anaemia developed. 3. there being no characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis, the patient was allowed to eat various food.4. Tumour

cells being spread with the blood flow, metastases may appear in various organs.

Supply extended answers:
1. What do you know about the corticovisceral theory of ulcers? 2. Give the characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis. 3. What factors contribute to the development of gastric cancer? 4. What is the development of acute appendicitis accompanied by? 5. What did the prominent Russian scientist S. Botkin prove? 6. What pathologic changes in the human body does hepatitis produce? 7. What are three forms of cholecystitis? 8. What treatment is indicated in purulent and gangrenous forms of cholecystitis? 9. What diseases may be accompanied by jaundice?

State what diseases are spoken about in the following passages:

1. This disease is treated surgically. The operation is performed not under general but under local anesthesia. The operation must be performed immediately to prevent the development of peritonitis.

2. This disease is most commonly observed in nervous persons. Such factors as mental and emotional overstrain contribute considerably to its development. The incidence of this disease is higher in men than in women. This disease is characterized by a chronic cyclic course.

3. When the physician examines the patient with this disease he reveals severe tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen and in the umbilical area. The physician also notes slight jaundice of sclerae. The patient complains of dryness in the mouth, nausea and constipation.

Translate the sentences:
1. If Anton Leeuwenhock (1632 – 1723) [`lju:ənhuk] had not discovered the specific power of lenses, he should not have seen the world of microbes. 2. the patient’s sclerae were yellow as if he had jaundice. 3. The patient must be given vaccination lest he should become infected. 4. Chronic gastritis would not be so dangerous to life if the patient were not so young. 5. It is likely that the symptoms should recur since the process of inflammation has not been controlled yet. 6. It is necessary that the patient be administered a strict diet to control gastric pains.

Pick out appropriate phrase to end the sentences:
1. If the human body had no resistance capacity

a) people would develop any infectious diseases; b) even direct contacts with infected people would never result in diseases.

2. If a previous attack of certain infectious diseases did not produce a more or less permanent immunity

a) all of us would be a immune to any subsequent attack of a particular infection; b) people would lack resistance to subsequent infection.

3. If all of us had absolute immunity

a) antitoxins would not be able to neutralize toxins;

b) no infectious disease would ever develop in the human organism.

Pick out a noun that can be used as an attribute to each of the nouns on the right:
blood, diphtheria, lymph node, antitoxin, biopsy, meal, surgery,

barium, emergency, tissue, degeneration, period, smear


Pick out the verbs to be used with the nouns:
to complain of, to support, to prescribe, to sterilize, to eliminate, to remove

a strict diet, chills, the danger, the theory, a benign tumour, surgical instruments.

Translate the following sentences:
1. If chemotherapy had not been discontinued last week liver damage would have become too severe. 2. Profuse external bleeding had to be controlled in time lest the patient would die. 3. The physician insisted that the patient should follow a strict diet. 4. This idea is likely to be supported by everybody. 5. It is important that all surgical instruments be sterilized adequately.

Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate tense:
1. Whom … the doctor … at the hospital every day? (treat) 2. What … you … now? (study) 3. What … the surgeon already … ? (transfuse) 4. What … the surgeon .. for two hours (perform) 5. What mark … you … in Anatomy at your examination last year? (receive) 6. On what … the lecturer … yesterday at 2 o’clock? (report) 7. What … you … to do before you saw me? (decide) 8. What … the nurse … for an hour before the surgeon the operation? (sterilize) 9. In what … you … tomorrow? (take part) 10. What … you … tomorrow at 3 o’clock? (do) 11. How many patients … the doctor … tomorrow by 5 p.m.? (hospitalize)

Translate the following paying attention to the words in bold type:
1. Looking back to the great discoveries of science many of them seem so simple.

2. Having been sterilized for only a few minutes the instruments were not considered to be harmless. 3. The patient was given a little barium meal when the filling defect was being revealed. 4. Does the atmosphere air contain little or much moisture at the seaside? 5. Few effects of gastric ulcer are marked in patients during remissions, but inadequate diet is responsible for their recurrence.

Find the prefixes explain their meaning, translate the words:
indirect, subcutaneous, intratracheal, extrahepatic, aseptic, abnormality, disappear, inadequate, impossible, readmit.

Answer he questions:
1. What are infections caused by? 2. What is immunity? 3. What are toxins? 4. What are antitoxins? 5. How can artificial immunity be produced? 6. What is the role of phagocytes? 7. What are vaccines used for? 8. What is sepsis? 9. What analysis is performed to confirm the evidence of diphtheria? 10. what is a severe case of diphtheria characterized by?

Translate the following sentences:

1. If the resistance of the organism to infections were insufficient a man would suffer from numerous infectious diseases. 2. The physician wanted to know if the patient had been given diphtheria vaccination previously. 3. If there had not been ill with diphtheria the membrane would not have extended over the tonsils, pharynx and larynx.

Translate the word combinations:
health measures; to serve the population; in the near future; the quality of medical aid; women and children consultation centres; medical service; high standard of public health; total mortality rate; at the trade Union expense; the extension of the life-span; the surrounding environment; growing noises.

Translate the following sentences paying attention to the translation of the words in bold type:
1. The diagnosis of acute peritonitis due to the rupture of the gallbladder was made. 2. Since preventive vaccination was introduced into medical practice after the discovery of Edward Jenner the mortality rate from smallpox decreased considerably already in the 19th century. 3. The patient must follow bed regimen for rheumatic endocarditis affects the heart in the most unfavourable manner. 4. Since all other sources of infection can be excluded it seems that the patient became infected through indirect contact.

Express the following definitions in one word:
1. the incidence of deaths; 2. the car that carries patients to the hospital; 3. the people of a country; 4. a man who lives in the city; 5. The body of persons who are responsible for the health of people in a country; 6. all the conditions that surround us; 7. the period of the disease when the patient is recovering; 8. the medical procedure which may prevent the appearance of an infectious disease.

Translate the sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:
1. Most cases of cancer are considered incurable. 2. He is a well trained medical adviser and can give qualified medial aid to the patient. 3. thanks to the great achievements of medicine many infectious diseases have become curable. 4. It is advisable that the patient with gastric ulcer should follow a definite diet.

Express the following definitions in one word:
1. a physician who treats the diseases of the nervous system; 2. a specialist who treats the diseases of the inner organs; 3. a medical adviser who makes X-ray examinations and describes X-ray films; 4. a doctor who treats our teeth; 5. a doctor who treats mental disturbances; 6. a medical specialist who works in the field of infectious diseases; 7. a physician who treats cardiac diseases; 8. a surgeon who operates on the heart; 9. a scientist who works in the field 0f physiology; 10. a researcher who investigates the life of microorganisms.

On the basis of the formula form all the Infinitives of the verbs:
to report, to employ, to pay.
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