Abu ali ibn sino nomidagi buxoro davlat tibbiyot instituti




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TEXT D
It is common knowledge how difficult it is to examine the gastrointestinal tract. Long rubber tubes are used and the process of probing (zondlash) is known to cause th patient much discomfort. It gives only limited possibilities for the examination of the stomach and none at all for the intestine. Usual physiological methods are often ineffective for studying many important processes in the human intestine.

But a small electronic instrument called a radio-pill helps the physician in this matter. It is a small tube less than two cm long and only some millimetres in diameter. A very small transistor – transmitter is inside the tube.

The patient swallows this radio-pill which passes along gastrointestinal tract sending information on pressure, temperature, gastric secretion, the lever of acidity, etc., thus helping the physician to reveal all the pathologic changes.


LESSON 46

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS


  1. Qavsi bog’lovchi tushirib qoldirilgan? Gaplarni tarjima qiling:

1. When the urinalysis was ready the physician received all the findinds he had insisted on. 2. The surgeon considered the appendix had to be removed immediately because its rupture might cause peritonitis. 3. Almost everything the physician had determined by physical methods of examination was confirmed by laboratory findings. 4. In all the patients except the one the cardiologist has not yet examined the diagnosis of cardiac insufficiency was made.

II. 1. Tekst E ni o’qing. 2. Quyidagi so’zlarning ekvivalentini toping:
sarg’ish tusga kiradi, kuchli qichima, e’tiborsiz qoldirilgan hollarda, oddiy og’irlashishi.

TEXT E. JAUNDICE
Jaundice is a symptom common to many disturbances and diseases of the liver, such as obstruction of the bile ducts, cancer, etc. In jaundice the skin and the sclerae take on a yellowish colour which may vary in its intensity. Even the serum of the blood is bile coloured. Jaundice is frequently accompanied by severe itching. The pulse is usually slow, and there is a tendency to hemorrhage. In advanced cases nervous symptoms may develop. Jaundice being caused by obstruction. The bile cannot pass to the intestines and the stools are of a white colour. The urine is deeply coloured. In toxicjaundice the stools may be of normal colour or deeply bile coloured.

Infectious jaundice in adults has been found to be due to a virus. It is characterized by fever, vomiting, jaundice and hemorrhage from the nose, intestines, etc. Jaundice is not a rare complication in case of severe intoxication.




III. Memorize the reading and meaning of the medical terms: diabetes diabetes [,daiə`bi:tIs] diabet;

biopsy [`baIəpsI] biopsiya;

pigmentation [,pIgmən`teI∫n] bo’yash, pigmentatsiya;

stasis [`steIsIs] to’xtash, staz, dimlanish;

rash [ræ∫] toshma.

IV. Finish the following definitions and answer the questions:

1. The disease of the endocrine system caused by a large amount of sugar in the blood is … 2. The colouring of the skin caused by some disturbances in the body is … . 3. The diagnostic examination of the tissue taken from a living body is … . 4. An unusual eruption (toshma) on the skin mostly caused by some infectious disease is … 5. The disturbance of blood circulation that causes blood to stop at a certain portion of a vessel is … .


What is: a) pigmentation; b) rash; c) diabetes; d) stasis; e) biopsy?

V. 1. Read Text F. 2. Translate the second paragraph; a) name the findings of the physical examination; b) state the abnormalities revealed by laboratory analyses; 3) Summarize the essence of each paragraph in a sentence so as to make the plan of the case history:
Text F. Hepatic Damage due to Chemotherapy
1. A 50-year old woman had been known to have diabetes for 20 years. Her condition had been controlled by diet and administration of 100 units of insulin preparation daily. In an afford to improve the intensity of her control she had been given in addition 1gr of chlorpropamide 1 per day.

2. About three weeks later she noted general malaise, weakness and loss of appetite, followed in a few days by the discovery of dark urine, light stools and rash on her trunk. With the passage of an additional week by which tim she had taken a total of 27 gr. of chlorpropamide, she noted jaundice. There was no pain, fever, nausea, or vomiting. Her past history did not reveal liver or bile duct diseases. She was hospitalized on October 10 for further studies.

3. The findings of the physical examination showed the presence of jaundice and diffuse rash on the chest and abdomen. The liver was enlarged and there was tendernesson palpation.

4. The blood analysis revealed serum bilirubin to be at the level of 8.9 mg %, the hemoglobin level was 11.6 gr % and the white blood cell count 7.600 per cubic millimetere. Platelets averaged to 490.000 per cubic millimetre urinalysis revealed the presence of bile.

5. The biopsy of the liver performed on October 16 showed normal liver structure. There was mild pigmentation of Kupffer cells and slight sarillary bile statis. Some inflammatory reaction in the portal tracts was noted but inflammatory or degenerative changes were observed in the hepatic cells.

6. The patient was discontinued chemotherapy with chlorpropamide and her diabetes was controlled by a diet containing 150 gr of carbohydrates, 75 gr of proteins and 80 gr of fats and the administration of 80 units of insulin preparation daily.

7. Her symptoms having been revealed after a month’s treatment, the patient was discharged on November 14. She complained of neither jaundice nor any other symptoms when she was seen for a follow-up examination three months later.
Notes


  1. chlorpropamide xlorpropamid (preparat nomi);

  2. Kupffer [`kupfə] cells – jigardagi Kipfer hujayralari.


LESSON 47
CLASS ASSIGMENTS
Revision
I. Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling va murakkab egani toping:

1. Jaundice is known to be present in the diseases of liver as well as the diseases of intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ducts. 2. The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma are known to be epigastric pains, loss of weight, nausea and vomiting of blood. 3. Too hot food is supposed to contribute to the development of gastritis.


II. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling:

1. qur-qur tutadigan bezgak; 2. yomon sifatli o’sma; 3. uzoq qon ketishidan aziyat chekmoq; 4. hoshilinch jarrohlik operatsiyasini o’tkazmoq; 5. qon va plazma quyish; 6. 12-barmoq ichak yarasi diagnozini taxmin qilmoq; 7. hazm qilishning buzilganni aniqlamoq; 8. axlat tutilishiga sabab bo’lmoq; 9. teri qichishidan shikoyat qilmoq.


III. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini taqsimlang:


  1. Kasallik nomi

  1. Patologik o’zgarishlar.

3. Davolash muolajalari

1. gastric ulcer; 2. serum transfusion; 3. continuous haemoarrhage; 4. carcinoma; 5. anaemia; 6. intermittent fever; 7. prophylactic vaccination; 8. profuse external bleeding; 9. chemotherapy; 10. chronic gastritis; 11. dryness in the mouth; 12. acute cholecystitis; 13. parenteral injections; 14. severe nausea.


IV. Berilgan so’zlardan foydalanib, quyidagi mavzularga axborot yozing:
1. Chronic gastritis: separate; to be associated with; liver disease; the impairment; catarrhal condition; to cause; inadequate food; a bad diet regimen.

2. The incidence of gastric cancer; common; women; highest incidence; age; malignant course; young persons; the duration of the disease.

3. Acute appendicitis: sharp pains; epigastrium; to become generalized; breathing in; to be accompanied by; retention of stools, temperature; blood analysis.

4. Acute cholecystitis: inflammatory disease; bile duct; frequent; gallbladder; to occur; to be associated with; the forms of cholecystitis; involve; the liver; purulent; gangrenous; catarrhal.




V. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. a) mustaqil sifatdosh oborotli; b) murakkab egali gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Peritonit kasalligi belgilari haqida gapirib bering. 4. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini inglizcha ekvivalentlarini toping:
shoshilinch operatsiya, teshilgan yara, tarqalgan yiringli peritonit, qorin bo’shlig’ining kovak organlari, tuzatishga sezilarli yordam beradi
Text A. Peritonitis
Peritonitis is known to be general or localized, acute or chronic, primary or secondary.

Acute general purulent peritonitis is believed to be due to perforation of one of the hollow abdominal organs. The most frequent causes are perforating appendicitis, inflammatory conditions of the female sex organs and perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers.

The main symptoms of this condition are vomiting, pain and tenderness in the abdomen, it being considerably enlarged due to the presence of fluid there. The temperature is known to be moderately elevated, the pulse rate being considerably changed. The blood analysis usually reveals leucocytosis.

This condition is extremely dangerous to the patient’s life, an emergency surgery being performed to save the patient. During the operation the primary focus of peritonitis is to be removed, the danger for the patient being eliminated.

Emergency operative treatment is known to be followed by a course of antibiotic treatment, which greatly contributes to the recovery.
HOME ASSIGNMENTS
VI. Supply extended answers to the following questions:

1. Who of the scientists proved the existence of association between a lesion of the central and peri pheral nervous systems and the development of ulcer? 2. What do you know about the corticovisceral theory of ulcers? 3. Give the characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis. 4. What factors contribute to the development of gastric cancer? 5. What is the development of acute appendicitis accompanied by? 6. What did the prominent Russan scientist S. Botkin prove? 7. What pathologic changes does hepatitis produce in the human body? 8. What three forms of cholecystitis are there? 9. What treatment is indicated in purulent and gangrenous forms of cholecystitis? 10. What diseases may be accompanied by jaundice?


VII. 1. Read Text B. 2. Say what the doctor must pay particular attention to whill examining a patient whose condition is suggestive of liver or bile duct disease:
SYMPTOMS OF DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND BILE DUCTS
When the physician is taking the patient’s medical history he must pay attention to the patient'’ working and living conditions, the diet which the patient follows, the history of past diseases, particularly of those of the alimentary tract, and the condition of the nervous and endocrine systems, because a hepatic disease is often directly associated with these factors.

For example, overeating, particularly of fatty foods, alcoholism may sometimes suggest the diagnosis of the fatty degeneration of the liver. A persistent lesion of the liver may be observed after Botkin’s disease and in chronic infections. Involvement of the liver and bile ducts is often found after gastrointestinal diseases, gastritis being one of them.

The patient’s complaints of loss of weight, pain in the right hypochondrium and abdominal enlargement may contribute to the proper diagnosis of the diseases of the liver and bile ducts. Among the characteristic symptoms of a hepatic disease are a yellowish colour of the skin, sclerae and of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, dilatation of the veins in the umbilical area, tenderness in the left and right hypochondrium.

Palpation and percussion of the liver and spleen may supply important evidence for a diagnosis. The size of the liver may be enlarged or contracted, it may be soft or firm, its surface may be nodular, the lower border may be sharp – all these findings enable the physician not to doubt an adequate diagnosis.



UNIT 5. INFECTIOUS DISEASES

LESSON 48


Grammatika: Shart ergash gaplar. Shart mayli.

Should va would ni ishlatilish hollari.

Bog’lovchilar va bog’lovchi so’zlar. Kesim belgilari.




CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

  1. Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling va tarjimani tushintirib bering:

1. It is necessary that the group of blood be determined before transfusion is given to the patient. 2. The physician suggested that the electrocardiogram should be repeated. 3. He looked as if he were very tired. 4. It is very likely that hemoglobin level should decrease in the course of the disease. 5. It is better to operate on immediately lest the appendix should rupture. 6. The doctor insisted that chemotherapy be discontinued. 7. I wish the findings of the laboratory analyses be better.



  1. 1. O’qing va ajratilgan so’zlarni qaysi so’z turkumi ekanligini aniqlang. 2. Ularni yodlang. 3. Gaplarni tarjima qiling:

  1. The physician wanted to know where the tenderness was localized. 2. In order to prevent the fatal outcome the emergency surgery was performed. 3. The patient has injured his left leg as well as the right arm. 4. Though cardiac insufficiency has been controlled the patient is still following a bed regimen. 5. The baskache was not so sharp as that in the chest. 6. The patient recovered sooner than we had expected. 7. The doctor knew well how to prevent the development of delirium and prostration in case of di phtheria




  1. Quyidagi gaplarda kesimni toping va qaysi belgilar orqali aniqlashingizni ayting:

  1. Tens of thousands of medical institutions function in our country. 2. The state foots all the allocations for public health. 3. On physical examination the doctor revealad extensive skin irritation. 4. The bile duct obstruction may be accompanied gy the pain in the umbilical and hypochondriac areas. 5. Nobody has supported this diagnosis.



VI. Avval rus tilidagi ma’nosiga mos keluvchi so’zlarni, keyin mos kelmaydigan so’zlarni o’qing:

immunity [I`mju:nItI]; invasion [In`veIzn]; natural [`næt∫rəl]; absolute [`æbsəlu:t]; antidote [`æntIdout]; specific [spe`sIfIk]; neutralize [`nju:trəlaIz]; vital [`vaItl].

V. Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang. Gaplarni tarjima qiling:

lack [læc] υ yetishmaslik, yetishmovchilik. The patient was lacking red blood cells.

relative [`relətIv] a biror narsaga tgishli, tufayli. Relative association was established in those two cases. This article was relative to the larest developments in genetics.

previous [`pri:vjəs] a oldin, avvalgi.The previous attack of pain was particularly severe.

injure [`Indzə] υ ziyon yetkazmoq, jarohatlamoq, yaralamoq. The patient developed acute pain because of the injured leg.

inject [In`dzekt] υ suyiqlik kiritmoq (dori); ineksiya qilmoq. Tuberculin was injectedto this patient.

subcutaneous [`s/\bkju`teInjəs] a teri ostiga. Subcutaneous injections were given to this patient daily.

employ [Im`ploI] υ qo'llamoq, ishlatmoq.


  1. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining inglizcha ekvivalentini toping:


to’g’ridan –to’g’ri aloqa, qarshilikning muhim xususiyat, turli sharoitlarda, tuzalish boshlanadi, har qanday infeksiyaning mavjudligi.
IMMUNITY
Infectious diseases are known to be caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body. Infection may result from direct contact with patients or from indirect one.

But the human organism is known to have a specific capacity of resistance against infection, which is called immunity, it being natural and artifical. Under various conditions it may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute. A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against its subsequent infection.

In the course of their growth in the body many pathogenic microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins, they causing the characteristic symptoms of particular disease. To meet the infection the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount of this antidote to neutralize the toxins before the vital organs are injured recovery occurs. If the human body had not this capacity we should suffer from all infectious diseases.

If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men an artifical immunity can be produced which results from the formation of antitoxin

The cellular elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against the infection. The presence of any infection usually produces leucocytosis and bacteria in the tissues are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread of bacteria destroying them.

If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protectivemechanisms of the body. Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease, but to establish an active artificial immunity.



HOME ASSIGNMENTS

VII. Translate:

1. If Anton Leeuwenhock (1632 – 1723) [``æntən lju:ənhuk] had not discovered the specific power of lenses, he should not have seen the world of microbes. 2. The patient’s sclerae were yellow as if he had jaundice. 3. The patient must be given vaccination lest he should become infected. 4. Chronic gastritis would not be so dangerous to life if the patient were not so young. 5. It is likely that the symptoms should recur since the process of inflammation has not been controlled yet. 6. It is necessary that the patient be administered a strict diet to control gastric pains.




  1. 1. Read Text B. 2. Determine the meaning of the words in bold type from the context. 3. Say about what Pasteur spoke in his lecture. 4. What conclusion have you come to having read the text?

Text B. ASEPSIS
If all the works carried out by the great French researcher Pasteur were divided into three groups they would form three great discoveries.

The first one might be formulated thus: “Each fermentation is produced by the development of a particular microbe.”

The second one might be given this formula: “Each infectious disease is produced by the development of a particular microbe within the human organism.”

The third one might be the following: “The microbe of an infectious disease, under certain conditions, is attenuated in its pathogenic activity; from a microbe it becomes a vaccine.”

In 1878 while delivering his lecture on the theory of microbes at the academy of Sciences in Paris Pasteur said that if he were surgeon, who knew of the dangers produced by microbes existing on the surface of every object, particularly in hospitals, not should he use clean instruments, but after washing his hands with the greatest care, he would employ only those bandages and charpie which had been heated to a temperature of 130o or 150o C.

If he employed the water he would heat it to temperature of 110o or 120o C, sine observation had shown the clearest water to contain still greater number or microbes.

Had those principles of asepsis, on which Pasteur insisted, not been strictly followed in medicine thousands of human lives would have bee lost because of sepsis.

Notes

1. to attenuate [ə`tenjueIt] – kuchsizlantirmoq;

2. charpie [`a:pI] – karpiya, jaronatni bog’lash uchun iplar.
LESSON 49

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

I. So’zlarning o’qilishini eslab qoling. Quyida ularning tarjimasini toping

diphtheria [dIf``θIərIə], prostration [pros`treI∫ə], tonsil [`tonsl], larynx [`lærIŋks], toxemia [tok`si:mIə],delirium [dI`lIriəm], disintegrate [dIs`IntIgreIt].


qonning zararlanishi; prostratsiya, holdan toyish; alahsirash; alahsirash holati; difteriya; bodomsimon bez; hiqildoq

II. Quyidagi so’zlarni yod oling:

backache [`bækeIk] n beldagi og’riq;

smear [`smIə] n mazok, surtma;

culture [`k/\lt∫ə] n o’qish; bakteriyalar o’stirish;

extreme [Iks`tri:m] a favquloddagi;

convalescence [,konvə`lesns] n sog’ayish;

fatal [`feItl] a o’limga olib boruvchi;

outcome [`autk/\m] n oxir, o’lim.


III. 1. Tekst C ni o’qing. 2. Majhul nisbat, murakkab to’ldiruvchi ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining inglizcha ekvivalentini toping:

harorat doimiy emas edi, puls notekis edi, biroz ortgan miqdor, mazok (surtma), o’qish uchun olindi, bodomsimon bezdagi qoplama; tomoqni tozalash
4. Vrach nomidan tekstni so’zlab bering:
Text C. Diphtheria
The patient was a seven–year–old girl. Her fever was irregular and considerably elevated. The general symptoms, such as headache and backache were not severe, but her pulse was weak and irregular. The urinalysis revealed protein to be present in a slightly increased amount.

The patient’s throat being examined, the physician noticed it be coated with a membrane. To make an adequate diagnosis the smear was taken for culture which revealed diphtheria bacilli. If diphtheria bacilli had not been revealed in the smear the doctor might have doubted in making the diagnosis.

The disease having prostration became marked. The membranes which had been seen at first on the tonsils were spreading to the pharynx and larynx.

The patient received an adequate treatment with diphtheria antitoxin which contributed to the clearning up of the throat. Had the antitoxin treatment not been employed so soon toxemia would have been intense and delirium and prostration extreme or heart failure, respiratory paralysis or bronco – pneumonia might have developed.

After four or five days the membrane which had been extending over the tonsils, pharynx, and larynx began to loosen (yumshamoq) and disintegrate. In 10 days convalescence was noted to have advanced favourably and the danger of a fatal outcome was considered to have been completely eliminated.
IV. Ushbu so’zlarni qo’llab kasallik tarixini yozing:

to be admitted to the hospital, to complain of, on physical axamination, symptoms, to reveal, laboratory findings, antitoxin treatment, the course of the disease, convalescence.


HOME ASSIGNMENTS


  1. Translate into English:

1.o’limga olib boruvchi oqibat; 2. qon mazoki (surtma); 3. oqargan (qoplangan) til; 4. qonning yomon zararlanishi; 5. alahsirash holati; 6. o’ta toliqish; 7. tuzalish bir maromda edi (asoratsiz).



  1. Translate into Uzbek:

1. If chemotherapy had not been discontinued last week liver damage would have become too severe. 2. Profuse external bleeding had to be controlled in time lest the patient would die. 3. The physician insisted that the patient should follow a strict diet. 4. This idea is likely to be supported by everybody. 5. It is important that all surgical instruments be sterilized adequately.



  1. 1. Translate the exract using a dictionary. 2. Entitle it:


TEXT D
Mary was achild of seven or eight. Doctor Martinfound her lips and fingers blue, and her face pale. From time to time she made an effort to breathe deeply and coughed up much saliva with grayish specks.

It was, he considered, quinsy or diphtheria. Probably diphtheria. No time now for bacteriological examinations and many other clinical tests. The doctor was watching the girl nervously trying her pulse again and again.

Doctor Martin decided to get diphtheriaantitoxin from the nearby town and asked the child’s father to ring up the chemist’s there.

Martin was waiting nervously looking at the child. her hoarse breathingbecame terrible. Should he operate: cut into the larynx so that she might breathe?

He had to do something, “get a few hot towels and keep them arond her neck “martin said to the child’s mother. At that moment the child’s father appeared telling him that there was nobody at the chemist’s. “Then listen. I am afraid this may be serious. I must get some antitoxin. I am going to drive to town myseif. You continue these hot applications. And the room must be moister. So keep a little boiling water here. No use of medicine now. I’ll be back soon.”

(From “Arrowsmith” by Sinclair Lewis)


LESSON 50
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS
Revision
I. Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:

1. If the patient had been infected whit food poisons he would have suffered from acute abdominal pains. 2. It is necessary that the patient should be rehospitalized next week. 3. The physician suggested that a sufficient dose of vaccine should be injected subcutaneously. 4. It is important that diphtheria antitoxin treatment should contribute to the convalescence of the patient. 5. The patient was recommended to follow the treatment for another week lest chills and backache should recur.


II. Gaplarning ma’nosiga mos so’zlarni topib qo’ying:

1. (Little, a little) blood is sufficient to carry out the clinical analysis. 2. If (many, much) leucocytes and rapid sedimentation rate are revealed the physician may suggest the presence of infection. 3. During the operation the surgeon noted that (much, many) of the peritoneum had been involved in the pathologic process.


III. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Infeksion kasalliklarning 4 ta guruhiga tavsif bering. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarininginglizcha ekvivalentlarini ko’chiring:
yuqishning(alohida)yo’li, yo’tal yoki suhbat paytida, tomchi ko’rinishida, turli predmetlar

The Origin Of Infections
The infectious diseases of man are usually divided into two large groups some diseases affect only, man others affect both man and animals, with man most frequently infected from animals.

Every infectious disease has not only characteristic clinical manifestations but also its own specific way of invasion into the human body.

Such a disease as dysentery [dsntr], which is one of the disease of the intestinal infections, is spread through the intestines and stools.

The infections of the respiratory tract compose the second subgroup. During coughing or talking the pathogens are discharged from the infected organism with the mucus. The infection is spread when the air containing drops of mucus with the pathogens in it, is breathed in. The diseases of this subgroup are diphtheria, smallpox, etc.

The diseases of the third subgroup are spread through the skin and the mucous in which the pathogens multiply. In some cases it is the skin, in others it is the mucous membrane of the eye. Direct contact and various things belonging to the sick may be responsible for spreading the infective agent.

The diseases of the fourth subgroup are spread by living insects. The pathogens causing these infections circulate in the blood or lymph and are not discharged from the organism. The insects become infected as they ingest (surmoq) the blood of a diseased man. They become infectious for other people after the pathogens have multiplied in their organism. All these diseases, of which encephalitis [,ensefə’laitis] is an example, are called blood infections.


HOME ASSIGNMENTS
IV. Find the prefixes explain their meaning, translate the words:

indirect, subcutaneous, intratracheal, extrahepatic, aseptic, abnormality, disappear, inadequate, impossible, readmit.


V. Give the words of:

a) the close meaning: an end, to use, former, a shortage, arecovery, to damage, having connection with;

b) the opposite meaning; to evacuate, an outcome, artificial, favourable previous, to connect, relative.


  1. Translate into Enlish:

1.o’pkaning hayot sig’imi; 2.tabiiy immuntet; 3.sun’iy immunitet; 4.har xil sharoitlarda; 5.keyingi infeksiyalar; 6.oldingi xuruj; 7.yetarli miqdor; 8.vaksinani teri ostiga yuborish; 9.bakteriyalarning tarqalishini oldini olish; 10.leykositoz chaqirmoq; 11.hayotiy organlarni zararlamoq; 12.faol qarshilik.
VII. Make up the sentences choosing the appropriate subject:

  1. The patient …

  2. Malaria …

  3. Continuous fever …

  4. Bronchitis …




  1. was always and still is one of the most common and fatal diseases of the tropics.

  2. is characterized by persisting temperature which varies slightly during the night.

  3. in children, the weak and the aged is influenced more favourably by warm, moist air.

  4. who had injured his right arm and had several deep wounds on it was injected 1.500 units of antitetanic serum.




  1. Answer he questions:

1. What are infectionc caused by? 2. What is immunity? 3. What are toxins? 4. What are antitoxins? 5. How can artificial immunity be produced? 6. What is the role of phagocytes? 7. What are vaccines used for? 8. What is sepsis? 9. What analysis is performed to confirm the evidence of diphtheria? 10. What is a severe case of diphtheria characterized by?


  1. Translate into English using the Subjunctive Mood:

Sizning o’rninggizda:

1. men bu dorini teri ostiga yuborardim. 2. men vaksinatsiyani mana shu hollarda qo’llardim. 3. men pathogen mikroblar ko’payoshini tekshirgan bo’lar edim.


X. Read text B and retell it:
Edward Jenner
Edward [‘edwəd] Jenner [‘dзenə] was born in 1749. He was an English physician, the discoverer of vaccination. Jenner studied medicine in London. He began practice in 1773 when he was twenty-four years old.

Edward Jenner liked to observe and investigate ever since he was a boy. His persistent scientific work resulted in the discovery of vaccination against smallpox. For many years every infant when it was about a year old was vaccinated against this disease. The vaccination was effective for a prolonged period of time. Now vaccination against smallpox is not carried out because this disease has been stamped out (chiqarib tashlamoq) in our country.

In Jenner’s days one out of every five persons in London carried the marks of this disease on his face. But there were few people who recovered from the disease, because in the 18th century smallpox was one of the main causes of death.

The disease had been common for centuries in many countries of Asia. The Turks (turklar) had discovered that a person could be prevented from a serious attack of smallpox by being infected with a mild form of the disease.

One day Jenner heard a woman say: “I cannot catch smallpox, I’ve had the cowpox”. That moment led to Jenner’s continuous investigations and experiments.

The first child whom Jenner introduced the substance from cowpox vesicles [vesiklz] (pufakcha) obtained from the wound of diseased woman was Jimmy Phipps. It was in 1796. For the following two years Jenner continued his experiments. In 1798 he published the report on his discovery. He called his new method of preventing smallpox “vaccination”, from the Latin word vacca, that is “a cow”.

At first people paid no attention to his discovery. One doctor even said that vaccination might cause people to develop cow’s faces.

But very soon there was no part of the world that had not taken up vaccination. Thousands of people were given vaccination and smallpox began to disappear as if by magic.


XORIJIY MANBALAR

1. htpp:www.bearingpoint.uz.

2. htpp:wwwiqlib.ru.book.preview

3. htpp:window.edu.ru/window/library

4. htpp:www.izdat-bspu.narod.ru/books.10.htm

5. htpp:netstate.com.

6. htpp:www.rbtl.ru

7. htpp:book.vsem.ru



MUSTAQIL ISH MASHG’ULOTLARI MAVZULARI


Mavzu tartib raqami

M A V Z U N O M I

Ajratilgan o’quv soatlari

1-mavzu

Shart mayli mavzusiga doir 20 ta gap tuzish.

2 soat

2- mavzu

Shart mayli mavzusiga oid mashqlar bajarish.

2 soat

3- mavzu

“Should” ning ishlatilishi mavzusida 15 ta gap tuzish.

2 soat

4- mavzu

“Would” ning ishlatilishi mavzusida 15 ta gap tuzish.

2 soat

5- mavzu

Referat № 1 “Public Health in Uzbekis-tan” mavzusida matn tuzish va ushbu matnni tarjima qilish.

2 soat

6- mavzu

Matn asosida reja tuzish va aytib berish.

2 soat

7- mavzu

Matndan foydalanib dialog tuzish.

2 soat

8- mavzu

Ergash gaplar haqida ma’lumot.

2 soat

9- mavzu

Ergash gaplarga doir 15 ta gap tuzish.

2 soat

10- mavzu

Bog’lovchisiz qo’shma gaplar ishtrokida 20 ta gap tuzish.

2 soat

11- mavzu

“Medical Service in Uzbekistan” mavzu-sida matn tuzish.

12 - mavzu

Referat № 2 “The diseases of the Alimentary Tract ” mavzusiga doir mate-riallar tanlash va tarjima qilish.

2 soat

13- mavzu

Tanlangan materiallar bo’yicha matn tuzish, yangi so’zlar ishtrokida gaplar tuzish.

2 soat

14- mavzu

Matn asosida reja tuzish va gapirib berish.

2 soat

15- mavzu

“The diseases of the Alimentary Tract ” mavzusiga doir dialog tuzish.

2 soat

16- mavzu

Internet ma’lumotlari bilan ishlash. “Botkin’s Disease” matni bo’yicha monolog tuzish.

2 soat

17-mavzu

TEXT: My future profession

2 soat

18- mavzu

TEXT: The man who discovered chloroform

2 soat

19- mavzu

TEXT: Oxford Colleges

2 soat

20- mavzu

TEXT: “Lobular Pneumonia”.

2 soat

21- mavzu

TEXT: “Medical. Education. in Uzbekistan”

2 soat

22- mavzu

TEXT: “The Skeleton”

2 soat

23- mavzu

TEXT: “Medical. Education the USA”

2 soat

24- mavzu

TEXT: “An interesting meeting”.

2 soat

25- mavzu

TEXT:”Tracheitis”

2 soat

26- mavzu

TEXT: “The bones and the muscles”

2 soat

27- mavzu

TEXT: “Lung abscesse”

2 soat

28- mavzu

TEXT:“Restored to Health”.

2 soat

29- mavzu

TEXT:“Classes and Examinations”.

2 soat

30- mavzu

TEXT:“The Physiology of the Lungs”.

2 soat

31- mavzu

TEXT:“Microorganisms”.

2 soat

32- mavzu

TEXT:“Our first Examination session”.

2 soat
1   ...   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32


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