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V. Quyidagi ma’lumotlarni eslab qoling:

Do you know that …

1. … the movement of food in the intestines of a healthy person may last from 17 to 72 hours; 2. … milk products contain about 100 substances useful for men; 3. … salt consists of two poisons, whoch are so combined chemically in such a way that we can eat it; 4. … the amount of gastric juice secreted in the stomach within 24 hours is 1,5-2 litres.



HOME ASSIGNMENTS
VI. Changethe sentences using Complex Subject:

1. It is know that spring and autumn are those seasons when the ulcer patients suffer from the recurrence of the disease. 2. It is considered that constant fatigue, the lesions of the nervous system and past diseases contribute to the onset of gastritis. 3. It appeared that the characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease were haemorrhage, vomiting and nausea.


VII. Finish the sentences according to Text A:

1. The corticovisceral theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer was a further development of … . 2. Male patients at the ages of 25 to 40 are known to suffer from ulcers more … . 3. At the onset of the disease the patients with ulcer complain of pain which is … . 4. According to corticovisceral theory it has been proved that gastric and duodenal ulcers are due to … . 5. It is known that an irregular diet as well as emotional overstrain may … . 6. In young patients the course of ulcer may have no … . 7. The scientists consider that the lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system lead to … .


VIII. Answer the following questions:

  1. What does salt consist of? 2. How much gastric juice is secreted in the stomach within 24 hours? 3. What substances do milk products contain? 4. How many hours may the movement of food in the intestines of a healthy person last?


IX. 1.Read Text B. 2. Name the factors contributing to the development of gastritis. 3. Say about what symptoms of gastritis you have learned from the text:

CHRONIC GASTRITIS
The term “chronic gastritis” must be limited to those cases in which evidences of inflammation or catarrhal changes in the stomach are clear.

Chronic gastritis is known to occur as a separate or primary disease or it may be associated with other diseases, particularly chronic liver and kidney disease. In these diseases chronic impairment of the mucous membrane of the stomach is an important factor in causing the catarhal condition.

The most important causes of chronic gastritis proved to be alcohol, inadequate food and a bad diet regimen.

The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis are an increased secretion of mucus and a diminished secretion of acid and pepsin. In severe forms gastritis secretion is observed to be completely reduced and even absent due to the lesion of the mucus membrane.

The most frequent symptoms of chronic gastritis are loss of appetite, slight pain and general epigastric discomfort after meals. In severe cases nausea and vomiting of mucus, particularly in the morning, are often observed Frequentlu the stomach becomes moderately enlarged.

The course of the disease is chronic and the symptoms are continuous. The may become worse from time to time if a sick person does not follow the diet regimen strictly.



LESSON 41

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS

  1. Quyidagi so’zlarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:

cancer [`kænsə]; carcinoma [,a:sI`noumə]; aetiology [i:tI`olədзI]; tumour [`tju:mə]; epigastric [,epI`gæstrIk]; anaemia [ə`ni:mjə]


  1. Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang:

malignant [mə`lIgnənt] a yomon sifatli;

hot [hot] a issiq;

suggest [sə`dзest] v fikrga olib bormoq, tavsiya etmoq;

support [sə`po:t]v qo’llab-quvvatlamoq;

hereditary [hI`redItərI] a irsiy;

node [noud] n tuguncha, o’sma;

digestion [dI`dзest∫ən] n hazm bo’lishi;

bleeding [`bli:dIŋ] n qon ketishi;

remain [rImeIn] v qolmoq;

empty [`emptI] a bo’sh.


  1. Ustunlari bo’yicha so’zlarni taqsimlang:




  1. Kasalliklar nomi

  1. Patologik simptomlari nomi

angina pectoris, perspiration, murmur, intermittent fever, benign and malignant tumours, occlusion, dullness, crepitation, fatigue, ulcer, haemorrhage, epigastric pain, carcinoma, loss of appetite and weight, pleurisy, anaemia, fibrillation, vomiting, nausea.




  1. 1. Tekst C ni o’qing. 2. Murakkab ega bo’lgi ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Tekst bo’yich savollar tuzing:

CANCER OF THE STOMACH
Gastric carcinoma is a frequent form of cancer causing about 35-40% of all deaths from malignant tumors.

This disease is more common in men than in women. The highest incidence is noted at ages of 50 to 60. Gastric carcinoma is known to have a more malignant course in young persons than in old age. The duration of gastric cancer from the appearance of its first manifestations to death is not longer than 1 – 2 years.

The etiology of cancer is unknown. But such pathologic conditions as benign tumors, ulcer of the stomach, gastritis and stomach polyps have been determined to contribute considerably to its development.

According to certain data the use of too hot or too cold food, smoking and alcohol are considered to be responsible for the development of stomach carcinoma.

In the past few years a virus theory of cancer has been suggested. Though this theory is supported by many it has not yet been proved. For a long time many scientists have been discussing the importance of hereditary factors in the development of cancer. The hereditary theory has not yet been confirmed either (ham).

The clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs. The main symptoms of gastric carcinoma are known to be disturbance in gastric digestion, epigastria pains, loss of weight and sometimes vomiting of blood. A prolonged, usually external, profuse bleeding results in severe anemia. The appetite is usually reduced.


HOME ASSIGNMENTS


  1. Choose the appropriate word. Translate the sentences:

1. (Malignant, benign) tumours are known to cause numerous metastases (involving, improving) various internal organs. 2. In the presence of anaemia the red blood cell count is considerably (increased, reduced). 3. Gastric carcinoma appears to be more (common, rare) in the male than in the female.
VI. Use Complex Subject instead of the subordinate clause:

1. It was reported that the patient had been suffering from the digestion disturbances for several years. 2. It seems that the pathologic changes in the gastric mucous membrane due to chronic gastritis are responsible for the development of malignant tumours of the stomach. 3. It was stated that the patient had developed anaemia after profuse bleeding caused by perforating ulcer.



VII. Read and translate the following words:

epigastrium [,epI`gæstrIəm], peritonitis [,perItə`naItIs], metastasis [me`tæstəsIs], barium [`bεərIəm], degeneration [dI,dznə`reI∫n].



VIII. 1. Read Text D. 2. Entitle it. 3. Characterize the pain in this disease. 4. Why is the prevention of this disease so important?
TEXT D
In gastric carcinoma pain is felt in the epigastrium and the patient often complains of the feeling of pressure in the stomach area. Pain may become severe when the tumour involves the pancreas, in peritonitis, and metastases into the bones.

The gastric juice is known to contain much mucus, leucocytes and tumour cells. In the majority of cases gastric secretion proves to be considerably reduced.

The X-ray examination is particularly important for the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. It reveals the so-called filling defect, when some areas of the stomach remain empty after barium meal has been taken.

Preventive measures are carried out extensively to reveal the early signs of gastric cancer. An adequate therapy of ulcers and chronic gastritis is widely used not to result in malignant degeneration.



LESSON 43
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS
I. C tekstining mazmuni bo’yicha to’g’ri javobni tanlang:

1. What appetite has the patient suffering from gastric carcinoma?

a) It is increased;

b) It is reduced.

2. What do the clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with?

a) They vary with the stage of the development of the disease;

b) They vary with the age and sex of the patient.

3. At what age is the highest incidence of gastric carcinoma observed?

a) It is observed at the age from twenty to thirty;

b) It is observed at the age from fifty to sixty.



II. Tekst E ni tarjima qiling. Mazmunini so’zlab bering:
Text E. Intestinal Tumours
Many forms of tumours are known to occur in the intestines, but we shall limit our attention to the commonest, which is cancer. This generally leads to chronic intestinal obstruction and its accompanying symptoms. In addition there are the usual symptoms of cancerous invasion – loss of weight and strength, progressive anaemia and pain of varying degree depending on the part affected. Any portion of the intestines may be affected by carcinoma, but the usual areas are the upper part of the colon, the sigmoid and the rectum. In the latter situation the obstruction may be felt on rectal examination. In cancer of the colon and sigmoid a tumour is usually well palpable, the esophagus above the tumour is often pasing in the direction of the obstruction.

III. Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang va gaplarni tarjima qiling:

retention [rI`ten∫n] n tutilish. The retention of urine is one of the clinical manifestations of a kidney disease.

stool [stu:l] n axlat. The laboratory analysis of the stool did not reveal any blood.

tenderness [`tendənIs] n og’riqlilik. The patient complained of a moderate tenderness on palpation.

remove [rI`mu:v] υ yo’q qilmoq. The surgeon removed the tumour which involved the stomach.
IV. Murakkab to’ldiruvchi yoki murakkab egani qo’llab gaplarni tarjima qiling:

1. Ma’lumki, o’n ikki barmoq ichakning yorilgan yarasi ko’p hollarda ko’p qon ketish bilan kechadi. 2. Ma’lumki, siydik tutilishi buyrak kasalligining klinik manzaralaridandir. 3. Vaqti-vaqti bilan bo’lib turadigan lixoratka tuberkulyoz kasalligining ko’p hollarida uchrar ekan. 5. Studentlar otorinolaringolog tomoqdan narsa olayotganini kuzatib turdilar.


HOME ASSIGNMENTS
V. Translate into Russian:

1. The surgeon did not doubt that he could perform this operation under local anaesthesia. 2. Gangrenous forms of appendicitis are dangerous to life because they may result in peritonitis. 3. The retention of stool may be due to the inflammatory process in the appendix. 4. During the operation the upper lobe of the lung was removed since a malignant tumour had been revealed there. 5. After the attack of acute appendicitis had been controlled the patient complained of a moderate tenderness on palpation.




  1. 1. Read and translate text F. 2. Put questions on text. 3. Retell it:


Text F. Appendicitis
Acute appendicitis is known to occur inn all age groups. Its incidence varies in different sex groups; it is more frequent in women from 20 to 40 years of age. Cases of appendicitis have been noted to occur even in very old age.

Acute appendicitis is know to begin suddenly with sharp pains which are at first felt in epigastrium but then become generalized in the abdomen. The pain becomes. The pain becomes worse on deep breathing in and conghing, it does not radiate and is accompanied by nausea, retention of stools and gases.

The temperature is normal or subfebrile and there is moderate leucocytosis. The ESR is initially normal. With the development of the disease temperature elevation is observed and ESR becomes increased. The pulse is quick but it is found to be not more than 90-100 beats per minute. The tongue is coated and dry.

The attack of acute appendicitis is known to 3-4 days after wich time the temperature returns to normal, abdominal pains decrease and only a moderate tenderness is felt in the right lower part of the abdomen on palpation.

Acute appendicitis is treated surgically. The operation is performed not under general but under local anaesthesia.

The appendix is removed immediately to prevent its rupture which may result in peritonitis. Such forms of appendicitis as gangrenous and perforating are particularly dangerous to life. But sometimes even a mild form of appendicitis may have s severe course and may result in perforation.



UNIT 4. THE DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND BILE

DUCTS
LESSON 44


Grammatika: Mustaqil sifatdosh oboroti.



  1. Quyidagi so’zlarning o’qilishini eslab qoling. Tarjimasini toping:

hepatitis [,hepə`taItIs], viral [`vaIərə], infective [In`fektIv]

II. Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang:

hepatic [hI`pætIk] a jigarga oid;

bile [baIl] n o’t;

duct [dΛkt] n yo’l;

jaundice [`dзо:ndIs] n sariq kasal;

advance [əd`va:ns] v oldinga surmoq (teoriyani, fikrni); oldinga yurmoq;

effort [`efət] n kuch, xatti- harakat;

elderly [`eldəlI] a keksa;

survive [sə`vaIv] v tirik qolmoq; boshdan kechirmoq (operatsiyani);

source [so:s] n manba

entire [In`taIə] a butun;

subsequent [`sΛbsIkwənt] a keying;

simultaneous [,sIməl`teInjəs] a bir vaqtning o’zida.


III. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:

1. jaundice [`dзo:ndIs], severe jaundice, to suffer from severe jaundice,

jaundice was clearly marked;

2. survive [sə`vaIv], the patient survived the operation well, some viruses

survive at a high temperature;

3. source [so:s], a source of infection, a source of knowledge , the sorce of virus is a sick person;

4. inadequately [In`ædIkwItlI], inadequate, the patient was given an inadequate

dose of medicine, inadequately treated;

5. subsequently [`sΛbsIkwəntlI], subsequent, subsequent, examination, to

invade other organs subsequently;

6. simultaneously [,sIməl`temjəslI], simultaneous, simultaneous impairment, to

be impaired simultaneously.



IV. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. ‘it is … that’ kuchaytiruvchi oboroti ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Tekstni tarjima qiling:
BOTKIN’S DISEASE
Botkin’s disease, or the so-called epidemic or infectious hepatitis, is an acute viral disease affecting hepatic cells and bile ducts.

The prominent German scientist Virchow believing it to be due to obstruction of the common bile duct with mucus during inflammatory processes in the duodenum, the disease was called catarrhal jaundice.

But in 1880 the prominent scientist S. Botkin having advanced the idea of an infectious origin of this disease, proved his suggestions by such facts as the involvement in this pathologic process not only of the liver but also of the nervous system, the kidneys, the enlargement of the spleen, etc.

But it was not before 1940 that the term “Botkin’s disease” was introduced into medicine due to the efforts of the well-known physician M. Konchalovsky.

Botkin’s disease occurs in epidemic form. This disease more commonly affects children, adults as well as elderly persons suffering from it frequently too.

Botkin’s disease is known to be due to a filterable virus present in the blood liver and found in stool and urine. The virus is infective only for man. As this virus cannot be seen under a usual microscope, it is revealed only by an electronic one. Being highly virulent the virus survives in water, food, and on hands for days and weeks.


V. Teksdan so’z birikmalarining tarjimasini toping:

1. umumiy o’t yo’lining to’sig’i; 2. xatti-harakatlarga ko’ra; 3. shuningdek keksa odamlarda; 4. jigar hujayralari; 5. suvda va oziq-ovqatda yashay oladi; 6. taloq kattalashuvi; 7. o’tkir virusli kasallik; 8. yallig’lanish jarayoni.




HOME ASSIGMENTS
VI. Read the words and translate the sentences:

1. incubation [,Inkju`beI∫n]. incubation period is the time during which pathogenic microorganisms grow in the body.

2. prodromal [`prodroməl]. prodromal period is the time when the characteristic symptoms of an infectious disease have not appeared yet, but the patient feels a general malaise.

3. parenterally [pə`rentərəlI]. All intramuscular and intravenous injections are given parenterally, i. e. directly into the organisms but not orally.

4. serum [`sIərəm]. serum is the watery fluid which remains after blood has coagulated.
VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What do pathogenic microorganisms do in the human body during the period of incubation? 2. During what period of an infectious disease haven’t its characteristic symptoms appeared yet? 3. What does the term “parenterally” mean? 4. What is the watery fluid which remains afrer blood has coagulated called?


VIII. 1. Read Text B. 2. Entitle it. 3. Say how infection spreads in this disease. 4. Put 10 questions to cover all the text:
Text B.
In hepatitis the source of virus is a sick person who may spread the infection by personal contract from the last days of the incubation period during the entire course of the disease. But the infection is particularly virulent in the prodromal period and in the first week of the disease. The patient’s blood being highly infective, even a small dose of 1 ml may be dangerous for a person.

Infection enters the body through the mouth when eating infected food or drinking water, and parenterally during transfusions of blood, plasmaand serum, prophylactic vaccinations and infections due to inadequately sterilized instruments.

Epidemic hepatitis most commonly occurs late in autumn, early in winter, or in spring. The incubation period lasts from 2 to 14 days.

Botkin’s disease causes inflammatory changes and degeneration of hepatic cells and damage to the bile ducts due to which bile enters the lymph flow and subsequently the blood. The tissue of the spleen, gallbladder and the nervous and endocrine systems become involved simultaneously with the liver.



LESSON 45

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS


  1. Quyidagi so’zlar o’qilishini eslab qoling. Quyida ularning tatjimalarini toping:

cholecystitis[,kolIsIs`taItIs],intrahepatic[,IntrəhI`pætIk],extrahepatic [,ekstrəhI`pætIk], hypochondrium [,haIpo`kondrIəm], umbilical [,/\ mbI`laIkəl],

peritoneum[,perIto`ni:əm],chemotherapy[,kemo`θerəpI],



qorin, xolesistit, o’t pufagi, kimyoterapiya, dorivo terapiya, jigar ichiga oid, kindikka oid, qovurg’a osti qismi, jigar sirtiga oid


  1. Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang:

constipation [,konstI`peI∫n] n qabziyat;

irritation [,IrI`teI∫n] n qo’zg’atish, bezovta qilish;

approximately [ə`proksImItlI] adv taxminan, … ga yaqin;

emergency [I`mə:dzənsI] favqulotdagi holat; a tezkor, favquloddagi.


  1. Tekst C ni o’qing va tarjima qiling. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarning ekvivalentini toping:


ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS
Among inflammatory diseases of bile ducts the most frequent is cholecystitis or the inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is known to occur rarely in isolated condition, inflammatory processes both in the intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ducts, sometimes with the involvement of the liver being associated with it. The main forms of cholecystitis are the following: catarrhal, purulent and gangrenous.

The patient with cholecystitis is known to complain of intense pain, it being localized in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical area. An attack of pain is usually preceded by physical and mental overstrain, sharp physical movements or abnormalities in diet, fatty food and alcohol being responsible for the onset of pain. But sometimes pain is observed to appear suddenly in quite healthy persons. Pain may radiate to the right shoulder, right arm, sternum, and lumbar area, its intensity depending of the form of cholecystitis and the patient’s sensitivity. The pain grows much worse when the patient is lying in his right side.

Dryness in the mouth, vomiting, nausea, and constipation are the characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease.

During the attack of pain the face is moist with cold perspiration, the skin is pale, the tongue and lips are dry. Even aslight palpation reveals severe tenderness, it being due to irritation of the peritoneum. Approximately in 40-50% of sases there is slight jaundice of sclerae. The biochemical blood analysis is known to reveal some changes, they resulting from the effect of toxic substances in the liver.

Purulent form of cholecystitis is highly dangerous to life and requires emergency operation. An even more severe course is observed in gangrenous cholecystitis. Recovery is achieved by surgical treatment, it being followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy.
HOME ASSIGMENTS
IV. a) Supply words and word combinations having close meaning to the following:

preventive; to rise, about five months, to radiate to, to involve, acute, to result in, to determine, lesion, entire;



b) Supply words of the opposite meaning:

to elevate, to recover, to diminish, approximately, dry, empty, sharp, base, to doubt the diagnosis.



V. Use the verbs in brackets in the proper tense of the Indefinite group. Translate the sentences:

1. Products of protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion (to be absorbed) from the gastrointestinal tract by the liver in which they (to undergo) further chemical processes. 2. The liver (to destroy) toxic substances which usually (to be formed) in the in intestinal tract as well as some poisons which (to enter) the body from without. 3. Jaundice (to be known) to be the disease which (to be due to) the presence of a large amount of bilirubin in the blood and tissues.





  1. 1. Read Text D. 2. Entitle it. 3. Say why probing with radio-pill is used:
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