1. Read Text B. 2. What treatment would you administer a patient with rheumatic endocarditis? 3. Why must such a patient be followed up?
THE TREATMENT OF RHEUMATIC ENDOCARDITIS
The patient with the diagnosis of rheumatic endocarditic was treated at the in-patient department. He was administered antibiotic therapy to eliminate the primary focus of infection. He was also administered Adonis preparations to control cardiovascular insufficiency. The preparations of Adonis were administered in the dosage of a tablespoonful three times a day. The patient took aspirin in the dosage of 1 gr four times a day.
The physician recommended the patient’s diet to be nourishing and containing many vitamins. But his diet had to be limited in salt. The patient was allowed only a limited amount of fluid.
The patient had been following the administered treatment for 45 days. By that time his condition had become much better.
Having been discharged from the hospital he had to come to the out-patient department for regular follow-up examinations. In spring and autumn he had to undergo aspirin and bicillin treatment to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Choose the correct answer:
1. What disease may the onset of rheumatic endocarditis be preceded by?
a) It may be preceded by tonsillitis;
b) It may be preceded by lung abscess.
2. What examination can the enlargement of the heart be determined by?
a) It can be determined by percussion and X-ray examination;
b) It can be determined by electrocardiogram.
3. What must the diet of a patient ill with rheumatic endocarditis contain?
a) It must contain much salt;
b) It must contain many vitamins.
Quyidagi so’zlar bo’yicha o’zakdosh so’zlarni tarjima qiling
sufficient:yetarli bo’lmagan, yetishmovchilik, yetarli;
locate: joylashgan, mahalliy, joylashuvi;
involve: zararlangan, zararlanish;
prepare: preparat, tayyorlangan; limit chegaralangan, chegara.
Qavs ichidagi so’zlar o’rniga murakkab to’ldiruvchini qo’llang:
1. The X-ray examination confirmed (that the patient had) organic changes in the mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves. 2. The physician determined (that the primary focus of infection had been eliminated) due to antibiotic therapy. 3. Physicians consider (that loss of weight is) one of the typical signs of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang:
note [nзot] –belgilamoq, sezmoq;
radiate [`reIdIeIt] υ tarqalmoq kengaymoq;
frequently [`fri:kwəntlI] adv tez-tez; ko’p marotaba;
incidence [`InsIdəns] n holatlar soni, tez-tez uchrashi (kasallikni)
disturbance [dIs’tə:bəns] n buzulish; shikastlanish;
diminish [dI’mInI∫] υ kamaymoq; kuchsizlanmoq;
deviate [`di:vIeIt] υ chetlamoq, chiqmoq;
adequate [`ædIkwIt] a mos keluvchi, adekvat;
rise [raiz](rose, risen) υ ko’tarilmoq
Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling:
1. the pain radiated to the back; 2. considerable disturbances of metabolic rate; 3.a frequent sharp pain in the substernal area; 4. the diminished waves of electrocardiogram; 5.marked deviations in the electrocardiogram readings; 6. the overstrain may produce nervous system disturbances; 7.to administer an adequate dose of this preparation.
V. 1. Tekst C ni o’qing. 2. Murakkab to’ldiruvchi ishtirok etgan gaplarnitoping va tarjima qiling. 3. Tekstga reja tuzing:
On being admitted to the in-patient department the patient complained of pain in the chest.
He had been suffering from pain of various intensity in the chest and behind the breastbone for several weeks. The patient noted the pain to radiate to the left shoulder and down the arm. The patient also observed the pain have been growing worse on mowing and on physical exertion. He stated that it frequently began suddenly at night during sleep.
During the attacks of pain he was covered with cold perspiration and his face was pale. The incidence of attacks was frequently associated with physical and mental overstrain.
On physical examination the doctor revealed areas of very sensitive skin from the 7th cervical vertebra to the 5th upper thoracic one. On percussion, palpation, and auscultation of the heart no significant abnormality was revealed.
The electrocardiogram taken during the attack showed a disturbance in the coronary blood circulation. The most important reading of the electrocardiogram were either diminished or deviated. By having repeated the electrocardiogram after the end of the attack the cardiologist found the adequate readings of the electrocardiogram to return to normal ones.
During the attacks of moderate pain no changes in the peripheral blood or elevation of body temperature were noted. However, the temperature rose insignificantly and there was an accompanying slight leucocytosis when the attacks of pain were particularly severe.
The doctor made the diagnosis of angina pectoris with a severe course. Its main cause was atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
VI. Translate into English using Complex Object with Participle:
1. Navbatchi hamshira 6-palatadagi bemor tuni bilan yo’talganini eshitdi. 2. Biz elektrokardiogramma ko’rsatkichlari asta-sekin o’zgarayotganini ko’rdik. 3. Talabalar davolovchi vrach bemorning yuragini eshitayotganini kuzatdilar.
VII. Give the English equivalents of the words in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. Last year for several weeks the patient had been suffering from constant cardiac pain (qo’l bo’ylab pastga tarqalayotgan). 2. (Qon aylanishining buzilishi) were revealed by numerous instrumental examinations. 3. Having undergone a course of (mos keluvchi inyeksiyalar) the patient stated that the cardiac pain considerably decreased. 4. (Jismoniy va ruhiy zo’riqish) increases the incidence of heart attacks in persons suffering from angina pectoris.
Read Text D. Entitle it. What data important for a future doctor does it contain? Rut questions:
Last year my father was ill with angina pectoris. He suffered from constant attacks of chest pain. He was admitted to the in-patient department.
After he had undergone all the necessary laboratory examinations and several electrocardiograms had been taken both during the attack of chest pain and at the time when the chest pain was relieved the cardiologist administered him an adequate treatment.
To relieve a sharp pain in very severe attacks my father was given the injections of 1% omnopon solution. It was given in combination with o.5 ml of a 0.1% atropine solution.
If the attacks were mild or moderate he took nitroglycerin in an adequate does of 3 drops. Nitroglycerin was dropped on some sugar which my father placed under the tongue. My father said that nitroglycerin relived the pain immediately and a moderate attack or mild one was controlled within 3 or 5 minutes. The cardiologist explained that nitro glycerin relieved the spasm of coronary arteries which caused chest pain.
My father stayed in the hospital for about two weeks. Now he is followed up at the out- patient department. His condition has considerably improved. The last electrocardiogram readings were neither diminished nor deviated.
Ma’lumotlarni o’qing va eslab qoling:
Do you know that …
1. … at rest the blood in our body makes a complete circle in 20-25 seconds?
2. … within 70 years of life the human heart contracts about 2.5 milliard times and pumps 145 million litres of blood? 3. … at rest the human heart pumps 4 litres of blood a minute but on great physical exertion 40 litres? 4. … man can live without water for 10 days and without food for more than a month?
Quyidagi so’zlar talaffuzini eslab qoling va tarjima qiling:
academician [ə,kædə`mI∫n]; coronary [`korənərI]; defect [dI`fekt]; biochemical [baIo’kemIkl] manipulation [mə,nIju`leI∫n]; interval [`Intəvəl]; characterize [`kærIktəraIz], hypothermia [¸haipə`θз:miə].
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
suffer [`sΛfə] (from)v azob chekmoq; qiynalmoq;
congenital [kon`dзItl] а tug’ma;
besides [bI`saIdz] adv …dan tashqari;
failure [`feIljə] n to’xtashi; shikastlanish; buzilishi; heart failure yurakni to’satdan to’xtab qolishi (yurak falaji);
fibrillation [,faIbI`leI∫n] n fibrilatsiya, titrashi;
arrest [ə`rest] n to’xtash; to’xtab qolmoq; to’xtatmoq;
damage [dæmIdз] shikast, zarar; v zarar yetkazmoq;
result [rI`zlt] in v …ga olib kelmoq; result from natijasida kelib chiqmoq;
danger [`deIndзə] n xavf- xatar;
exclude [Iks`klu:d] chiqarmoq;
bandage [`bændIdз] v bog’lamoq; bog’lam;
incision [In`sIзn] n kesish.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:
1. congenital [kən`dзenItl], congenital disease, congenital heart defect, to suffer from a congenital heart defect;
2. failure [`feIljə], heart failure, cardiac failure, to reveal heart failure, to prevent the development of heart failure;
3. result [rI`zΛlt], to result in the impairment of heart function, the inflammation resulted from infectin.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini predloglari bilan yodlang:
in the presence of, to result in, to result from, to be operated on for smth, to be preceded by, a damage to some organ, because of a bad state, within a certain period of time.
1. Tekst E ni o’qing. 2. a) ‘it is …that’ kuchaytiruvchi konstruksiyasi ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling; b) Perfect Continuous zamon guruhida qo’llanilgan fe’l ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling.
Ushbu buzilishlar bilan, yurak porogi, yurak shovqinlarining aniqlanishi
Cardiosurgery has been developing successfully in our country. The beginning of its development was marked by the first operation on the heart performed by Professor D.S.Gulamov. It is due to the work of such prominent surgeons as Vishnevsky, Meshalkin, Petrovsky, Amosov, and others that great progress has been achieved in Cardiosurgery. The lives of many thousands of people suffering from cardiac diseases and from those of coronary vessels have been already saved.
The operations on the heart are performed to eliminate the existing heart defects, congenital or developed, and to restore the normal function of the heart.
The operation on the heart is preceded by various examinations, which enable the surgeon to make a correct diagnosis. The most important ones are listening to the heart, its, X-ray examination, electrocardiograms, the revealing of heart murmurs, and clinical and biochemical blood analyses. Only having made an exact diagnosis and having come to the conclusion that the therapeutic measures have been ineffective the surgeon can perform the operation on the heart.
The operations on the heart are very difficult to perform because of the intricate (murakkab) anatomical structure of the heart and because the heart constantly contracts.
Some operation are performed on the contracting heart, but such operations give the surgeon only a very short period of time for his surgical mani pulations. Besides in such cases there is always the danger of the impairment of cardiac functions such as heart failure, fibrillation and others. In the presence of these impairments complete or partial arrest of blood circulation develops.
Such intervals of blood circulation result in the damage to some organs, for example, the brain can live without blood supply only four-five minutes; if the interval is longer the brain cells die.
VII. Give the words of the opposite meaning:
to exclude, to result in, to diminish, gradually, slight, to drop, to suffer from, frequently, to arrest
VIII. Translate into English:
tug’ma yurak porogi; 2. effektiv choralar ko’rish; 3. yurakni to’satdan to’xtab qolishi; 4. bo’lmachalarning urishi (titrashi); 5. qon ta’minotining buzilishi.
Answer the following questions:
How many litres of blood does the human heart pump per minute at rest? 2. How many litres of blood does the human heart pump per minute on great physical exertion? 3. How many times does the human heart contract within 70 years of life? 4. How many litres of blood does the human heart pump within 70 years of life? 5. In how many seconds does the blood make complete circle in our body at rest? 6. How long can the man live without water and without food?
Read Text F. Which of the described methods have you got interested in:
Text F. Methods Used In Cardiosurgery
In performing the operations on the contracting heart there is danger of the impairment of cardiac function and partial arrest of blood circulation, resulting in the damage to some organs, brain cells in particular.
Such danger is eliminated when artificial blood circulation apparatus called heart-lungs is used during the operation. By using the artificial blood circulation apparatus the heart is excluded from the blood circulation and the surgeon is able to work on the “dry” heart for a longer period of time achieving better results.
Hypothermia is another method used in heart operations. When the patient in under hypothermia the surgeon can eliminate congenital or developed heart defects without the loss of the patient’s blood during the operation.
The method of occlusion consists of bandaging all the vessels carrying blood to and from the heart just before making an incision on the cardiac wall. When the method of occlusion is applied the surgeon evacuates from the heart that amount of blood which is inside its cavities (in the adult it is about 100-150 ml) and performs the necessary operation to eliminate the cardiac defect.
Choose the answer corresponding to Texts E and F:
1. How is the danger of the partial arrest of blood supply eliminated during heart operations?
a) It is eliminated by using hypothermia;
b) It is eliminated by using artificial blood circulation apparatus.
2. What vessels are bandaged when the method of occlusion is employed in heart operations?
a) The portal veins are bandaged;
b) All the vessels carrying blood to and from the heart are bandaged.
So’zlarni ustunlar bo’yicha taqsimlang:
rupture, dangerous, incision, fibrillation, congenital, recurrence, eliminate, strictly, bandage, failure, extensive, frequently, evidence, sensitive, radiate, disturbance, damage, accelerate, feverish, deviate, insufficiency, slightly, duration.
Savollarga javob bering:
1. What most characteristic clinical manifestations of lobular pneumonia by? 2. What treatment is administered to the patient with lobular pneumonia? 3. What is the causative agent of tuberculosis? 4. What do you know about primary tuberculosis? 5. What course is lung abscess characterized by? 6. What complaints has the patient in case of rheumatic endocarditis? 7. What treatment can you administer a patient with rheumatic endocarditis? 8. Describe a severe attack of angina pectoris. 9. What methods of performing operations are employed in cardiosurgery?
1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Quyidagi so’z birikmalaring tarjimasini toping:
Tashqi belgilar, profilaktik choralar, aqliy zo’riqish, qattiq uyqu
Atherosclerosis and its Treatment
Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases of the cardiovascular system which is due to many causes. There is a number of factors which may determine its development.
Atherosclerosis of the blood vessels results from metabolic disturbances and particularly from disturbances of cholesterol exchange. These disturbances begin long before there is any external evidence of the disease. Therefore the doctor must prevent its appearance beginning preventive measures and treatment as early as possible.
Prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis consist mainly of a certain regimen for the patient, which he must strictly follow. The patient must get up, eat, work, and go to bed at exactly the same time every day.
Sound sleep is very important since it enables the nerve cells to rest. The patient with the signs of atherosclerosis must sleep not less than 7-8 hours and walk before going to bed. Mental and physical overstrain must be excluded.
The incidence of atherosclerosis is high in professional groups with insuffcient physical activities. So physical exercises must be part of the prescribed regimen for such persons.
Smoking affects unfavourably the walls of the blood vessels and can result in their spasm, that is why patients suffering from atherosclerosis must not smoke.
The diet of the patients with atherosclerosis must contain sufficient amount of proteins, but fats and carbohydrates must be taken in very limited doses.
Vitamins are widely used in the treatment of atherosclerosis because some of them improve the metabolic processes and others dilate the vessels, particularly the peripheral ones.
Other drugs administered in treating atherosclerosis are the so-called lipotropic substances, which prevent far from accumulating in the organism.
Since the nervous system affects the metabolic processes in the human body the patients with atherosclerosis are prescribed such drugs as bromide and valerian to improve its general condition.
Translate into Russian:
congenital heart defects, to result in heart failure; to make an incision on the cardiac wall, to radiate to the back and arm, to undergo the course of X-ray treatment, to prevent the rupture of the blood vessel, to administer an adequate dose of medicine, to complain of a general malaise and fatigue.
V. 1. Give the words of the opposite meaning:
to diminish, suddenly, to be constant, to become worse, changeable, to fall (to drop), to include, malignant, seldom, sufficiency, a gain in weight.
Give the words of the close meaning:
a symptom, in addition to, to be troubled by, to give attention to, to pass through, an injury, an impairment, to spread, a return of a disease, to feed, an attack.
VI. Translate into English:
1. Bu memor hozir yurak sohasidagi o’tkir og’riqdan azoblanmoqda. 2. Bu bemor yurak sohasidagi o’tkir og’riqdan kun bo’yi azoblanayapti. 3. Davolanish jarayonida bemorning yurak shovqinlari asta-sekin kamayib borar edi. 4. Oxirgi ikki hafta davomida bemorning yurak shovqinlari asta-sekin kamayib bordi.
UNIT 3. THE DISEASES OF THE ALIMENTARY
Grammatika: murakkab ega.
I. Quyidagi so’zlarni o’qilishini eslab qoling. Quyida ularni ng tarjimasini toping:
ulcer [`Λlsə], neurogenous [njuə`rodзməs], spastic [‘spæstIk],trophic [`trofIk],
erosion [I`rouзn], remission [rI`mI∫n], pathogenesis [,pæθo`dзenIsIs].
Spastis, titroqli; trofik, ozuqali; eroziya, yoyilmoq; yara; patogenez: nevrogen, nervga oid; remissiya, kasallikni susayishi; og’riqlarning susayishi
So’zlarni yod oling:
influence [`Influəns] n ta’siri; v ta’sir qilmoq;
majority [mə`dzorItI] n aksariyat, ko’pchilik;
contribute [kən`trIbju:t] υ sabab bo’lmoq, hissa qo’shmoq;
nausea [`no:sjə] n ko’ngil aynishi;
perforate [`pə:fəreIt] υ ichiga kirib olmoq; per-forated ulcer yorilgan yara;
intermittent [,Intə`əmItənt] a vaqti- vaqti bilan;
rate [rεə] a siyrak, kam.
Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling va ularni tekstdan toping:
1. in the majority of cases; 2. contribute to the onset of ulcer; 3. perforating ulcer; 4. vomiting and haemorrhage; 5. under the influence; 6. followed by erosion;
7. intermittent in occurrence; 8. with remission.
IV. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Murakkab ega gap bo’lagi ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining inglizcha ekvivalentini toping:
Bilan birlashuvida, ko’p hollarda, kichik yoshda, tashqi va ichki qo’zg’atuvchilar ta’sirida, yara paydj bo’lishiga sabab bo’lmoq, hech qanday xarakterli klinik manzaralar yo’qligi
Text A. Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
The prominent scientists proved the existence of an association between alesion of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the development of ulcer.
The neurogenous theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer was developed further into the corticovisceral theory. According to the theory gastric and duodenal ulcers were found to result from disturbances in the central nervous system, i.e. the brain cortex.
The brain cortex under the influence of external and internal stimuli send impulses to the stomach and the duodenum, which cause a spastic contraction of vessels. Such a spastic contraction results in local trophic disturbances followed by erosion of the affected area by the gastric juice.
In the majority of cases ulcer is observed to develop in particularly nervous persons, often after emotional overstrain. But an irregular diet in combination with an emotional overstrain is often observed to contribute to the onset of ulcer development.
Gastric and duodenal ulcers are found to develop more frequently in men than in women, mainly at ages of 25 to 40 years. This disease is characterized by pains, haemorrhages, nausea, vomiting, etc. At the onset of the disease pain is usually dull in character. In gastric ulcers pain is found to grow worse after meals. Acute pain in the stomach is known to be characteristic of perforated ulcers. Pain due to ulcer is well known to occur periodically and be intermittent in occurrence.
The course of ulcer has proved to vary with age and sex, location of ulcers, etc. At a young age its course has no characteristic clinical manifestations. In old persons the incidence of ulcers is known to be rate. But they are often complicated by considerable haemorrhage resulting from sclerotic changes in the stomach.
Ulcers are known to have a chronic, cyclic course, with remissions from 6 to 12 months. Exarecbation (kuchayishi) of ulcers, particularly that of duodenal ulcers, has been found to occur in spring and autumn.