Recall the usage of the word one. Translate the following sentences:
The brain is one of the most complicated mechanisms that has ever been constructed by nature. 2. In patient with tuberculosis the morning temperature is usually normal but the evening one is high.3. in pneumonia one may observe considerable changes in the wite blood cell count. 4. It is in infancy that one begins to develop first conditioned reflexes. 5. The right lung has three lobes and the left one only two.
Supply participles instead of subordinate clauses:
The pleura is a special tissue which covers the lungs with a thin layer. 2. Different actions which are repeated every day before going to bed also act as stimuliwhich produce the process of inhibition
Read Text C. say about the influence of sleeplessness on the human organism
One of the scientific research institutes carried out an interesting experiment. Six young persons – four men and two girls did not sleep for 124 hours. They were under the constant observation of the doctors who took their cardiograms, determined the pulse and blood pressure and carried out many other investigations.
Not to fall asleep they were allowed to physical exercises, dance and play, but they were not allowed to take any stimulants. Vision, hearing and various reflexes were often examined during the experiment.
The experiment was successful. Its findings showed that prolonged sleeplessness increased the amount of sugar in the blood, decreased the level (amount) of vitamins B1, and B6, produced considerable increase of white blood cells and decreased the amount of iron in the blood.
Gaplarni tarjima qiling:
It was not until 1911 that a first really successful theory of atomic structure was developeg by Rutherford. 2. It is on the large surface of the alveoli that oxygen passes from the air into the blood vessels. 3. It is per minute that the human being breathes in 300-330 ml of oxygen and breathes out 225-250 ml of carbon dioxide. 4. It was not unitil Roentgen discovered X-rays that scientists were able to examine many inner organs.
Zamonlar moslashuviga e’tibor bergan holda gaplarning 2- qismini tarjima qiling:
The scientists depermined that … a) qondagi oqsil miqdori o’rtacha 5-8% ni tashkil qiladi; b) plazma qonning suyuq qismi hisoblanadi. 2. Our professor of Physiology said that … a) kapillarlar 1661-yili bolonyalik tibbiyot professori Marchello Malpigi tomondan kashf etilgan; b)kapillarlar orqali qon oqimini mikroskop yordamida birinchi bo’lib kuzatgan odam gollandiyalik olim Antoniy Van Levenguk bo’lgan.3. the doctor thought that … (a) temperature kerakli davolanish kursidan keyin pasayadi; b) bu dori og’riqni qoldiradi.
Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:
Ma’lumki, inson tanasidagi qon bir minutda o’pka orqali o’tib 1/3 litr kislorod yutadi. 2.Nafas chiqarilganda tashqi qovurg’alar orasidagi muskulllar va diafragma muskullari bo’shashadi (to become relaxed). 3. Ma’lumki, tez uyqu yarim soatgacha cho’ziladi. 4. Aniqlanishicha, eritrotsitlar qonning eng ko’p sonli hujayrali elementlari hisoblanadi. 5. Birinchi yurak tovushi qorinchalar yoki klapanlar yuqorisida aniqlanishi kerak. 6. Chuqur nafas olganda (inspiration) 1,5-2 litr havo yutiladi.
Tekst D ni tarjima qiling:
THE BLOOD VESSELS, LARGE AND SMALL
The raw materials for the energy that powers man’s every thought and action transported in the blood. The encriched blood is carried in a network of all vessels, capillaries, to each cell. These capillaries are so small that 60 long ones or 120 short ones would stretch only the length of this line of type. There are so many capillaries in the body that, laid end to end, they would ring the equator more than twice.
Blood coming into the capillaries from the arteries has been enriched with oxygen in the lungs or with food from the digestive system. The walls of the capillaries are only one cell thick; so thin that oxygenated blood is able to pass its oxygen and food to the body’s cells and to receive from the cells their waste. The spent blood then flows from the capillaries into the veins, which direct it back to the heart. In the heart the blood enters the arteries and is carried by them to the lungs and digestive system, to be oxygenated and enriched again before reto’rning to the capillaries.
The body’s largest blood vessels, the aorta and the pulmonary artery, are about an inch in diameter. Arteries have thick elastic walls, the pulsations of which assist the heart in pumping. Vein walls are more rigid. Many of them, particularly in the lower part of the body, have valves which prevent a backflow of blood.
raw materials – xom ashyo;
to enrich – boyitmoq
would ring the equator – ekvatorni o’rab olar edi.
State the suffixes in the following words and translate them:
the nouns: efficiency, slowness, division, usage, inhibition, tiredness, significance, development, difference, infancy, closure, passage;
the adjectives: medical, pulmonary, different, cortical, respiratory, various, specific, primary, considerable, effective, extensible, Italian;
the verbs: summarize, communicate, analyse, dilate.
Turn the direct speech into indirect:
The surgeon asked: “Do you often develop pain in the stomach after meals?” 2. The eye doctor asked: “Do you drop the medicine regularly?” 3. The cardiologist asked: “When did you develop the pain in the heart area?” 4. The physiologist asked: “Where will the stimuli continue to come during a sound quiet sleep?”
Give full answers:
What do the contractions of the heart produce? 2. What is the cardiac cycle composed of? 3. What is the role of the ventricles and atria? 4. Describe the pulmonary circulation. 5. Describe the systemic circulations. 6. What corpuscular elements compose the blood? 7. What heart heart sounds can one hear listening to the heart? 8. Where is the frist (second, third) heart sound heard? 9. What do heart sounds help the doctors to determine? 10. What die I.M.Sechenov determine when he investigated the blood gases? 11. Describe the process of respiration. 12. What functions does the human brain perform. 13. What reflexes are called conditioned (unconditioned)? 14. Why is sleep necessary for any living being? 15 what is the process of inhibition?
Read Text E. translate it Memorize figures:
THE CARDIAC RHYTHM
One knows that during the diastole the atria and ventricles taken in (qabul qiladi) the blood. It has been determined that during the systole the atria and the ventricles discharge out the blood. the diastole of the ventricles takes place during the systole of the atria, and the systole of the ventricles takes place during the diastole of the atria. These functions of the atria and the compose the cardiac rhythm.
The cardiac cycle lasts 0.9 second. The contraction of the atria lasts 0.2 and that of the ventricles 0.3 seconds. When the atria contract the ventricles are at rest. The diastole or the period of rest of the cardiac muscle lasts 0.4 seconds.
So during one cardiac cycle the ventricles work 0.3 but rest 0.6. The period of contraction of the ventricles is longer than that of the atria and the systolic blood pressure is always higher than the diastolic one. Such an interesting cardiac rhythm which enables the heart to rest longer than to work is very important for the blood circulation.
If the period of cardiac rest has become constantly shorter, the rate of heartbeat increases. Such an increased rate of heartbeat may affect [∂’fekt] (zararlaydi) the heart and produce different cardiac diseases.
CYCLE IV. MICROBIOLOGY
UNIT I. MICROORGANISMS
So’z yasalishi: -th; -ish, -ful suffikslari;
1 th [θ] qo’shimchasi sifatidan, ba’zan fe’ldan ot yasaydi: warm [wo:m] iliq warmth [wo:mθ] iliqlik, grow [grзΩ] o’smoq – growth [grзΩθ] o’sish;
sifatdan ot yasalganda ba’zi hollarda o’zakdagi urug’li unli o’zgarishi mumkin:
strong [stroŋ] kuchli- strength [streŋθ] kuch;
2.-ish [i∫] qo’shimchasi sifat yasaydi: a) otdan: fever [`fi:və] isitma, bezgak - feverish [`fi: vəri∫] isitmali; b) sifatdan. Bu holda sifatni sifatini kamaytirib beradi.
yellow [`jelзΩ] sariq- yellowish [`jelзΩi] sarg’imtir;
3. -ful [fΩl] qo’shimchasi otdan va kam holllarda kesimdan sifat yasaydi va shu sifatni mavjudligini ko’rsatadi: hope [hзΩp] umid- hopeful [`hзΩpfΩ] umidli; to forget [fə`get] unutmoq - forgetful [fə`getfΩ] esar, parishonxotir.
Quyidagi so’zlarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
depth, length, truth, width, deah;
reddish, thinnish, womanish, fattish, longish, blackish, thickish;
useful, beautiful, helpful, thankful, watchful, painful, harmful, restful;
Quyidagi so’zlarni talaffuzini eslab qoling.Pastdan tarjimasini toping:
microorganism [`maIkrou`o:genIzm]; aerobic [,eI ə`robIk]; anaerobic [æ,neIə`robIk]; coccus [`kokəs] (pl. cocci [`koksaI]); bacillus [bə`sIlaI]; virulent [`vIrulənt], lobar [`loubə]; pneumococci [,nju:mo`koksaI]; consolidation [kən,solI∫n]; mucous [`mju:kəs]; membrane [`membreIn]; phagocyte [`fægəsaIt].
anaerobli; tayoqcha, batsilla; kokk, sharsimon; mikroorganizm; konsolidatsiya, zichlashuv, qattiqlashish; bo’lakli; parda membrane; shilliq; mikrob, mikroorganizm; pnevmokokklar; fagotsit; yuqumli, virulent; aerob.
Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang:
growth [grouθ] n o’sish, kattalashish, o’sma;
however [hau`evə] cj ammo,lekin, biroq, … ga qaramasdan;
favourable [`feIvərəbl] a ijobiy, ma’qul, yaxshi, qulay;
multiply [`m/\ ltIplaI] ko’paymoq;
size [saIz] n razmer, o’lcham, miqdor;
certain [`sə:tn] a ayrim, aynan;
environment [In`vaIərənmənt] n atrof-muhit;
invade [In`veId] υ kirib olmoq, kasallanmoq, yuqmoq;
destroy [dIs`troI] v buzmoq yo’qotmoq;
occur [ ə`kə:] v sodir bo’lmoq;
reveal [rI`vi:l] υ aniqlamoq, ko’rsastmoq;
persist [pə`sIst] υ saqlanib qolmoq;
impair [Im`pεə] υ zararlamoq, buzmoq;
skin [skIn] n teri;
catch [kæt∫] (caught, caught [ko:t, ko:t]) v tutib olmoq; kasallanmoq, yuqtirmoq;
report [rI`po:t] υ yetkazmoq, bildirmoq.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:
favourable [`feIvərəbl]: a favourable reaction, favourable conditions, favourable results, a favourable development;
2. environment [in`vaIərənmənt], home environment, the conditions of the environment, the environment acts favourably.
3. occur [ə`kə:], occurred, a disease occurs, an interesting phenomenon occurres during the observation. When did it occur?
4. persist [pə`sIst], persisted, the disease persists, the temperature persists, the pain in the left side persisted.
5. impair [Im`pεə], impairment, to impair, the lung, to impair the functions of the pancreas, to impair the health.
1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Teksning har bir abzatsiga bittadan savol tuzing. 3.Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining tarjimasini topib yozing:
1muayan chegaraga borguncha razmeri kattalashib boradi; 2. bu holda; 3. mikroorganizmlaning aksariyati; 4. zichlashish oqibatida; 5. xulosaga kelmoq.
All the existing microorganisms can be divided into two main groups- aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic microorganisms must have atmospheric free oxygen for their life and growth. However one knows that free oxygen is not favourable for the development of anaerobic microorganisms.
Bacteria vary in shape and according to this feature they are divided into some groups. Spherical bacteria have been called cocci. They are also subdivided into several groups. Rod-shaped (tayoqchasimon) bacteria are called bacilli.
When bacteriamultiply they divide. The growing organism increases in size up to a certain limit and in due time divides. The process of division depend on the conditions of the environment.
Any minute [maI’nju:t] (mayda) virulent microorganisms may invade the human body. But due to the local protective agents of the human organism they are destroyed. In this case no disease occurs.
However the local protective agents of the human organism are not always able to destroy completely the invading microorganisms. It is known that in such a case a local or general infection may occur.
Most of the microorganisms produce diseases when they enter the tissue and destroy it. If one examines under the microscope the alveoli of the lung of the man with lobar pneumonia a great number of pneumococci can be revealed.
While the disease persists the lung may be considerably impaired because of the consolidations which may develop in it.
But the human organism can fight against the microorganisms which have passed its first protective barriers, i.e. skin and mucous membranes.
The prominent Russian scientist I.I. Mechnikov had made many investigations before he was able to come to the conclusion that leukocytes could catch and destroy certain microbes. I.I. Mechnikov called them phagocytes or microbe cell destroyers.
VI. Answer the following questions:
What conditions are favourable for the growth and life of both aerobic and anaerobic microbes? 2. According to what are bacteria divided into groups? 3. To what limit do growing organisms increase in size when they multi ply? 4. Due to what are minute virulent microorganisms destroyed when they invade the human organism? 5. In what case may local or general infection occur? 6. What can be revealed under the microscope in the alveoli of the lung of a man ill with lobar pneumonia? 7. Why may the lung be considerably impaired while the disease persists? 8. What barriers do skin and mucous membranes form? 9. What is the role of leucocytes in the human body?
Read and retell Text B:
Text B. ROBERT KOCH
Robert Koch is a prominent German Bacteriologist, the founder of modern microbiology. He was born in 1843, died in 1910. When Koch became a doctor he carried on many experiments on mice (sichqonlar) in a small laboratory. In 1882 Koch discovered tuberculosis bacilli. In his report made in the Berlin Physiological Society Koch described in detail the morphology of tuberculosis bacilli and the ways to reveal them. due to his discovery Koch became known all over the world. In 1884 Koch published his book on cholera. This book included the investigations of his research work carried out during the cholera epidemic in Egypt and India. From the intestines of the men with cholera Koch isolated a small comma-shaped (vergulsimon) bacterium. He determined that these bacteria spread through drinking water. In 1905 Koch got the Nobel prize for his important scientific discoveries.
Grammmatika: to be, to have fe’llarining ishlatilish holllari;
majburiyatni yetkazish usuli.
Quyidagi gaplarni kelasi zamonda qo’llan:
The scientist can prove his investigation. 2. The patient may walk. 3. The nurse must feed the infant.
Quyidagi gaplarni inkor va so’roq shaklida yozing:
The patient was able to fall asleep after taking the medicine. 2. We had to summarize and analyse all the results of our observations. 3. The fifth-year students will be allowed to operate on the patients themselves.
Qavs ichidagi so’zlarni,so’ng gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. (Hammma) understood well the significance of this problem. 2. ( Hech kim) felt tiredness after a long walk. 3. Can you see (nimadir) on the lateral surface of the right lower extremity? 4. Does the pain spread (qayergadir) when you breathe in? 5. There is (hech narsa) new about the process of inhibition in the report.
IV. Tekst C ni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
THE FOUNDER OF VIROLOGY
Dmitry Losiphovich Ivanovsky, aprominent Russian scientist, was born in 1864. In 1888 he graduated from Petersburg University and began to study the physiology of plants and microbiology.
When D.I. Ivanovsky was investigating the tobacco mosaic disease (tamaki mozaik kasalligi) he was able to come to the conclusion that this disease occurred due to a microscopic agent, many times smaller than bacteria.
To prove this phenomenon D.I. Ivanovsky had to make many experiments on various plants. He had to pass the juice of the diseased plant through a fine filter which could catch the smallest bacteria. At that time everybody considered that bacteria were the smallest living organisms. But when D.I.Ivanosky had completed to pass the juice through a fine filter, he was able to come to the conclusion that the living organisms smaller than bacteria existed in the environment, because when he introduced the fitrate of the diseased plants to healthy ones they became infected.
Before D.I.Ivanovsky nobody had been able to prove the existence of viruses. Dmitry Losiphovitch Ivanovsky was the first scientists who was able to establish the new branch of microbiology – virology.
V.Quyidagi so’zlarni yodlang. Gaplarni tarjima qiling:
wound [wu:nd] n yara. There was a large and deep wound on the lateral surface of the leg.
throat [θrout] n tomoq. to have a sore thoart tomoq og’rig’I; to gargle one’s thoart tomoq chayish. The doctor revealed redness in the patient’s throat. He has a sore thoart.
property [`propəti] n xususan. The main property of phagocytes is to destroy the invading microbes.
mucus [`mju:kəs] n shilliq. The inner surface of the nose is covered with mucus.
pathogenic [,pæθo`dзenik]a pathogen, kasallikka moyil. Pathogenic microorganisms produce different diseases.
Instead of the modal verbs use the equivalents in the proper tense:
1. The doctor must determine the origin of the disease for its successful treatment. 2. The doctor could reveal the consolidation in the lungs by the X-ray examination. 3. The scientist can reveal a rapid growth of microorganisms under the microscope. 4. The doctor says that this patient may sit up.
VII. Translate into English:
1.Mikroorganizmlar bo’linishi orqali ko’payishini hamma biladi. 2. Kox uzoq vaqtgacha vabo bakteriyasini topa olmagan. 3. Vezaliygacha hech kim odam yuragi tuzilishini aniqlay olmagan. 4. Tadqiqotchi bu yangi tajriba orqali biron narsani isbotlashi shartmi? 5. Hamma ma’lumki, tanaharorati ertalab anch past va ilk oqshom paytlari ancha baland bo’ladi.
Read and entitle Text D. Describe how bacteria invade the organism:
If there are no wounds on the skin no bacteria can invade it. But if any smallest would exists then bacteria can pass into the tissue. The thin membranes about the eye, in the nose and throat have less protective properties against bacterial invasion and infection may often develop in these points.
The way by which a microorganism enter the human body is an important factor to determine the occurrence of any disease. certain bacteria can persist and develop in the human body only coming into contact with the respiratory tract, others through contact with the mucus of the intestines.
The skin and mucus membranes of the body have a large number of bacteria, some of them are highly pathogenic in a favourable environment. The spread of these bacteria is controlled by the skin and phagocytes fighting against the invaders.
Quyidagi gaplarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
One should remember that most of the viruses are destroyed at the temperature of 50-60° within 30-60 minutes. 2. During the experiment the scientist was to investigate the process of inhibition in the cortex of the experimental animals. 3. B. Toshmatov filtered the juice of the diseased plants through such fine filters through which even the smallest bacteria could not pass. 4. The environment must be provided with the proper amount of oxygen for the growth of aerobic microorganisms.
II. Quyidagi gaplarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
antibacterial [,æntIbæk`tIərəl]; colony [`kolənI]; toxic [`toksIk]; biologist [baI`olədзIst]; expert [`ekspə:t]; injection [In`dзek∫n]; penicillin [,penI`sIlIn]; nature [`neIt∫ə].
III. So’z va so’z birikalarini o’qing:
drug [dr/\g] n dori
dangerous [`deIndзərəs] а xafli;
disappear [,dIsə`pIə] v yo’q bo’lmoq;
immediately [I`mi:djətlI] adv tezda
common [`komən] a odatiy;umumiy; keng trqalgan;
same [seIm] а bir xil, xuddi;
dry [draI] а quruq; v quritmoq; artmoq;
extract [Iks`træ kt] v ajratmoq; chiqarmoq;
pure [pjuə] а toza;
try [traI] v sinab ko’rmoq, harakat qilmoq;
fail [feIl] v uddalay olmaslik, eplay olmaslik; yiqilmoq (imtihonda);
ba’zan to fail fe’lidan keying infinitiv bilan inkor formada - maslik tarzida tarjima qilinadi, masalan:
The X-ray examination failed to reveal heart enlargement. Roentgen ko’rigi yurakning kattalashganini ko’rsatmadi.
IV. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling:
antibacterial drugs a dangerous disease; common pathogenic bacteria; the same family; dry bread; to extract pure penicillin; to try to do something immediately.
V. Tekst E ni o’qing. A. Fleming to’g’risida aytib bering:
Text E. Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming was born in 1881. He did research work at one of the hospitals in London and became interested in bacterial action and antibacterial drugs.
One day Fleming’s assistant brought him a plate (тарелка) on which a colony of dangerous bacteria were being grown. “This plate cannot be used for the experiment,” said the assistant. “Some mould (плесень) formed on it and I’ll have to take another plate.” Fleming was ready to allow his assistant to do so. Then he looked at the plate and saw that the bacteria around the mould had disappeared. Fleming understood the importance of what had happened and immediately began to study that phenomenon.
He placed some of the mould on other plates and grew more colonies of it. By numerous experiments on animals he determined that this new substance wsa not toxic to the tissues and stopped the of the most common pathogenic bacteria.
Fleming called this substance penicillin. It is of the same family of moulds thatoften appear on dry bread.
But many investigations had been carried out before a method for extracting pure penicillin was found. It was also very difficult for Fleming to interest biologists and mould experts in penicillin and to decide the problem of its production.
In 1942 Fleming tried his own first experiment. A friend of his was very ill, dying. After several injections of penicillin the man was cured. It marked the beginning of penicillin treatment.
Fleming received the Nobel Prize for his great discovery. But he said^ “Everywhere I go people thank me for savingtheir lives. I do not know why they do it. I didn’t do anything. Nature makes penicillin – I only found it.”
Choose the appropriate word from those given in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. (Sommebody, something) has estimated that normally you breathe 25.920 times a day breathing in about 450 cubis feet of air. 2. Lately a new group of viruses called adenoviruses have been isolated from the human intestine and respiratory trac in tissue cultures. It has been determined that their presence produced (nothing, anything) pathologic. 3. (Everyone, everything) should remember that the connection of any virus with the body tissues considerably changes their properties. 4. (Everybody, everything) knows that when a virus invades the cell it multiplies there and produces a number of pathologic processes.
Answer the following question:
1.Why are bacteria dangerous for people? 2. Who was the first scientist to extract penicillin in its pure form? 3. What antibacterial drugs were discovered in the 20th century? 4. What main property have phagocytes? 5. What kind of environment is favourable for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms? 6. What may occur when bacteria invade the human organism? 7. What do pathogenic microorganisms produce? 8. What organs are covered with mucus?
IX. Read Text F. Answer the teacher’s questions and retell the text:
Text f. The Discovery of Cholera Bacterium
In 1883 Koch went to Egypt to study cholera. At that time a wide-spread epidemic of cholera was in Egypt.
Nobody knew the origin of this disease, there were not any protective measures against it.
The disease spread very rapidly from one place to another and thousands of healthy people died. But sometimes some people who were a constant contact with the diseased person did not catch cholera.
As soon as Koch came to Alexandria he and his two assistants Gaffcky and Fisher began their investigations. In the blood, kidneys, spleen, liver and lungs of the people who died of cholera Koch found many microorganisms but all of them were not the agents of cholera. But in the walls of the intestines and stools Koch always found a microorganism which looked like a comma. Many times Koch tried to grow this bacterium on gelatin but it did not grow. Many times Koch inoculated (emlangan) this bacterium to the experimental animals, but none became ill with cholera. As the epidemic of cholera became less in Egypt, koch went to India to continue his investigations there. In Kalcutta Koch often walked along its muddy (loy) streets, where the poor lived. Once Koch saw some muddy water on the ground near a small house.
Koch looked into that water and he thought he saw there those “commas”. He took some of this water, analysed it under the microscope many times and found in it the same bacteria which he had so many times revealed in the people ill with cholera. Koch also established that animals could not fall ill with this disease. The source [so:s] of the disease was the water, which people drank.
CYCLE V. MEDICAL INSTITUTION
UNIT I. POLYCLINICS
Grammatika: Present in Future o’rnida ishlatilishi.
Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. If the red blood cell count decreases the patient will require additional treatment. 2. The development of cortical inhibition will begin after the experimental animal is given the proper drug. 3. The infant will be fed artificially until the mother’s health is restored.
II. Quyidagi so’zlaning talaffuzini eslab qoling. Ularni tarjima qiling:
polyclinic [,polI’klInIk]; neurologist [njuə`roədzIst]; urine [`juərIn]; urinalysis [juərI’nælIsIs]; regimen [`redzImen]; test [test]; diagnosis [`daIə`gnousIs].
III. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
institution [,InstI’tju:∫n] n muassasa
ring up [riŋ Λp](rang up, rung up) v qo’ngiriq qilmoq;
call [ko:l] n chaqiruv; call in v( vrach) chaqirmoq;
physician [fI`zI∫n] n vrach;
complain (of) [kəm’pleIn] v shikoyat qilmoq
complaint [kəm’pleInt] n shikoyat;
correct [kə’rekt] a to’g’rilamoq
administer [əd’mInIstə] v tavsiya qilmoq (dori)
consult [kən`s/\lt] v murojat qilmoq (shifokorga); consulting hours qabul soati; consulting room [kən`s/\ltiŋ `ru:m] shifokor kabineti;
reception [rI`sep∫n] n qabul;
serious [`sIərIəs] a jiddiy;
sick [sIk] a, n kasal sick-leave kasallik varaqasi;
definite [`defInIt] a aniq;
chart [t∫a:t] n jadval, grafik, diagramma, sxema; temperature chart- harorat varaqasi;
patient`s card bemor kartochkasi;
fill in v to’ldirmoq;
Ergash gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. You will receive a sick-leave … a) agar haroratingiz yuqori bo’lsa; b) shifokor jiddiy kasallik tashxisini qo’yganda. 2. The nurse will give you the injections of antibiotics… a) shifokor tavsiya etgandan so’ng; b) infewksiya jarayoni zararsizlantirilguncha.
1. Test A ni o’qing. 2. Kelasi zamon o’rnida hozirgi zamon qo’llanilgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling:
vrach chaqirmoq, to’g’ri tashxis qo’ymoq, to’g’ri davolanishni tavsiya etmoq, kasallik varaqasini olmoq, ineksiya qilmoq, temperaturani o’lchamoq, chaqiruvga bo’rmoq
Text A. Polyclinics
The Soviet State has established a wide network (tizim) of medical institions to protect the health of our people. One of such medical institutions is the polyclinic.
If a person falls ill he will ring up his local polyclinic and call in a doctor. When his condition isn`t very poor and he has no temperature he will go to the local polyclinic and a physican, will examine him there.
Many specialists including therapeutists, neurologistssurgeons and others work at the polyclinic. During the medical examination a physician usually aska his patient what he complains of and according to the complaints carries on the medical examination. A physician listens to the patient`s heart and lungs and measures his blood pressure and if necessary asks the patient to take his temperature. The laboratory findings which include blood analysis, the analysis of urine (urinalysis) and other tests help a physician to make a correct diagnosis and administer a proper treatment.
In addition to their consulting hours at the polyclinic local physicians go out to the calls to examine those patients who are seriously ill and whose condition is bad. Such sick persons receive a sick-leave. They usually follow a bed regimen.
Any physician of the polyclinic knows his patients very well because he treats only a definite number of patients. At the local polyclinic every patient has his personal patient`s card which is filled in by his physician. Everything about the patient – the diagnosis of the disease, the administrations made by the doctor, the course of the disease, the chnges in the patient`s condition after the treatment – are written down in the card.
If it necessary a nurse will come to the patient`s house to give him the administered injections or carry out any of the doctor`s administrations.
VI. Supply postpositions wherever necessary:
1. The nurse filled … my patient’s card when she took my temperature. 2. We have called … a physician as my sister’s condition became considerably worse. 3. The significance of oxygen for the development of aerobic microorganisms has been found … by the microbiologists. 4. The prominent O’zbek physiologist Pulatov carried … many experiments to determine the nature of conditioned reflexes.
Translate into English:
Oshqozon shirasi analizi tayyor bo’lishi bilan, bemorga kerakli diyetani tavsiya etishadi. 2. Natijalar ijobiy bo’lgunga qadar, davolanish davom etadi. 3. Yurakni urishi chastotasi bir me’yorda bo’lsa, bemorga o’tirishga ruxsat etiladi.
Grammatika: Continuous Passive zamon guruhi;
both…and, either … nor juft bog’lovchilar.
Bog’lovchilarni yod oling. Gaplrni tarjima qiling:
1. The patient complained both of a high temperature and of the pain in the chest. 2. Both the therapeutist and the surgeon have come to the conclusion to treat the patient at home. 3. You must investigate either the blood gases or the corpuscular elements of the blood. 4. The therapeutist did not administer him either a bed regimen or a diet. 5. The physician revealed neither the increased respiratory rate nor the increased pulse rate.
II. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
cough [kof] n yo’tal; υ yo’talmoq; cough mixture yo’talga qarshi mikstura;
moist [moIst] a nam;
rale [ra:l] n xirillash (o’pkada )
acute [ə’kju:t] a o’tkir;
cold [kould] n shamollash; catch a cold shamollamoq;
accumulate [ə’kju:mjuleIt] υ to’plamoq; yig’ilmoq;
light [laIt] a yengil; yorug’;
orally [`o:rəlI] ichkari; og’iz orqali.
III. So’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling;
nam iqlim, nam havo, nam atrof- muhit,nam ko’llar; 2. nam xirillash, quruq xirillash, o’pkada xirillashni aniqlamoq, o’pkada nam xirillashni eshitmoq;
3. quruq yo’tal, yo’talga qarshi mikstura ichish, qattiq yo’talish
IV. Read and memorize the following words:
bronchitis [broŋ`kaItIs]; catarrh [kə`ta]; discomfort [dIs`k/\mfət]; bronchial [`broŋkjəl]; diet [daiət], recommend[rekə`mend]; tablets[`tæblits]; symptom [`sImptəm]; procedure [prə`si:dзə]; abnormal[æb`no:məl].
Supply conjuctions ‘both …and’. Translate the following sentences:
1. Experienced therapeutists and neurologists work at this polyclinic. 2. At the polyclinic consulting hours may be in the morning and in the evening. 3. The nurse fills in the temperature chart and gives injections.
VI. 1. Read Text B. 2. Make the plan. 3. Describe th main symptoms of bronchitis. 4. Find and translate the sentences with a) paris of correlative conjunctions; b) Continuous Passive:
Text B. CASE OF BRONCHITIS
Patient Karimov called in a physician from the local polyclinic. He could not go to the polyclinic himself because his temperature was about 380 C. In a few hours doctor Rasulova, an experienced therapeutist, came to the call.
Doctor Rasulova wanted to know the patient’s complaints. When the patient was being questioned by the physician on his condition he said that a short, painful dry cough associated with rapid respiration had developed two days before. In addition to that the patient complained of the pain both in the throat and behind the brestbone.
While the patient was being examined the physician listened to his heart and lungs and then measured his blood pressure. Neither the blood pressure nor the heart sounds were abnormal. But both dry and moist rales were heard in the lungs. The respiratory rate was considerably increased and the patient breathed with difficult. The physician also determined that the patient felt discomfort in the chest.
On the basis of all the findings the physician made the diagnosis of acute bronchitis in a mild form. She thought it was neither a catarrh not a cold. The amount of the discharge from the bronchial mucous membrane was large. It accumulated in the bronchial tubes and made the patient cough. Passing through this fluid in the bronchial tubes the air which was breathed in and out produced moist and dry rales.
It was not necessary to admit the patient to the hospital, he was allowed to follow home treatment. The patient had to be on a sick-leave until his temperature became normal and all the symptoms were controlled. He was to follow a bed regimen and a light diet. He was also recommended to drink either warm milk or have warm applications to his chest. These procedures had to control the cough and impaired breathing.
The doctor administered the patient two tablets of tetracycline to be taken orally and a cough mixture to be taken three times a day.
So’z yasalishi: -less suffikslari;
-less suffikslari otdan sifat yasaydi va biroz hislatning yo’qligiga ishora qiladi. O’zbek tiliga –siz qo’shimchasi yordamida tarjima qilinadi: use [ju:s] foyda-useless [`ju:slis] foydasiz; child [t∫aild] bola – childless [`t∫aildlis] befarzand.
So’zlarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
sleepless, careless, helpless, homeless, lifeless, painless, hopeless, restless.
1. Tekst C ni lug’at yordamida o’qing. 2. Ajratilgan so’zlarni toping yod oling. 3. Tekstga nom bering, so’ng so’zlab bering:
Andrew went to his first call immediately, with a wonderful sence, almost of relief.
He reached 7 Glydar Place, knocked breathlessly upon the door, and was immediately admitted to the kitchen, where the patient was lying. She was a young woman, wife of a steel worker named Williams, and as he approached the bedside with a fast-beating heart he felt the significance of this, the real starting-point of his life.
How often had he thought of it as in a crowd of students, he had watched a demonstration in Professor Lamplough’s wards! Now he was alone, confronted by a case which he must diagnose and treat unaided. Immediately he understood his complete unpreparedness for such a task.
Andrew Manson examined the patient with scrupulous care. There was no doubt about it, she was ill. She complained that her head ached intolerably. Temperature, pulse, tongue, they all spoke of trouble, serious trouble. What was it? Andrew asked himself that question again and again. He was afraid to make a bad mistake or not to be able to make a correct diagnosis. It seemed to him that he had missed nothing, yet it was very difficult to group all the symptoms under the name of some definite disease.
Andrew asked himself that question –Endryu o’ziga ushbu savolni berar edi. himself (o’zlik olmosh)
V. “as” so’zning ko’p ma’noliligiga e’tibor bergan holda quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. My brother wants to become a surgeon as he likes surgery. 2. As the physician was examining the patient he revealed moist rales in the lungs. 3. In the human being the size of the heart is as large as his fist (musht). 4. My farher works as a therapeutist at the polyclinic.
Give the English equivalents of the verbs in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. While the properties of filterable viruses (o’rganilgan) the scientist (o’tkazgan) numerous experiments. 2. When the physician (yaqinlashganida) the patient’s bedside loud coughing (eshitildi) in the ward. 3. Now the professor (o’qimoqda) a lecture in which the properties of anaerobic microorganisms (analiz qilinmoqda).
1. Read Text D. 2. Try to understand the meaning of the words in bold type from the context. 3. Retell the text:
Tracheitis [tr∂ki’aitIs] is the disease in which the mucous membrane of the trachea [tr∂’ki ∂] is impaired. The disease usually develops in a weak organism, after a person has been in the could environment for a long period of time, or after some infectious disease.
In such conditions the microorganism such as pneumococci, staphylococci and streptococci which usually invade the upper respiratory tract, multiply rapidly and produce the inflammation of the mucous membrane.
The main symptom of tracheitis isthe cough ,usually dry at first .But in a day or two it becomes productive .After the attack of cough the patient feels pain in th substernal area and in the throat .The general condition becomes worse. When the attacks of cough are particularly long , a bad headache may develop. In the adults the
Temperature may not be high ,but in the children it may be as high as 39 0 C.
The patient with tracheitis usually follows home treatment receiving a silk-leave for period of his disease. The patient must be in a warm room well aired. Hi may be administered aspirin or codein which gives some relief. Hi may also be recommendet to have warm milk with soda several times a day.
UNIT 2. HOSPITALS
So’z yasalishi: intra-, over- prefikslari.
intra- [intrə] prefiksi ichida, orasida degan ma’noni beradi: cellular [`seljulə] hujayrali – intracellular [`intrə`seljulə] hujayralararo;
over- [зΩvə] prefiksi so’zga me’yordan ortiq degan ma’noni beradi:
dosage [`d зΩsIdз] dozirovka – overdosage [зΩvə`dзΩsIdз] dozani ortib ketishi.
Quyidagi so’zlarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
Intracranial, intramuscular, intravenous, intracardiac, intrapleural, intrathoracic, intratracheal, intraspinal;
Overweight, overgrowth, overestimate, overgrow;
Quyidagi so’zlar talaffuzini eslab qoling. Tarjima qiling:
hospitalize [`hospItəlaIz]; intravenous [Intrə`vi:nəs]; instruction [In`str/\k∫n]; electrocardiogram [I,lektro`ka:dIəgræm]; intramuscular [,Intrə`m/\skjulə]; result [rI`z/\lt].
III. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
department [dI`pa:tmənt] n bo’lim; in-patient department statsionar bo’limi; out-patient department ambulatory bo’lim;
reception ward [rI`sep∫ən `wo:d] qabulxona;
initial [I`nI∫əl] a boshlang’ich, birinchi;
apply [ə`plaI] υ qo’llamoq, qo’ymoq; to apply cups banka qo’ymoq;
prescribe [prIs`kraIb] υ (dori) yozib bermoq;
dose [dous] n doza; dosage [`dousIdz] n dozirovka;
indicate [`IndIkeIt] υ ko’rsatmoq, bildirmoq
keep (kept, kept) υ saqlamoq;
poisonous [`poIznəs] a zaharli, toksik;
cause [ko:z] υ keltirib chiqarmoq; sabab
death [deθ] n o’lim; death rate o’lim darajasi;
round [raund] n ko’rik; to make one’s daily rounds kunlik ko’rik o’tkazmoq (kasallarni)
relieve [rI`li:v] υ yengillarmoq, ozod etmoq; (og’riq) qoldirmoq;
prevent [prI`vent] υ oldini olmoq;
recovery [rI`k/\vərI] n sog’ayish; tiklanish.
IV. Quyidagi birikmalarini tarjima qiling:
to be admitted to the in-patient department; to fill in a case history; to make an initial diagnosis; to estimate the initial findings; to apply a new method of treatment; over dosage of a drug may cause death, to take the patient`s temperature, to give injections, to take an electrocardiogram.
V. 1. Tekst Ani o’qing. 2. “to be” fe’li modallik vazifasini bajargan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Tekstga reja tuzing va so’lab bering:
Text A. WORK OF AN IN-PATIENT DEPARTMENT
When patients are admitted to the hospital first of all they are received by a nurse on duty at the reception ward.
Those patients who are to be hospitalized have already received the direction from the polyclinic. The nurse on duty fills in patients case histories in which she writes down their names , age, place of work, occupation , address and the initial diagnosis made by a doctor at the policlinic.
Then a doctor on duty examines the hospitalized patients and gives his instructions what department and wards the patients are to be admitted to.
At the in-patients departments a hospital life begins early in the morning .The nurses on duty take the patients , temperature ,give them intramuscular and intravenous injections ,take stomach juice for analysis, apply cups and give all the prescribed remedies in the doses indicated by the doctors.
The nurses keep all the drugs in special drug cabinets. All the drugs have special labels (etiketkalar). The names of drugs are indicated on them. Patients are not allowed to take the medicines themselves because some drugs are poisonous, the over dosage of some other drugs may cause unfavorable reactions and even death.
At about nine o’clock in the morning the doctors begin the daily rounds of the wards during which they examine all the patients. After the medical examination the doctors administer the patients different procedures: electrocardiograms are taken, laboratory analyses of blood, urine and gastric juice are made. Some patients are administered a bed regimen, others are allowed to walk; some are to follow a diet to relieve stomachache or prevent unfavorable results in case of stomach troubles. All the doctors always treat the patients with great attention and care. There is no doubt that such a hearty attitude of the doctors to the patients help much in their recovery.
1. a nurse (a doctor) on duty – navbatchi hamshira, to be on duty – navbatchi bo’moq;
2. a drug cabinet – dorilar uchun shkaf, apteka shkafi;
VI. Use the active vocabulary of the lesson instead of the following:
to advise and order the parient some medicine; 2. to produce; 3. to put cups; 4. a definite amount of the drug; 5. to stop the spread of inflammation;
6. a toxic medicine; 7. to make the pain less; 8. to be allowed and used.
VII. Make up the sentences corresponding to the O’zbek ones, out of the words given in brackets.
1.Zaharli dorilar noxush reaksiyalar keltirib chiqarishi mumkin. (reactions, poisonous, drugs, unfavourble, cause, may) 2.Dori nomlari etiketkalarda ko’rsatiladi. (on, the, of, names, medicines, the, labels, are, indicated) 3. Tavsiya etilgan dori to’sh suyagi ortidagi og’riqni qoldirolmadi. (in, area, the, administered, the, drug, failed, substernal, pain, to relive, the)
VIII. Read Text B and entitle it:
As soon as the patient is admitted to the in-patient department the ward doctor fills in the patient’s case history. It must include the information about the patient’s parents – if they are living or not. If they died, the doctor must know at what age and of what causes they died. The doctor must know if any of the family has ever been ill with tuberculosis or has had any mental or emotional impairments. This information composes the family history.
The patient’s medical history must include the information about the diseases which the patient had both being a child and an adult, about the operations which were performed, about any traumas he had. The patient’s blood group and his sensitivity to antibiotics must be determined and the obtained information written down in the case history. These findings compose the past history.
The attending doctor must know what the patient’s complaints and symptoms are. He must know how long and how often the patient has had these complaints.
The information on the physical examination of the patient on his admission to the hospital, the results of all the laboratory tests and X –ray examinations, the description of the course of the disease with any changes in the symptoms and the condition of the patient, the administered medicines in their exact doses and the reduced effect of the treatment – all these findings which compose the history of the present illness must always be written down in the case history.
The case history must always be written very accurately and consist of exact and complete information.
Grammatika: gerundiy, uning shakllari va funksiyalari.
Ustunlar bo’yicha gaplarni o’qing:
a) Look at that boy reading a newspaper.
b) Reading is useful.
2. a) The man reading a book is my friend.
b) I like his rapidly reading.
3. a) Reading this a book I learna lot of new words.
b) His favourite occupation is reading.
4. a) The reading man is my friend.
b) I like your idea of reading this book.
5. a) Reading a book I did not hear when she came in .
b) After reading I began to write a letter.
6. a) He stood nearby reading a book.
b) we cannot gain knowledge without reading.
II. Quyidagi gaplarni tar jima qiling:
1. The scientist continued investigating the properties of blood gases. 2. Your rapid recovery depends on properly following the administered treatment. 3. He works on determining the increase of white blood cells in this disease. 4. In making observations particular care to obtain exact findings is necessary.
III. Ajratilgan so’zlarga e’tibor bergan holda gaplarni o’qing:
a) Reading books is useful.
b) The reading of books is useful.
2. a) His reading rapidly is not always understandable.
b) A good reading is always understandable.
3. a) Being busy,he postponed his trip.
b) Human beings cannot live without oxygen.
IV. Ushbu infinitivlardan gerundiy va sifatdosh yasang:
to take, to have extended, to be sent, to have been founded
V. Gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1.After having been told the results of the X-ray examination the physician wrote them down in the patient’s case history. 2.I don’t like being read, I like reading myself. 3. The patient was thankful tj the doctor for his having been so attentive to him. 4. No physician can make a proper diagnosis without having examined the patient.
VI. Give all known to you gerund forms of the verbs and translate them:
to prevent, to buy, to restore
VII. Choose the appropriate from those given in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. … the necessary fluid we could continue our experiments. (having obtained; having been obtained; being obtained) 2. … for a prolonged period of time the patient made a complete recovery. (being treated; having been treated; having treated) 3. … by the physician the patient was complaining of an acute pain in the substernal area. (having been examined; being examined; having examined).
VIII. Choose the appropriate gerund from those given in brackets. Translate the sentences:
1. The results of the treatment of the patient depend on his … in time. (having been operated on; being operated on; having operated on; operating) 2. I want my electrocardiogram … by 3 o’klock. (being taken; having been taken; taking; having taken).
XI. 1. Read Text C. 2. What do paragraphs two and three deal with? 3. Find and translate the sentences with gerunds. 4. Rut questions to the text:
Text C. At a Chemist’s ¹
As you know on receiving a prescription from a doctor or on following a home treatment all of us need medicines which are ordered or bought at a chemist’s.
There are usually two departments in a large chemist ‘s. At the chemist’s department ² one can have the medicine immediately, other drugs have to be ordered at the prescription department. ³
At any chemist’s all the drugs kept in drug cabinets. Every small bottle, a tube or a box of medicine has a label on it. White labels indicate drugs for internal use, yellow ones indicate drugs for external use and blue ones indicate drugs used for injections. the dose to be taken and the directions for the administration are also indicated on a label. Indicating the dose and the name of any medicine is necessary for chemists, nurses, doctors and patients themselves. It prevents confusing (to con fuse - adashtirmoq) different remedies, some of which are poisonous. Their overdosage may cause unfavourable reactions and sometimes even death
At a chemist’s one can buy different drugs for intramuscular and intravenous injections, for oral administration and for external use.
Before using the medicine every patient must know wellthat he is taking the right one and in the correct dosage.
¹ a chemist’s (shop) - apteka
² a chemist’s department - tayyor dori vositalari bo’limi;
³ a prescription department - retsept bo’yicha beriladigan bo’lim.
Kerakli sifatdosh shaklini qo’llab qavslarni oching:
1. (to make) the discovery of filterable viruses Dmitry Ivanovsky determined the cause of the tobacco mosaic disesase. 2. The book “The Anatomy of Cardiac Blood vessels” (to compose) by S. Samoylova after her investigation was published in 1970. 3. On having performed the operation the surgeon must carry out all the procedures (to prevent) the infection. 4. (to relieve) of all the painful symptoms the male patient fell asleep.
II. Gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. On changing the administered treatment the physician considered that the patient’s condition would become better. 2. In making scientific observations one must be particularly careful. 3. Cardiac impairments are revealed by taking elec trocardiograms. 4. Blood cannot be transfused without its group being determined first.
III. 1. Tekst D ni o’qing va tarjima qiling. 2. Ajratilgan so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang. 3. Tekstning mazmunini so’zlab bering:
I went to my meical man. He is my old friend. He feels my pulse, and looks at my tongue, and talks about the weather when I consider that I am ill. I thought I would do him a good turn by going to him now. “What a doctor wants” I said, “is practice. He shal have me. He will get more practice out of me than out of seventeen hundred patients with only one or two diseases each.” So I went to him and saw him, and he said: “Well, what’s the matter with you?” I said, “I will not take up your time, dear boy, with telling you what is the matter with me. I have not got housemaid’s knee.¹ Why I have not got housemaid’s knee, I cannot tell you; but the fact is that I have not got it. Everything else however, I have got. ”
And I told him how I came to discover it all
Then he opened me and looked down me ² and clutchedhold of my wrist ³ and then he hit me over the chest when I wasn’t expecting it, and immediately afterwards butted me with the side of his head. After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescripton and gave it to me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.
I did not open the prescription. I took it to the nearest chemist’s and handed it in. the man read it, and then handed it back.
He said he did not keep it.
I said: “You are a chemist?”
He said: “I am a chemist. If I was a co-operative stores and family hotel combined, I might be able to give you such a remedy.”
Then I read the prescription. It ran:
“I good beefsteak with
1 pint bitter beer
every six hours
1 ten-mile walk every morning
1 bed at 11.00 sharp every night.
And don’t stuff up your head with things you don’t understand.”
I followed the directions with the happy result – speaking for myself – that my life was preserved and is still
(excerpt from “Three Men in a Boat” by Jerome K. Jerome)
1. housemaid’s knee – tizza kosasining yallig’lanishi;
2. he opened me and looked down me – tugmalarimni yechib boshdan oyoq tekshirib chiqdi.
3. clutchedhold of my wrist – bilagimdan tutdi.
IV. Translate into English:
1.Men statasionarga bordim; u aptekaga boradi; u endigina poliklinikiga ketdi; 2. Vrach pulsni tekshirdi; men o’zimni yaxshi sezayapman; sezilayotgan og’riq; 3.Elektrokardiogramma olmoq; hamshira temperaturani o’lchadi; hamshira endigina mendan analiz uchun qon oldi; 4.Vrach retseptlar yozadi; kecha vrach bu bemorga retsept yozib berdi; vrach endigina menga mikstura uchun retsept yozib berdi.
V.Read and translate the medical terms:
aetiology [,i:tI`olədзI]; pathogenesis [,pæθo`dзenIsIs]; mechanism [`mekənIzm]; visual [`vIzjuəl]; palpation [pæl`peI∫(ə)]; percussion [pə:`k/\∫n]; auscultation [,o:skəl`teI∫n]; cystoscopy [sIs`toskəpI]; edema [I`di:mə]; haemorrhage [`hemərIdz]; objective [ob`dzektIv]; subjective [s/\b`dzektIv].
VI.1.Read Text E using a dictionary.2.Memorize the words in bold type. 3. Be ready to answer the questions on the on the text:
EXAMINATION OF THE PATIENT
Before treating the patient it is necessary to make a correct diagnosis of the disease and to determine its a etiology, i.e. the causes of disease. The doctor must know well the pathogenesis of any disease, i.e. the way and mechanism of its development, as well as the symptoms by which it can be revealed.
A number of different procedures is used to establish a diagnosis: history-taking, physical examination, which includes visual examination, palpation, percussion, auscultation, laboratory studies, consisting of urinalysis, blood, sputum and other analyses; instrumental studies, for example, taking electrocardiograms or cystoscopy, X-ray examination and others.
For determining a disease its very important to know its symptoms such as breathlessness, edema, cough, vomiting, fever, hemorrhage, headache and others. Some of these symptoms are objective, for example, hemorrhage or vomiting, because they are determined by objective study, while others, such as headache or dizziness (bosh aylanish) are subjective, since they are evident only to the patient.
I.Gaplarni tarjima qiling va kesimlarning farqini toping:
1.I am examining. I am being examined. 2.The nurse was giving intravenous injections when we came in. Intravenous injections were being given to the nurse as she herself was ill at that time. 3. Now neurologist Smirnov administering a new treatment. . Now neurologist Smirnov is being administered a new treatment.
1. Tekst Ani lug’at yordamida o’qib targima qiling. 2. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining ingliz tilidagi ekvivalentlarini toping:
Kerakli (to’g’ri) javob olmoq; o’zini erkin his qilmoq; aniq maydonni topmoq; barcha ko’rinarli belgilarini ko’rsatmoq; oddiy bo’lmagan simptomlar; siz so’rashingiz mumkin edi; tushunmovchiliklarni aniqlamoq
Text A. HOW TO TAKE THE CASE
When we become doctors, we should always remember the following things.
As soon as the patient enters the consulting, or when we enter his room, observation should begin immediately. We look for external signs and symptoms as long as the professional visit lasts.
How do you begin the consultation with the patient? A first requirement is to develop a feeling of sympathy with the patient by your questions, your actions, your interest in him and his troubles. Select and choose your questions well to be adequate for the situation.
Now when the patient begins to tell you his complaints, his signs and symptoms, and various diagnostic terms that have been given to his disease, you should carefully note what he is telling you.
When the patient has finished his description, it is for you to make clear some points he did not give in details. Your questions must be understood by the patient well to get a meaningful answer.
When questioning the patient your aim should be to make the patient feel free, so that he tells you everything. The patient must feel at his ease. Never hurry him, that is the worst thing you can do. When you record his symptoms, be sure to have the exact expressions used.
Always ascertain the exact region in which the patient feels this or that. When the patient has finished his story, and you have ascertained some points, then is the time to make your physical examination. There again be very observant and note all the visible signs or symptoms in all the regions of the body.
A good physical examination is important. First because only by knowing his physical impairments, his past diseases, can you differentiate between strange, rare and particular symptoms, and symptoms logically depending upon these results, i.e. common symptoms.
Secondly, a physical examination is important to establish the prognosis of the case: sometimes without a physical examination you cannot say if something is malignant or benign. The prognosis may be very different. If there is a malignancy you need more time for the cure than with a benign case if cure is possible.
Thirdly, a physical examination is important to establish an exact diagnosis. You might ask why is an exact diagnosis important ? It is needed for the administration of a proper treatment.
So, you see now, how to take the case: first let the patient tell you his symptoms. Secondly try to clear up indistinct things precisely by careful questioning. Thirdly, make your physical examination.
III. Find the word-building elements. Translate the words:
a) painful – painless; restful – restless; hopeful – hopeless;
b) breathlessness, sleeplessness;
c) intercostals, intramuscular, interspace, intrapleural.
IV. Translate into o’zbek paying attention to the meaning of the word “both”:
1. Both the course of the disease and all the changes in the patient’s condition are written down in his case history. 2. Both investigators came to the same conclusion having studied the structure of this substance. 3. The examination of the blood includes both the determination of the red and white cell count.
V. Read Text B. Entitle it:
They came to the hospital, a shabby (tashlandiq) place, that looked like a small grocer’s shop. Over the windows, in big letters, were the words. “”St. MARK’S OPHTALMIC HOSPITAL FOR DISEASES OF THE EYE AND EAR”.
Going inside, they found themselves in a long narrow hall, divided in two by a barrier. At the upper and there were two doors, one to let patients in to the doctors, and the other to let them out when the doctor had finished examining them. Near the entrance was a big stove (pechka), and near this stove was a table on which was a big book containing all the details about the patient’s names, addresses, and occupations.
A sixpence was handed over, and they were given a ticket of admission which would also be used by the doctor to write down the prescribed remedies to be applied to diseased eyes. These were made up and handed out to the patients at the chemist’s, a little booth-like space in the corner of the hall.
They sat down on a bench among the patients, and waited for their turn. People were being admitted in groups of five or six at a time, the rest were moving up nearer as others went in.
(From I knock at the Door by Sean O’Case y. Adapted)
1 a small grocer’s shop – kichik attorlik do’koni;
2 a ticket of admission – vrach qabuli uchun talon;
3 a little booth-like space – kichkina burchak.
CYCLE VI. DISEASES