UNIT 2. THE PYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION
O’qish qoidasi: eu, ew, ue harf birikmalari; u harfi r, l, j lardan keyin.
So’z yasalishi: -ian suffiksi; dis-, a-, ab-, be-, com-, con-, de-, ex-, per-, pre- prefikslari.
Grammatika: zamonlar moslashuvi.
1. eu, ew, ue harf birikmalari [ju:] o’qiladi; g, l, j harflardan keyin esa [u:] new [nju:] yangi; true [tru:] to’g’ri; blue [blu:] ko’k
2. – u harfi g, l, j harflaridan keyin [u:] o’qiladi: rule[ru:l] qoida; lunar [`lu:nə] oydin; junior [`dзu:nə] kichik;
3. –ian a) sifalar va b) otlar qo’shimchasi hisoblanadi. ss dan keyin yoki –ian qo’shimchasi bilan [∫(ə)n] o’qiladi: Russian [`rΛ∫ən] rus millatidan;
4. dis- old qo’shimchasi o’zak ma’nosiga qarama-qarshi so’zlar yasaydi: to appear [ə`piə] paydo bo’lmoq, to disappear [¸disə`piə] yo’qolmoq.
5. a-, ab-, be-, com-, con-, de-, ex-, per-, pre-old qo’shimchalariga urg’u tushmaydi.
Quyidagi so’zlarning o’qilishini eslab qoling:
Psychology [sai`kolədзi], process [`prзΩses], absorption [əb`so:p∫ən], diffusion [di`fju:зən], phenomenon [fi`nominə], (pl phenomena [fi`nominən])
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yod oling:
observe [əb`zз:v] v kuzatmoq;
investigate [in`vestigeit] v o’rganmoq;
isolate [`aisəleit] v ajratmoq; ajratib olmoq;
combine [kəm`bain] v biriktirmoq;
able [eibl] a qodir; be able qila olmoq, sodir bo’lmoq;
conclusion [kən`klu:зən] n xulosa; draw a conclusion xulosa qilmoq;
accomplish [ə`kompli∫] v bajarmq; tugatmoq;
exchange [iks`t∫eindз] n almashinuv; v o’zaro almashinmoq;
due [dju:] a … ga ko’ra; due to tufayli;
solution [sə`lu:∫ən]n eritma;
salt [so:lt] n tuz;
prove [pru:v] v isbot qilmoq, bo’lib chiqmoq;
transfer [træns`fз:] n tashib o’tish; v tashimoq;
enable [i`nebl] v imkoniyat bermoq.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:
prove [pru:v]: to prove facts, to prove to smb. that, he proved that he was right, he was able to prove that;
conclusion [kən`klu:зən]: a right conxclusion, in conclusion, to come to the conclusion that … , to draw a conclusion;
accomplish [ə`kompli∫]: accomplishment, to accomplish the observation, the accomplishment of the respiratory process;
due [dju:] to: due to his illness, due to a high temperature, in due time, his bad condition was due to a high blood pressure;
investigate [in`vestigeit]: investigation, to accomplish the investigation, the investigation of the blood cells.
Tekst A ni o’qing:
SECHENOV AND HIS WORKS ON THE BLOOD GASES
I.M.Sechenov (1829-1905) was a prominent Russian scientists, the founder of Russian physiology and scientific psychology.
The range of Sechenov’s scientific interests and the number of his research works are really great. 106 scientific works were written by him. In these works he included the findings which he had observed and determined before.
Some of his research works were connected with the investigation of the blood gases and their role in the respiratory process.
I.M.Sechenov isolated the blood gases and found out that most of the blood gases were combined with erythrocytes. No physiologist had been able to do it before Sechenov. On the basis of his observations I.M.Sechenov came to the conclusion that hemoglobin was that substance of the blood which accomplished the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the respiratory process. Physiologists of many countries who had worked on this problem before Sechenov could not estimate the role of hemoglobin in the act of respiration. So the accomplishment of the respiratory process is due to hemoglobin.
I.M.Sechenov investigated the process of absorption of carbon dioxide by the solutions of salts. When he had completed his investigations, he proved that only 2/3 of carbon dioxide were dissolved (erib ketmoq) in plasma. The rest of carbon dioxide was combined with red blood cells. The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs was due to the law (qonun) of diffusion of gas from fluid into the air. When Sechenov had investigated this phenomenon, he was able to answer the question why oxygen passed into the blood from atmospheric gases during the act of respiration.
Translate the following word combinations:
the solution of salts, due to the transfer, due to the diffusion of gases, to accomplish the investigations, the accomplishment of this process, to come to the conclusion, to draw a conclusion, to investigate the phenomenon, to investigate the laws of diffusion.
Put the verbs in brackets in the proper tense:
1. The patient (to be) under medical care before the surgeon began the operation. 2. They (to isolate) the patient with the grippe from the others before they were infected. 3. My experiments not yet (to prove) anything since I started them. 4. We (to complete) our observations on the changes in the blood erytrcytes by tomorrow.
Read and translate Text B. Remember the given data to able to answer the questions:
THE EXCHANGE OF GASES IN THE LUNGS
The exchange of gases takes place in the alveoli [жl’vI∂IaI] of the lungs. Oxygen passes into the blood and carbon dioxide passes into the atmospheric air.
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is due to the difference of partial (parsial) pressure of these gases in the alveolar air and in the venous blood.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveolar air is higher than in the venous blood. the transfer of oxygen from the atmospheric air into the blood is due to this difference of pressures.
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide is higher in the venous blood and this enables carbon dioxide to pass from the blood into alveolar air.
The process of transfer of gases into the medium [‘mi:dI∂m] (muxit) with a lower partial pressure is called diffusion. Hemoglobin is that substance of the blood which transfers oxygen in the blood. The oxygen capacity of the blood averages to 18-20 millilitres (ml) per 100 gr of blood. Carbon dioxide is transferred in combination with hemoglobin and bicarbonic salts.
The combination of oxygen and hemoglobin is called oxyhemoglobin, that of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin – carbohemoglobin.
Grammatika: bog’lovchisiz ergash gaplar.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
associate [ə`sзΩ∫ieit] v bog’lamoq; [ə`sзΩ∫iit] a bog’langan, birikkan;
passage [`pæsidз] n o’tish joyi;
breathe [bri:θ] v nafas olmoq; breathe in nafas olmoq; breathe out nafas chiqarmoq;
flow [flзΩ] n oqim; v oqmoq, sirkulatsiya bo’lmoq;
decrease [di:`kri:s] n kamaymoq, tushmoq;
depth [depθ]n chuqurlik;
fat [fæt] n yog’; yog’li, to’lishgan;
amount [ə`maΩnt] n miqdor.
Quyida berilga so’zlar ichidan ma’no jihatdan mos keluvchi so’zlarni topib qo’ying:
On physical exertion the pateent’s … became deep. 2. When the temperature is high a patient usually … deeply. 3. When one … the lungs dilate. 4. When one … the lungs contract.
Breathe, breathe out, breath, breathe in
1. Tekst C ni o’qing. 2. a) shaxsi noaniq oborotlarni toping va tarjima qiling; b) Present Participle va uning funksiyalarini toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining ekvivalentlarini topib yozing:
uchun alohida ahamiyatga ega, o’pkada sodir bo’layotgan, ishlab chiqarishda ishtirok etadi
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE LUNGS
The physiology of the lungs is associated with their structure. There are over 700.000.000 alveoli in the lungs. The total surface of the alveoli is about 90 sq.m. (square metres). The lungs have many capillaries with the total surface of about 80 sq.m. This particular structure of the lungs enables the exchange of gases between the alveolar air and the blood.
Elastic fibers of connective tissue composing the walls of the alveoli, alveolar passages and the visceral pleura enable the lungs to dilate.
When one breathes normally not all the alveoli and capillaries of the lungs are opened. When respiration becomes deep, the number of the opened alveoli and capillaries increases. The flow of blood into the lungs increases when one breathes in and it decreases when one breathes out.
The regulation of the vital capacity of the lungs is of particular importance to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide taking place in the lungs. It is considered that in the adult the vital capacity of the lungs is about 3-4 litres. When the depth of respiration increases the vital capacity may be 6 litres and even more.
The lungs take part in the production of physiologically active substances, in the regulation of blood coagulation, in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Bog’lovchisiz ergash gaplarga aylantiring:
If you had taken the medicine yesterday, you wouldh,t be ill now. 2. If the patient had not been operated in time, he might have died. 3.If you don`t put on your coat, you will catch a cold. 4. If we had worked harder yesterday, our work would be ready now. 5. If you had told me about it before! 6. Why did you go to the South without asking the doctor’s advice? I’m sure that he would not have advised you to go to theSouth in July. 7. If I were sure that he had already returned to Tashkent, I should go to see him now.
Give the English equivalents of the words in brackets. Translate the sentences.
When we breathe out (oqim) of blood into the lungs ( kamayadi). 2. One of the mechanisms of headache (bog’liq) with the pressure made by a tumour on the cranila and cervical nerves. 3. During the act of respiration the air enters the lungs through the air (yo’llari). 4. When the doctor was examining the patient he asked him
(nafas olishni) deeply. 5. (Yog’) substances which are located in the cell compose 1-2% of its total weight. 6. (Miqdor) of the fluid part of the blood called the plasma composes 60%.
1. Read text D. 2. Entitle it. 3. Choose and translate indefinite personal sentences. 4. Say what the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs deal with:
If one investigates the act of inspiration one will observe such phenomena.
When one breathes in, the external intercostal muscles contract and lift (ko’tarmoq) the ribs. At this moment the diaphragm also contracts and goes down. The volume of the chest increases. The increase of the chest volume enables the lungs to extend. The pressure in the lungs becomes less and the atmospheric air enters the lungs.
When one breathes out, the external intercostal muscles and the muscles of the diaphragm become relaxed (bo’shashgan). The ribs go down, the diaphragm goes up, the volume of the chest decreases and the lungs contract. The pressure in the lungs becomes higher and the air goes out of the lungs. If one is sitting or lying one makes 16-20 respirations per minute. On physical exertion the respiratory rate and the depth of repiration increase.
Normally during one inspiration the man breathes in about 500 ml of air. On deep inspiration one breathes in 1.5-2 litres of air.
The vital capacity of the lungs in the male averages 3.5-4 litres and in the female 3-3.5 litres.
The respiratory rate and its depth depend on the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
UNIT 3. THE PYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
O’qish qoidasi: o harfi ld, st dan oldin.
So’z yasalishi: -ize (ise), -yze (ize); -ancy, -ency; -ant, -ent, -ness suffiksi;
Grammatika: .Perfect Passive zamon guruhi; ‘it is … that’ kuchaytirish konstrukturasi.
1. oo harfi ld va st dan oldin [зΩ] bo’lib o’qiladi; cold [kзΩld] sovuq; post [pзΩst] mansab, vazifa, lavozim;
2. – ize [aIz] fe’l yasovchi qo’shimcha. Uning boshqa variantlari: -yse, -yze, -ise: summarize [`s/\məraIz] xulosa qilmoq, analyse [`ænəlaIz] tahlil qilmoq;
3. –ancy, -ency ot yasovchi qo’shimchalar: infancy [`InfənsI] go’daklik; insufficiency [Insə`fI∫ənsI] kamchilik;
4. ant, -ent sifat yasovchi qo’shimchalar: constant [`konstənt] doimiy; significant [sIg`nIfIkənt] muhim;
5. –ness qo’shimchasi sifatdan ot yasaydi: weak [wi:k] oriq, kuchsiz; weakness [`wi:knəs] kuchsizlik.
Old, told, bold, hold, fold, sold, host, most
O’qing va tarjima qiling:
Realize, recognize, criticize, generalize, specialize;
sufficiency, urgency, persistency, emergency, dependency,
distant, present, absent, important, dependent, different;
badness, readiness, coldness, whiteness, redness.
Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:
1. It is in the alveoli that the respiratory metabolism takes place. 2. It is hemoglobin that carries oxygen to different tissues of the human body. 3. It was not until 1628 that blood circulation was described by William Harvey.
So’zlarni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
Mechanism [mIkə`nIzəm], cortex [`ko:teks], communication [kə¸mju:nI`keI∫ən], stimuli [`stImjulaI], summarize [`s/\məraIz], analyse [`ænəlaIz], constant [`konstənt], hypothalamus [¸haIpзΩ`θæləməs]
IV. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
complicate [`kompIlkeIt] v murakkablashtirmoq; complicated [`komplIkeItId] murakkab;
directly [dI`rektlI] adv to’g’ridan-tog’ri;
ear [Iə] n quloq;
sense [sens] n hissiyot, ma’no;
pain [paIn] n og’riq;
smell [smel] n hid, hidi kelmod;
feeling [`fi:lŋ] n his, sezgi;
order [`o:də] n tartib; buyruq; in order to uchun;
move [mu:v] v harakatlanmoq;
area [`εərIə] n maydon, bo’shliq;
control [kən`tr зΩl] n nazorat, nazorat qilmoq, tekshirmoq;
vision [`vIзən] n ko’rish;
almost [`o:lm зΩst] adv deyarli.
1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. Tekstga reja tuzing. 3. Quyidagi so’z birikmalarining ekvivalent tarjimasini toping va yodlang:
Sezish organlari, og’riq tufayli, yana ko’p narsa, bosh miya qobig’ining harakatlantiruvchi qismi
Text A. The Brain
Scientists consider that our brain is the most complicated mechanism which has ever been constructed.
The weight of the human brain is from one to two kg (kilograms). It has a volume of about 3.21 litres and consists of about 12 billion (milliard) cells. It has been determined by the scientists that each cell is connected to the other directly or indirectly by nerve fibers.
The brain is the centre of a wide system of communication. It has been found out that a constant flow of stimuli comes into the brain through the spinal cord. The stimuli come to the brain from our eyes, ears, and other sense organs for pain, temperature, smell and other feelings. When all the received stimuli have been summarized and analysed the brain sends orders through the nerve fibers in the spinal cord to different parts of the human body. It is due to these orders that one eats, moves, hears, sees and does many other things.
To estimate the functions of different areas of the brain many experiment have been carried out by the investigators. It is due to such experiments that the investigators have been able to determine those areas of the brain which control vision, hearing, physical movements and even emotions.
Due to experimental studies it has been determined that the motor cortex controlling many body movements of the human being becomes tired rapidly. But the hypothalamus which controls such functions as blood pressure is almost never tired.
Use the construction ‘it is (waw) … that’to emphasize the parts of the sentence in bold type:
The motor cortex controls many movements of the human being. 2. During the systole both ventricles of the heart contract. 3. On deep respiration the vital capacity of the lungs may become 6 litres. 4. In 1538 Andreas Vesalius published his six-volume work “Tabulae Anatomicae”.
constant communications between sense organs; 2. a complicated case; 3. in the heart area; 4. the feeling of pain; 5. to control a disease; 6. to examine hearing. 7. to analyse the disfunction of movements.
Memorize the words. Translate the sentences:
feed [fI:d] (fed, fed) v boqmoq, oziqlantirmoq;
feeding [`fI:Iŋ] n ozuqa. The mother feeds her infant. Milk is the main feeding of an infant.
obtain [əb`teIn] v olmoq, hosil qilmoq. During our life we obtain much experience.
Develop [dI`veləp] v rivojlanmoq, paydo bo’lmoq. The patient developed a bad pain in the stomach.
supply [sə`plaI] v ta’minlamoq, ta’minot. Blood supply may become decreased in some heart disease.
response [rI`spons] n javob, reaksiya. The response to the treatment was rapid.
Grammatika: infinitive shakllari; perfektli infinitive modal fe’llaridan keyin
Quyidagi faktlarni eslab qoling:
Do you know that …
… the vision centres are located in the occipital [ok`sIpItl] area of the cortex? 2. … the nervous system of the human being has about ten times more nervous cells than the number of all people in the world? 3. … the stimuli pass into the brain through the spinal cord very rapidly – about 100 m per second?
Ma’no jihatdan to’g’ri so’zni tanlab gapni tugating:
The ear is the sense organ of (vision, hearing). 2. The human being smells with (the nose, the eye). 3. The motor cortex controlling many body movements (becomes tired rapidly, is almost never tired). 4. The stimuli from different parts of the human body come to the brain through (the blood vessels, the nerve fibers in the spinal cord).
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yodlang:
delicate [`delIkIt] a nozik, nimjon;
inhibit [In`hIbIt] v to’xtatmoq, kechiktirmoq;
allow [ə`laΩ] v ruxsat bermoq, imkon bermoq;
provide [prə`vaId] v (with) ta’minlamoq;
smooth [smu:ð] a silliq, tekis;
purpose [`pз:pəs] n maqsad;
fall [fo:l] (fell, fallen) v tushmoq, pasaymoq; fall asleep uxlab qolmoq;
fall ill (with) – kasal bo’lmoq;
significance [sI`gnIfIkəns] n ahamiyatli;
quiet [`kwaIət] a tinch; become quiet tinchlanmoq;
drop [drop] v tushmoq, tomchilamoq;
though [`ðзΩ] adv garchi;
spread [spred] (spread, spread) v tarqalmoq.
Quyidagi so’z birikmalarini tarjima qiling:
Nimjon sog’liq, nozik hujayralar, nozik operatsiya, silliq muskullar, tekis yonbosh yuza, tinch hordiq, osoyishta uyqu, mustahkam sog’liq, qattiq uyqu; b) yiqilmoq; men yiqildim, bemor uxlab qoldi, men termometrni tushirib yubordim, ko’zga dori tomizmoq, u pnevmoniya bilan og’rib qoldi, bemorga yuyurishga ruxsat bermoq, bemorga o’tirishga ruxsat berildi, vrach meni charchashimga ruxsat bermayapti, ta’minlamoq, kutubxonamiz bizni kitoblarbilan ta’minlaydi.
Tekst B ni o’qing va tarjima qiling:
The nervous cells of the cortex are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.
It is at the moment of tiredness of the cortical nervous cells that the process of inhibition begins to act. This process does not allow new stimuli to pass to the tired areas of the brain. To provide the smooth work of the brain the nervous cells must be well supplied with oxygen and feeding substances. And for this purpose any human being must have regular complete rest, i.e. sleep.
When the process of inhibition extends over a great number of cells, spreads widely over the cortex and even over the subcortical areas of the brain one falls asleep.
When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is restored. So sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.
The man sleep about one third of his life. Numerous investigations and experiments have shown that sleep is more necessary for the human being than food. one can live longer without food than without sleep.
During a sound quiet sleep the whole activity of the human organism changes, the body metabolism decreases, the respiratory and pulse rates become slower, the body temperature drops. Though the stimuli continue to come into the, brain, the inhibited cortical cells do not react to them.