V. Answer the following questions:
1. Does the pulse become rapid or slow when one is running? 2. Does the patient gain or lose weight if he is seriously ill? 3. Do you take examinations at the beginning or at the end of the term? 4. Is the students’ hostel near or far from the main building of the institute? 5. Does the man becomeweak or strong if he goes in for sports?
VI. Finish the sentences choosing the necessary word combation from those given below:
1.The patient was ill for a long time and … . 2. About 40% of the body weight … . 3. The oblique muscle is called so … . 4. The muscles are active agents of … . 5. The static muscles are connected with … .
motion and contraction, according to its direction, his weight changed greatly, large surfaces of the bones, is formed by the muscles
VII. Translate paying attention to Infinitives:
My father went to he sanatorium to restore the condition of his health. 2. He is one of the scientists to perform numerous operations on the heart. 3. Students must orten go to the dissecting room to study the structure of different organs. 4. This is the article to be carefully read by me to get prepared for my report.
Translate into English:
Ma’ruzachi talabalarga muskul tolalari biriktiruvchi to’qima orqali birikishini aytdi. 2. Izlanuvchi keng muskullar vazifasini o’rganayotganini biz bilar edik. 3. Shifokor bu bemorga doimiy tinchlik kerak deb hisoblaydi. 4. Biz muskullarni tana, bosh va oxir (qo’l-oyoq) muskullariga bo’linishini bilib ildik.
Read Text H. Find the passages corresponding to the items of the plan:
The treatment of the patient with the paralysis of leg muscles. 2. The use of plastics in medicine.
Text H. PLASTICS FOR HEALTH
In 1976 a very interesting operation was performed by the surgeons of Tashkent Traumatology [‘tro:m∂’tDl ∂dзI] Institute.
The patient was an 18-year-old girl. She had the paralysis of the leg muscles. the patient was examined by the surgeons and then the operation was performed.
During the operation the muscles from her back and abdomen were transplanted to the thigh. These transplanted muscles were connected together by bands of special plastic – lavsan.
It is not the first time that plastics were used to restore health. For example, lavsan bands were also used if the patient had some defects in the spinal column. Special threads (iplar) were introduced into the diseased spinal column and the surgeons could examine the condition of the patient by X-rays.
UNIT 2. THE INNER ORGANS OF THE HUMAN BODY
O’qish qoidasi: oa harf birikmasi.
So’z yasalishi: -ous, -ary, -ery, -ory suffikslari; inter-, sub-prefikslari.
Grammatika: Past Participle funksiyalari; one – ones, that – those otlarning o’rnida qo’llanishi.
oa harf birikmasi [зΩ] bo’lib o’qiladi: coat[kзΩt] – parda;
–ous suffiksi otdan va fe’llardan sifat yasayd: fame [feim] – shuhrat, shon;
–ary, (-ery, - ory) suffikslari ot va sifat hosil qilishida ishlatiladi: surgery [`sз:dзəri] – xirurgiya, pulmonary [`pΛlmənəri] – o’pkaga oid;
Inter – prefiksi (old qo’shimchasi) orasi, o’rtasi, o/zaro, orasida, o’rtasida deb tarjima qilinadi: interaction [,Inte`ræk∫ən] o’zaro, birgalikda; intercostal [Intə`kostl] qovurg’a oralig’idagi; interspace [‘Intə’speIs] oraliq, bo’shliq; international [‘Intə`speIs] oraliq; international [`Intə`næ∫nəl] xalqaro;
–sub prefiksi rus tilidagi “под” ya’ni tagida ma’nodagi prefiksiga mos keladi: to devide [dI’vaId] bo’lmoq, ajratmoq; to subdivide [`s/\bdI`vaId] qismlarga ajratmoq, taqsimlamoq.
Road, moan, soap, load, foam, soak, throat
O’qing va tarjima qiling:
fibrous, numerous, continuous, venous, nervous;
ordinary, alimentary, primary, secondary, respiratory;
subdivision, subacute, subtropical, subcostal, subcutaneous, subclass, subserous;
Quyidagi gaplarni “one- ones” “that - those” so’zlariga e’tibor bergan holda tarjima qiling:
I don’t like this book, give me another one. 2. The bones of the extremities are longer than those of the spine. 3. The bones of the scull are those which compose the head and the face. 4. This lecture is more interesting than the one I attended last week. 5. The weight of the lungs is less than that of the heart.
Quyidagi so’zlarning talaffuzini eslab qoling. Ushb so’zlarning qaysi biri sizlarga lotin tilida tanish?
vascular [væskjulə] a qon tomirga oid;
valve [vælv] n klapan;
pericardium [¸perIka:dIəm] n yurak oldi xaltachasi;
fibrous [`faIbrəs] a toladi;
apex [`eIpkes] n uchi;
systemic [sIs`temIk] a sistemali;
interspace [`Intə`speIs]n oraliq;
pulmonary [`p/\mənərI] a o’pkaga oid;
costal [kostl] a qovurg’aga oid;
portal [po:tl] a darvozaga oid, portal;
septum [`septəm] n to’siq;
ventricle [`ventrikl] n qorincha;
atrium [`eitriəm] n bo’lmacha;
V. Quyidagi so’zlarni yod oling:
inner [`inə] a ichki;
layer [leiə] n qatlam, parda;
within [wi`ðin] prep ichida, ichki, ichidagi;
locate [lзΩ`keit] v joylashmoq;
include [ink`lu:d] v o’z ichiga olmoq;
carry [`kæri] v tashimoq, boshidan kechirmoq;
male [meil] n erkak;
lung [lΛŋ] n o’pka;
female [`fi:meil] n ayol;
liver [`livə] n jigar;
separate [`sepəreit] v ajratmoq;
coat [kзΩt] n parda, yupqa qatlam;
chamber [`t∫eimbə] n kamera;
dilate [dai`leit] v kengaymoq;
thick [θik] a qalin, jips;
contract [kən`trækt] v qisqarmoq;
VI. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:
1.chamber [`t∫eimbə]: the heart consists of two separate chambers; the right atrium and the right ventricle are in the right chambers;
2. thick [θik]: athick wall, thick ice, the wals of the left atrium are thick; the left ventricle has thick walls;
3. pulmonary [`p/\mənərI]: pulmonary artery; pulmonary circulation; pulmonary disease; pulmonary function; pulmonary valve;
4. dilate [dai`leit]: dilated;to be dilated; the vessel dilate; the heart dilates and contracts.
VII. 1. Tekst A ni o’qing. 2. –ous,-ary, -ery suffikslari va interprefikisi bilan kelgan so’zlarni ko’chirib yozing. 3. a)Past Participle; b)Present Participle; c) “one - ones”, “that - those”, larni o’z ichiga olgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling; 5. Matn rejasini yozing:
THE HEART AND THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
The heart is an inner hollow muscular organ placed within the chest and included in the pericardium. The base of the heart is against the third rib. Its apex is against the interspace between the fifth and sixth costal cartilages. The weight of the heart is about 300 grammas (gr) in the male and about 220 gr in the female.
The heart consists of two separate chambers divided by the septum. Each of the chambers has two connected parts: the atrium and the ventricle. The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles.
The right atrium is larger than the left one, but the walls of the left atrium are thicker than those of the right one. The right ventricle is triangular in form and has thick walls. The right ventricle is in the anterior part of the heart. The left ventricle is longer and more conical than the right one. The walls of the ventricle are three times as thick as the walls of the right one. The valves are located at the entrance and exit of each ventricle.
The muscular structure of the heart consists of fibrous bands divided into two groups – the first ones are the fibrous bands of the atria and the second ones are the fibrous bands of the ventricles.
The vascular system consists of three groups of vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries.
The vessels carrying blood to and from the tissues of the body compose the general system. They are called the systemic vessels.
The pulmonary system is formed by the vessels carrying blood to and from the lungs.
The portal system is formed by the veins passing to the liver.
Most of the arteries are composed of three coats. The arteries dilate and contract simultaneously with the action of the heart.
Read the following words:
coat, count, cause, law, load, loud, autopsy, saw, soak, sound, nausea, raw, moan, amount, gauze, road
Translate into English:
devorlardan uch barobar qalin; 2. kichik (o’pka) qon aylanish doirasi; 3. katta qon aylanish doiasi; 4. portal vena sistemasidagi qon aylanish.
Choose the proper Participle. Translate the sentences:
The blood vessels (located, locating) on the anterior surface of the arm wre dilated. 2. The vessels (carried, carrying) blood to the heart are called veins. 3. The lungs are the inner organs (included, including) in the thoracic cavity. 4. The muscular structure of the heart (consisted, consisting) of two parts includes muscular layers of the atria and muscular layers of the ventricles.
XI. Read Text B. Entitle it. Say what it deals with:
In the left chamber the atrium and ventricle are separated by the mitral [‘maItr∂I] valve.
In the right chamber the atrium and ventricle are separated by the tricuspid [‘traIk/\spId] valve. At the point of origin of the aorta in the left ventricle another valve is located. This valve is called the semilunar valve of the aorta.
At the point of origin of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle the fourth valve is located. It is called the semilunar valve of the pulmonary artery.
Quyidagi so’zlarning o’qilishini eslab qoling:
respiratory [ris`paiərətəri] a nafasga oid;
mediastinum [¸mi:diæs`tainəm] n ko’ks oralig’i;
pleura [`plΩərə] n plevra;
lobe [lзΩb] n bo’lak;
external [eks`tз:rnl] a tashqi;
serous [ `siərəs] a seroz;
lateral [`lætərə] a yon bosh;
visceral [`vIsərəl] a ichki;
subserous [s/\b`Iərəs] a seroz osti.
II. Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini yod oloing:
cover [`k/\və] v qoplamoq, yopmoq;
vary [`vεərI] v o’zgarmoq, turlanmoq, farqlanmoq;
shape [`eIp] n shakl; ko’rinish;
heavy [`hevI] a og’ir, zich;
border [`bo:də] n chegara;
left [left] a chap;
extend [Iks`tend] v kengaymoq; kattaymoq;
capacity [kə`pæsItI] n sig’im, hajm;
vital capacity of the lungs [`vaitəl kə`pæsiti əv ðə lΛŋz] o’pkaning tiriklik sig’imi;
upward [`/\pwəd] prep yuroriga;
above [ə`b/\v] prep tepa, ostida;
infant [`nfənt] n go’dak (ikki yoshgach bo’lgan bola);
level [levl] n sathi; miqdor;
pale [peIl] a rangziz;
thin [θIn] a yupqa, ingichka;
colour [`k/\lə] n rang; v bo’yamoq;
proper [`propə] a xususiy; tog’ri; o’ziga xos, monand.
III. 1. Tekst C ni o’qing. 2. Undagi Present Participle ishtirok etgan gaplarni toping va tarjima qiling. 3. Tekstga oid beshta savol tuzing. 4. Ouyidagi so’z birikmalarining ingliz tilidagi ekvivalentini yozing:
sathidan, har ikki tomonda, katta yoshdagi erkak kishilarda, go’daklarda, bir-biridan, shakli bo’yicha
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. There are two lungs in the human body located in the lateral cavities of the chest. The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum. The lungs are covered with the pleura. They are conical in shape. Each lung has the base, apex, two borders and three surfaces.
The lung has the apex extending upward 3-4 centimeters (cm) above the level of the first rib.
The base of the lung is located in the convex (bo’rtgan) surface of the diaphragm.
The posterior borders of the lungs are on each side of the spinal column. The anterior border is thin and overlaps (to’smoq) the pericardium.
The weight of the lungs varies according to many conditions. In the adult male the weight of the lungs is about 1.350 gr. The right lung is about 15% heavier than the left one. The vital capacity of the lungs is 3.5-4 liters in the male and it is 3-3.5 liters in the female.
The right lung consisting of three lobes is heavier than the left one because the latter consists only of two lobes. The lower lobe of the left lung is larger than the upper one.
In infants the lungs are of a pale rose colour, but later they become darker.
The structure of the lung consists of an external serous coat, the visceral layer of the pleura, a subserous elastic tissue and the parenchyma or proper substance of the lungs.
Translate the following participles:
covered - covering, extended – extending, varied – varying, dilated – dilating, contracted – contracting, included – including, separated – separating
Give the Enlish equivalents to the following word combinations:
o’pkaning xususiy moddasi, o’pkaning tiriklik sig’imi, tashqi seroz parda, o’pkaning birinchi qovurg’a sathidan yuqori tomonga 3-4sm. cho’zilib joylashgan, nafas olish a’zolari sistemasi.
Read Text D. Entitle it:
The aorta is the main vessel of the systemic arteries or the arteries of the general system. It begins at the upper part of the left ventrigle, goes up, arches over the root (ildiz) of the left lung to the left side of the trunk at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra. On its way from the fifth thoracic vertebra to about the level of the last thoracic vertebra it is called the thoracic aorta.
Then it goes down through the diaphragm. From the point of the last thoracic vertebra to the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra it is called the abdominal aorta.
It then goes to the border of the fourth lumbar vertebra and here it finishes dividing into the left and right ilias arteries.
Quyidagi so’zlarning o’qilishini eslab qoling:
membraneous [mem’breInjəs] a membranali;
duodenum [¸dju:зΩ`di:nəm] n o’n ikki barmoqli ichak;
anus [`einəs] n orqa peshov;
jejunum [dзidзu:nəm] n och ichak;
pharynx[`færŋks] n halqum;
ileum [`IlIəm] n yonbosh ichak;
esophagus [i:`sofəgəs] n qizilo’ngach;
caecum [`si:kəm] n ko’r ichak;
pancreas [`pæŋkriəs] n oshqozon osti bezi;
colon [`kзΩlən] n chambar ichak;
gland [glænd] n bez;
rectum [`rektəm] n to’g’ri ichak;
salivary [`sælivəri] a so’lakli.
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarni yod oling:
alimentary [æli`mentəri] a ovqat hazim qilishga bog’liq;
palate [`pælit] n tanglay;
sof palate [soft `pælit] n yumshoq tanglay;
harg palate [ha:d `pælit] n qattiq tanglay;
mouth [maΩθ] n o’g’iz;
stomach [`stΛmək] n oshqozon, qorin;
also [`o:lsзΩ] adv ham;
intestine [in`testin] n ichak;
food [fu:d] n ovqat;
small intestine [smo;l in`testin] ingichka ichak;
through [θru:] prep orqali;
large intestine [a:dз in`testin] yog’on ichak;
portion [`po:∫ən] n qism, bo’lak;
gall-bladder [`go:l `blædə] n o’t pufagi;
measure [`meзə] n o’lchov, v o’lchamoq;
important [im`po:tənt] a muhim;
tube [tju:b] n truba, naycha, tyubik;
tongue [tΛŋ] n til; coated tongue- oqargan til
Quyidagi so’z va so’z birikmalarini o’qing va tarjima qiling:
The lower portion of the stomach, let me see your tongue, the intestines are in the abdominal cavity, to measure the length of the bone, the tongue was coated.
Quyidagi gaplarni tarjima qiling:
The soft palate is a continuation of the soft tissues covering the hard palate. 2. The small intestine composed of three main portions is a thin – walled muscular tube. 3. The weight of the largest of the salivary glands is 28 gr. 4. The liver consists of small lobules (bo’lakcha) connected together by connective tissue, different vessels and nerves. 5. The duodenum is called so because its length measures about the length of twelve fingers. 6. The liver consisting of lobes is covered with a fibrous coat.
1. Tekst E ni o’qing 2. Tekstdan tana a’zolarini ifodalovchi so’zlarni ko’chirib yozing. 3. Ovqat hazm qilish barcha qismlarining nomlarini ma’lum ketma-ketlikda yozing. 4. Quyidagi berilgan modelga ko’ra matnga savollar qo’ying:
What comes above (below) the stomach?
THE ALIMENTARY TRACT
The alimentary tract - is a musculomembraneous canal about 8.5 m (metres) in length. It extends from the oral cavity to the anus. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The liver with gall-bladder and pancreas are the large glands of the alimentary tract.
The first division of the alimentary tract is formed by the mouth. Important structures of the mouth are the teeth and tongue, which is the organ of taste (ta’m bilish). The soft and hard palates and the salivary glands are also in the oral cavity.
From the mouth food passes through the pharynx to the esophagus and then to the stomach.
The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It measures about 21-25 cm in length, 8-9 cm in its greatest diameter. It has capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 litres.
The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 meters long. It is located in the lower and central portions of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The large intestine is about 1.5 meters long. It is divided into caecum, colon and rectum.
The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The liver is in the right side of the abdomen. The weight of the liver is 1.500 gr.
The gall-bladder is a hollow sac (qopcha) lying on the lower surface of the liver.
The pancreas is a long thin gland lying under and behind the stomach.
Translate the following sentences:
The peritoneum is a serous coat covering the inner surface of the abdominal wall. 2. The shape of the stomach changes when it dilates and its borders greatly extend. 3. The capillaries are connected with the endings of the arteries and veins. 4. The left atrium is smaller than the right one and its walls are thicker than those of the right one.
Read Text F:
Text F. ANDREAS VESALIUS
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1563) is one of the greatest anatomists. He studied medicine in France. In 1537 he got the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In 1538 his first scientific works in Anatomy were published. In 1543 his most important book “On the Structure of the Human Body” was written.
His work “On the Structure of the Human Body” consists of seven books. The bones of the skeleton, the joints and cartilages were described in the first book; the muscles were in the second; the vessels were in the third; the nerves were in the fourth; the alimentary tract was in the fifth; the heart and the respiratory system were in the sixth; the brain was in the seventh.
In all his works Vesalius studied the anatomy of the human body on corpses. He studied the structure of the inner organs of the human body taking into consideration their functions. Vesalius was the first scientist to give a proper description of the human skeleton. He also determined that the right and the left ventricles of the heart were not connected. He determined that there were no opening in the septum between the left and the right heart chambers. It was a great discovery. Before Vesalius all the scientists considered that the left and the right heart chambers were connected by the opening in the septum. His discovery opened the way to the discovery of the pulmonary and systemic blood circulations in future. Vesalius did much to establish new and exact anatomical terms.
The great Russian scientist Pavlov said that the works written by Vesalius composed the first anatomy of the human body in which everything was based on scientific research work.
to take into consideration – hisobga olmoq, e’tiborni qaratmoq
Quyidagi so’zlarda berilgan suffiks va prefikslarni toping va bu so’zlarni tarjima qiling:
respiratory, impossible, language, subserous, cartilage, irregular, connective, constructive, subclass, alimentary, venous