1800 earthquake in California est at 6

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1831 Mohammed Ali of Egypt seizes Syria and rules it until 1840, Charles Darwin sets sail, Cyclone hits Barbados, death of French manufacturer of pianos Sebastien Erard, death of English tragic actress Sarah Kemble (Mrs. Siddons), death of French-Austrian composer and piano maker Ignaz Pleyel, death of James Monroe – #5, death of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, End of Mexican president Vicente Guerrero, Polish diet declares independence of Poland – Russians defeat Polish forces at Ostroleka – revolt collapses, Charles Albert becomes King of Sardinia-Piedmont ‘till abdication in 1849, Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg elected Leopold I King of Belgians, Separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, death of German statesman Baron HFK vom and zum Stein, Southampton insurrection – Birginia slave revolt led by Nat Turner – 55 whites die, death of August Neithardt von Gneisenau the Prussian Field Marshal during Napoleonic Wars, death of Ioannes A Kapodistrias the Greek statesman, death of Prussian general and military historian Karl von Clausewitz, Former president John Quincy Adams becomes US rep from Massachusetts, Syria (part of Ottoman empire since 1516) conquered by Egyptians, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg divided into two parts and larger goes to Belgium, Wreched conditions of the working classes in Lyons France leads to uprisings, Balzac writes, Sidraeli writes second novel, Victor Hugo writes “Notre Dame de Paris”, death of Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger author of the Sturm und Drang movement, Giacomo Leopardi writes poems, Thomas L Peacock writes satire, Poe writes poems, John Trumbull the American poet and lawyer dies, Cardinal Mauro Capellari elected Pope Gregory XVI, death of German philosopher Friedrich Hegel, William Miller leader of the Second Adventists in America begins his preaching, death of German historian Georg Niebuhr, Delacroix paints “Le 28 Juliet 1830”, Bellini composes, Chopin arrives in Paris, Herold composes opera,Meyerbeer composes opera, death of French-Austrian composer and piano maker Ignaz Pleyel, Chloroform simultaneously invented by Samuel Guthrie and Justus von Liebig, Charles Darwin sails as naturalist on surveying expedition in HMS Beagle to S. America New Zealand and Australia until 1836, Michael Faraday carries out experiments on electromagnetic induction, Sir James Clark Ross determines position of magnetic north, Charles Sauria of France develops easy-light matches, Great Cholera Pandemic reaches central Europe, German emigration to North America reaches 15,000, William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing abolitionist periodical “The Liberator” in Boston, Legion Etrangere formed to help French colonial possessions in Africa (Foreign Legion), London Bridge opened, First horse-drawn busses in New York, Population of Great Britain reaches 13.9 million with 12.8 million in America, Lord John Russell introduces Reform Bill that abolishes all “nomination” boroughs, Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to introduction of more liberal legislation – expansion of franchise and the principle of popular sovereignty, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates and is succeeded by Pedro II his son, death of English historian William Roscoe, death of Isaiah Thomas the American Bible printer, US copyright law amended – 28 years and renewable for 14 years, Samuel Francis Smith writes words to “My Country ‘Tis of Thee”, Great Reform Bill riot in Bristol results in 250 wounded or killed, Nat Turner slave revolt in VA, book published about him, Belgium gains independence under Leopold I, Bellini and Schumann compose, William Lloyd Garrison founds The Liberator an abolitionist paper, Victor Hugo writes, Hegel dies, father of the Hegelian philosophy, Darwin sets sail on the Beagle, Church led to Ohio (Feb) , Martin Harris auctions off farm Apr , Mission to MO started (June) Jackson Co. Names as center for Zion (July 20) Book of Commandments commanded (Nov) Eliza Snow meets Joseph Smith, New London Bridge opened, Conference of Church Oct 25-6, Nat Turner leads slave revolt Aug 21, First steam rail line opens, July Cyrus McCormick's reaper, Cooper tests steam locomotive. 2 Feb Pope Gregory XVI (Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari ) appointed, Dec 12 Republican Party holds first nominating convention, Aug 2 Zion dedicated, Jun 7, June 10 revelations regarding Independence and MO (52,57), Feb 4 first bishop named, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates and son Pedro II succeeds, Michael Faraday builds first electric motor and generator in Britain, King Louis Philippe creates the French Foreign Legion, Polish revolt quashed by Russians, Pedro of Brazil abdicates, leaving 5 year old son Dom Pedro II on the throne, Canada allowed permanent Crown Revenues, Leopold I reigns in Belgium; McCormic Reaper tested

1832 William Lloyd garrison and abolitionists form New England Anti-Slavery Society in MA, Cholera outbreak in London and Scotland, Abd-al-Kadir leads Arab resistance to France in Algeria until 1847, First Great Reform Bill in Britain gives more men the vote * Saints strongly support Jacksonian democracy as Whigs have proven corrupt, In Britain bills submitted to Parliament for reform as politicians also corrupt – PM Earl Grey resigns – King supports Parliament and mass demonstrations and strikes – William IV compromises with citizens – Reform Act passed without King William’s assent, death of Charles Carroll a rich American politician, death of German writer Johann Wolfgang Goethe, death of Italian composer Muzio Clementi, death of Philip Freneau the “poet of the American Revolution”, death of English poet George Crabbe, death of French poet Philibert Louis Debucourt, death of German composer and friend of Goethe - Karl Friedrich Zelter, death of French biologist and geologist G.L. Cuvier, death of Italian music scholar and composer Bonifacio Asioli, death of Scottish novelist Walter Scott, death of German actor Ludwig Devrient, death of Napoleon’s son and Duke of Reichstadt Napoleon François-Joseph Charles the King of Rome, Mehemet Ali Viceory of Egypt defeats the Turks in Syria, Mass demonstrations at Hambach Germany in favor of the liberal and national causem First Reform Act to enfranchise the upper-middle classes passed by House of Lords – voters increase from half to one million, death of Austrian statesman and political writer Friedrich von Gentz, Andrew Jackson reelected over Henry Clay, WE Gladstone enters English politics as conservative for Newark, John Caldwell Calhoun the VP under Jackson resigns, Giuseppe Mazzini the Italian patriot found “Giovine Italia” (Italian Youth) with aim for achieving independence, the word “socialism” comes into use in England and France, Britain occupies Falkland Islands, Balzac writes, Bulwer-Lytton writes, death of English poet George Crabbe, Casimir Delavigne writes drama, death of German actor Ludwig Devrient, Disraeli writes autobiographical novel, Goethe’s Faust II published posthumously, death of Philip Freneau “Poet of the American Revolution”, death of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – greatest German poet, Leigh Hunt writes, Washington Irving writes, John P. Kennedy writes about Southern plantation life, Nikolaus Lenau writes, Silvio Pellico writes, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin writes, death of Scottish poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott, Tennyson writes “Lady of Shalott”, death of Jeremy Bentham the English philosopher and economist – requests his corpse be stuffed and presented at the college where he donated his money and that his body be allowed to attend yearly meetings – done to this day, death of Jean Champollion French architect and discoverer of the Rosetta Stone, death of Karl CF Krause the German philosopher that tried to unify pantheism and monotheism, Final volume of BG Niebuhr’s history of Rome, Zurich U founded, death of Danish philologist and founder of linguistics, Constable paints “Waterloo Bridge from Whitehall Stairs” in London, death of French painter and cartoonist PL Debucourt, Ando Hiroshige publishes his Japanese color prints, Berlioz composes “Symphonie Fantastique”, death of Italian composer and pianist Muzio Clementi, Donizetti composes in Milan, death of Spanish tenor and composer Manuel Garcia, Ferdinand Herold composes in Paris, death of Karl Friedrich Zelter German composer and conductor, death of Nicolas Carnot the French physicist and creator of second law of thermodynamics, death of Baron Georges Cuvier French naturalist and founder of comparative anatomy, Faraday proposes pictorial representation of electric and magnetic force lines, First French railroad line from St. Etienne to Andrezieux to carry passengers, Manufacture of friction matches widespread in Europe, Hungarian mathematician Janos Bolyai publishes work on non-Euclidian geometry, Reichenbach discovers creosote in wood tar, death of Italian anatomist Antonio Scarpa, death of JK Spurzheim the German physician and founder of phrenology, New England Anti-Slavery Society founded in Boston, death of last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence Charles Carrol of Carrollton, First horse-drawn trolleys in New York, Benoit Fourneyron develops water turbine, Reform Act extends vote in England, Saints strongly support Jacksonian democracy as Whigs have proven corrupt, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Rossini, Donizetti compose, England's Whig party becomes the Liberal Party, Whig party forms in US, Nominating conventions established )Open meetings, as opposed to caucuses), Black Hawk War against the Feds National bank becomes voting issue, Jackson vetoes bank bill Jackson won, Tariff rates lowered, but South doesn't see an improvement. S Carolina threatens to secede, Great vision 76 Feb 16, Revelation on Civil war Dec 25, First Reform Act of England gives 500,000 people the vote and redistributes representation, Jackson challenges bank of US, Federal $$ flows into "pet banks" SC threatens to succeed when tariffs passed, Supreme Court sides with Cherokee for rights, Wm Lloyd Garrison forms Anti-Slavery Society, Samuel Morse develops telegraph, Abraham Lincoln enters politics, VP John Calhoun resigns, Dec 27 "Olive Leaf" revelation (88), Dec 25 - revelation on War (87), First mission outside US (Canada), Democratic Party adopts present name (May 21), 3 Degrees of Glory revealed (76) Feb 16, Church membership jumps from about 700 to over 2500, Reform Act provides for limited parliamentary reform in Britain, Ottomans recognize Greek independence, Ottomans recognize Greek Independence, Missionaries into Canada, Reform Act in England gives vote to more citizens, but few more; British middle class gains majority vote; Re-election of Jackson, Republic of Indian Stream forms – part of US in 1835

1833 British abandon slavery, Drought and famine in India, death of English philanthropist William Wilberforce, death of U.S. Secretary of Treasury Oliver Wolcott, death of German jurist Anselm Feuerbach, death of Irish actor Edmund Kean, Prince Otto second son of King Louis I of Bavaria arrives in Nauplia to occupy throne of Greece as King Otto, death of John Randolph of Roanoke VA the orator and politician, William IV grants Hanover a new liberal constitution, Isabella II proclaimed Queen of Spain (age 3) with mother Maria Christina as regent, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico – country threatened by Civil War, Beginning of Whig party in America, Mehemet Ali given Egypt and Syria – founds 120 year dynasty, President Jackson withdraws all government deposits out of Bank of US – essentially collapsing bank, All German states join the Zollverein (customs union), Balzac writes, Davy Crockett’s autobiography becomes bestseller, Robert Browning writes, Charles Dickens writes, Joseph von Eichendorff writes, death of English actor Edmund Kean, Lamb writes, Longfellow writes, Johann Nestroy writes farce, George Sand writes, German Shakespeare translation completed, Franz Bopp writes grammar book, death of German jurist and law reformer Anselm Feuerbach, death of French mathematician Adrien Legendre, death of English religious writer Hannah More, Edward Bouverie Pusey begins association with Oxford Movement (Anglicans), death of Italian engraver Raffaello Morghen, First Venetian pictures by Turner at Royal Academy London, Chopin composes, Heinrich Marschner writes romantic opera, Mendelssohn composes, KF Gauss and WE Weber devise electromagnetic telegraph, “Handbook of Human Physiology” completed, death of English engineer and inventor that invented first steam-powered vehicle Richard Trevithick, Wheatstone bridge for the comparison of electric resistance devised by SH Christie (first used by Wheatstone in 1847), British Factory Act provides system for factory inspections, Scottish explorer Alexander Burnes crosses Hindu Kush mountain range in Central Asia, Charity bazaars become popular in England, German economist Friedrich List advocates extension of German railroads, “New York Sun” becomes first “penny paper”, Olympic Club of Philadelphia organizes two “Town Ball” teams, Sir John Ross returns from his second Arctic expedition (discovery of magnetic north), Canadian S.S. Royal William crosses Atlantic in 25 days, Abolition of slavery in British empire, General Trades Union in New York, Sumatra quake est. at 8.7, 9 year old Briton executed for stealing paint, American Anti-Slavery Society formed, John Lane develops steel plow, Ando Hiroshige's "53 stages of the Tokaido" Brahms born, Slave trade ends in British colonies, SC declares if Feds try to enforce tariffs, it would secede Several tribes sign Indian Removal Act, Cherokees refuse, Trail of Tears (1838), Compromise tariff reduces rates to 1816 level, Also force Act gives pres power to enforce tariffs WoW given Feb 27 Command given to build Temple Jun 1 Forced eviction from Jackson Co Jul 23, slavery abolished throughout British empire, Factory Act prohibits children under 9 from factory work, limits hours of older children, Steven Austin travels to Mexico City to petition for reforms, New England Anti-Slavery Society, Union of female workers, Oberlin College admits women, Captain Benjamin Bonneville explores the Great Basin area, Joseph Walker enters the valley of the Great Salt Lake, Dec 18 Patriarchal blessings given by Joseph Smith Jr. to family, Nov, Saints flee Jackson County, Jul 20 Mob destroys press printing "Book of Commandments" Jul 2 Joseph Smith completed translation of the New testament, May 6 Saints commanded to build temple at Kirtland, Mar 18 First Presidency organized, Feb 27 Word of Wisdom (89) given, Jan 22-23 School of the Prophets begun, Wagner composes, Giuseppe Mazzini founds the "Young Italy" movement, Falkland Islands occupied by Britain, Ottomans recognize independence of Egypt, Britain's Factory Act places restrictions on use of Children in industry, slavery abolished in British empire, Saints leave Jackson County, Birth of Johannes Brahms, Charles Lyell finishes geological studies, British pass Factory Act, German states unite financially, Isabella begins to rule Spain but violence reigns, bill passes parliament in Britain, doing away with worst parts of child labor, German Zollverein or customs union organizes, further establishing German state; MA abolishes state church; British East India Company rescinded

1834 David Ruggles opens first black bookstore and publishing company in New York, French Catholic Missionaries arrive in Mangareva in Tuamotu Islands in South Pacific, end of world cholera pandemic, Cyclone hits Dominican Republic * Saints appeal to president Jackson, no response – shows sympathy for “the persecuted people” but refuses to send help, Jul - Alligator falls from sky near Charlestown, SC, Parliamentary houses and many political building of Britain burned (Westminster), death of French politician Lafayette, death of English political economist Thomas R. Malthus, death of German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, death of English poet and philosopher Samuel Taylor Colerige, death of US Attorney General William Wirt, death of French opera composer François-Adrien Boieldieu, death of English essayist Charles Lamb, German customs union (Zollverein) begins to operate, death of British statesman Lord Grenville, Grand National Consolidated Trades Union formed by Robert Owen but collapses before end of year, Lord Palmerston the British Foreign Secretary contrives quadruple alliance with France Spain and Portugal, death of General Lafayette of France and hero of American revolution, Spanish Inquisition finally suppressed, Viscount Melbourne becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain followed by Sir Robert Peel in December, South Australia Act allows establishment of colony there, Maria II ascends throne of Portugal, William IV dismisses ministry in England following Melbourne’s Irish church policy, Monopoly of the China trade by East India Company abolished – friction between China and Britain, Sixth Kaffir War for a year – severe clashes between Bantu people and white settlers on eastern frontier of Cape Colony, Dutch farmers of the Cape Colony begin to settle in country north of Orange River, Daniel O’Connell’s motion to repeal Union with Great Britain defeated 523 to 38, Carlist Wars begin in Spain, President Jackson censured by Senate for removing funding from Bank of the US, Abraham Lincoln (age 25) enters politics as assemblyman in IL legislature, Balzac writes, George Bancroft writes history of the US, Victor Hugo writes “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” which becomes bestseller, death of English writer William Blackwood, Edward Bulwer-Lytton writes “Last Days of Pompeii”, death of English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Disraeli writes, Leigh Hunt writes, death of English essayist Charles Lamb, Frederick Marryat writes, Last of Thomas Moore’s “Irish Melodies” appears, Alfred de Musset writes, Pushkin writes, Leopold von Ranke writes about the Roman Popes, death of German theologian and philosopher Friedrich DE Schleiermacher, death of William Wirt the American jurist and Attorney-General, death of English economist Thomas Robert Malthus, death of Anglo-German lithographer Rudolph Ackermann, The Munich Glyptothek (sculpture gallery) designed, Ingres paints “Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian”, death of German inventor of lithography Aloys Senefelder, death of English illustrator and painter Thomas Stothard, English architect William Wilkins begins National Gallery in London, Adolphe Adam composes in Paris, John Barnett composes in London, Berlioz composes in Paris, death of French opera composer Francois-Adrien Boieldieu, Fanny Elssler the Austrian ballerina makes her debut at Paris Opera, Konradin Kreutzer composes in Vienna, Francois Arago writes about popular astronomy, English mathematician Charles Babbage invents “analytical engine” (proto-computer), Christian Leopold von Buch publishes “Theory of Volcanism”, Faraday publishes “Law of Electrolysis”, American inventor Cyrus Hall McCormick patents reaping machine, German chemist FF Runge discovers phenol (carbolic acid), Swiss mathematician Jakob Steiner appointed professor at Berlin U – founder of synthetic geometry, Sir Charles Wheatstone uses revolving mirror to measure speed of electric discharge in a conductor, Castle Garden Boat Club Association organized in New York, Robin Carver’s “Book of Sports” first mentions baseball, Disastrous fire in British Houses of Parliament, Bavarian civil servant Franz Xaver Gabelsberger publishes system of German shorthand, Two-wheeled one-horse hansom cabs designed by JA Hansom introduced in London, Walter Hunt of New York constructs one of the first sewing machines, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping placed under control of Lloyd’s Register Society, Poor Law Amendment Act decrees that no able-bodied man in Great Britain shall receive assistance unless he ethers a workhouse, U of Brussels founded, Horse-drawn harvester/reaper in US. Colt invents the revolver, Saints appeal to president Jackson, no response – shows sympathy for “the persecuted people” but refuses to send help, Whig party organized as anti-Jackson, named for party in England who opposed tyranny of George III, Zion's Camp Jun, Revelation re: United Order Apr 23, Poor Law in England establishes work houses for Poor, Fire destroys Parliament, Trade Unionists exiled to Australia, Feb 17 First Stake created at Kirtland, May 8-Jun 30 Zion's Camp Jun 30 Indian Territory created, McCormick patents reaper, Lytton writesLast Days of Pompeii, Official creation of customs union stimulates trade in Germany, First indentured Indian laborers replace slave labor in W Indies, first High Council organized, Church named "Church of the Latter-day Saints" in conference, Sir Robert Peel serves as Prime Minister of Britain for the first time, Canada under Papineau draws up 92 resolutions against Britain, Boers of South Africa begin to migrate in order to keep slaves, Britain's Poor Law revised - sadly causing many businesses to lower wages; National Republicans of US become Whigs

1835 Quake and tsunami in Talcahuano, Dost Mohammed begins rule in Afghanistan until 1863, Cyclone hits Florida Keys, Volcano in Nicaragua, Earthquake and tsunami in Chile, Start of freeze in Finland until 1850 – kills 137,000

Dec - Hundreds of blocks of NYC burn - also fire hydrants frozen, death of English architect John Nash, death of Chief Justice John Marshall, death of English reformer and journalist William Cobbett, death of German humanist Wilhelm von Humboldt, death of German poet August von Platen, death of Italian opera composer Vincenzo Bellini, death of Francis I of Austria, Francis II made last HRE as Francis I dies, Ferdinand I the eldest son of HRE Francis II made Emperor of Austria, death of Prussian statesman Christian Gunther von Bernstorff, Municipal Corporation Act revolutionizes English borough government, Second Seminole War begins, Texas declares right to secede from Mexico, Hans Christian Andersen first publishes, William Wordsworth’s poems become bestseller, Robert Browning publishes “Paracelsus”, Bulwer-Lytton publishes, death of English man of letters William Cobbett, death of English poet Mrs. Felicia Hemans, death of Scottish poet James Hogg, death of William Henry Ireland forger of Shakespearean plays, JP Kennedy writes novel of Revolutionary war, death of English comedian Charles Mathews, William Gilmore Simms writes novel of the Indians, Edict of German Federal Diet bans books of “Young Germany” writers including Heine Borne and Gutzkow, FG Dahlmann German historian publishes histories of politics, Charles G Finney the American evangelist publishes about revivals, death of American Supreme Court Justice John Marshall, David Friedrich Strause publishes Life of Jesus in Germany, The expression “Art for Art’s sake” coined by French philosopher Victor Cousin, Constable paints “The Valley Farm”, Corot paints “Hagar in the Desert”, death of French historical painter Baron A.J. Gros, Donizetti composes opera in Naples, Halley’s Comet reappears, First efforts to propel railroad vehicles by electric batteries and electric traction, US showman Phineas Taylor Barnum begins career with black woman who is alleged to be 160 years old and George Washington’s nurse, James Gordon Bennet publishes penny paper “NY Herald”, Charles Chubb patents burglar-proof safe, Samuel Colt takes out English patent for single-barreled pistol and rifle, First German railroad line opens between Nuremberg and Furth, Melbourne Australia founded, over 1000 miles of railroads in America, Earliest negative photograph taken in England by William Henry Fox Talbot – of Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire, Free African Americans create committee to help former slaves, Oberlin college in OH votes to admit African-American students, Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin killed in a duel, de Toqueville's "Democracy in America" Mark Twain born, NY City fire, John Marshall dies, Jackson creates "pet banks" Eliza Snow joins Church, Municipal Reform in England allows town councils to be elected, Second Seminole War begins, October - Santa Anna fights at Gonzales, Anglos drive Mexicans to San Antonio, Hymns published, Quorum of the 12 organized (Section 18) at a Zion's Camp meeting Feb 14, First quorum of the 70 organized Feb 28, July 3 Mummies arrive in Kirtland, Aug 17 Doctrine and Covenants selected to be published, English language made the medium of instruction in India, Germany's first railroad opened in Bavaria, Hans Christian Andersen publishes Tales Told for Children, End of Sir Robert peel's first term as Prime Minister, maria Christina II reigns in Portugal; End of John Marshal's position as chief justice of the Supreme Court; Alamo defended and Sam Houstin defeats Mexicans at San Jacinto creates independent Texas, Republic of Indian Stream incorporated into US, Luxembourg leaves union with Netherlands

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