Winter key to woody plants of the pine barrens




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WINTER KEY TO WOODY PLANTS OF THE PINE BARRENS
Generally over 4 meters tall; stem usually single. A - tree key

Generally less than 3 meters tall; stems multiple. B - shrub key


A. TREES, including shrub oaks; excluding Carya, Catalpa, Celtis, Cornus, Juglans, Morus, Populus, Salix and various cultivated species. Also, some forms that may reach tree size (Ilex, Rhus) are also in part B.
1. With needle-like, scale-like, or awl-shaped evergreen leaves

2. Leaves in fascicles or clusters (Pines) [P. strobus white pine

with needles in 5's is widely planted in the area]

3. Needles mostly three in a cluster, (4)6-14 cm long; cones

3-7 cm long; stem usually crooked, bark in uneven, scaly

plates………………………………………………………....Pinus rigida pitch pine

3. Needles mostly two in a cluster

4. Needles stout, 3-6 cm long, twisted; buds very resinous, cones

4-8 cm long, with firm prickles >2mm long; stem crooked;

bark scaly, dark.…………………………………….. … Pinus virginiana scrub pine

4. Needles slender, 5-11 cm long, buds not very resinous,

cones about 5 cm long; stems fairly straight; bark in flat-lying plates

or scales, usually with pitch blisters………………… Pinus echinata shortleaf pine

2. Leaves whorled or opposite, scale-like or awl-shaped ("cedars")

3. Leaves opposite, flat on top and bottom of twig, folded on

sides; fruit a cone; wetlands.…………………….. Chamecyparis thyoides white cedar

3. Leaves whorled; scale-like or awl-shaped (especially on

branch tips); fruit a berry; old fields and

uplands.………………………………………………. Juniperus virginiana red cedar

1. Broad-leaved evergreen, or deciduous

2. Leaf scars opposite; twigs reddish; usually in swamps...

………………………………………… Acer rubrum swamp (or red) maple

2. Leaf scars or leaves alternate

3. Bundle scar single

4. Stipule scars present (Ilex )

5. Leaves evergreen, spiny.…………………………………………. Ilex opaca holly

5. Leaves deciduous; plant shrubby……….. Ilex verticillata & I. laevigata winterberry

4. Stipule scars absent

5. Terminal bud absent; fruit a large orange berry… Diospyros virginiana persimmon

5. Terminal bud present; bark spicy aromatic; twigs green. Sassafras albidum sassafras

3. Bundle scars several

4. Bundle scars three or more, in a single lunate (crescent-shaped) line

5. Stipule scars present (may be hard to see)

6. Stipule scars above leaf scars; fruit a drupe (cherry); bark dark reddish to black

often with cankered branches…………………... Prunus serotina black cherry

6. Stipule scars lateral to leaf scars; catkins usually present; bark gray-white, with dark patches under the branches…………Betula populifolia gray birch

5. Stipule scars absent

6. Pith with transverse partitions visible when twig is split; terminal bud present; often numerous spur-like twigs………………….....Nyssa sylvatica black gum

6. Pith without partitions; terminal bud present or absent

7. Bundle scars more than three

8. Terminal bud absent; fruit red……………………...Rhus glabra smooth sumac

8. Terminal bud present; fruit white………………... Rhus vernix POISON sumac

7. Bundle scars three

8. Twigs often with corky ridges; leaf scars large; fruit a dry, prickly ball...

…………………………………… Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum

8. Twigs without corky ridges; leaf scars small; fruit a berry ……………………………………….. Amelanchier canadensis serviceberry

4. Bundle scars three or more, not in a single lunate line

5. Terminal bud absent.…………………………………. Castanea dentata chestnut

5. Terminal bud present

6. Stipule scars encircling twig; terminal buds large,

with one or two scales………………….. Magnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia

6. Stipule scars not encircling twig; buds clustered near end of twigs (oaks)

7. Shell of acorn hairy on inner surface, acorn maturing in second year, bark usually dark (black oak group)

8. Buds large, the terminal usually >4.5 mm long

9. Twigs hairy; buds reddish brown; branches often gnarly and trees scrubby …………………………...….Quercus marilandica blackjack oak

9. Twigs smooth; usually large trees

10. Inner bark reddish or tan; bark smooth above, with "ski trail" fissures, buds reddish, usually only hairy on outer end, rounded in cross section, acorn cap with tight scales..

Quercus coccinea scarlet oak

10. Inner bark yellow-orange; bark roughly ridged and fissured; buds brown, large, angular and woolly, acorn scales loose.. Quercus velutina black oak

8. Buds small, the terminal usually <4.5 mm long

9. Twigs smooth and glossy.……………………….. Quercus phellos willow oak

9. Twigs dull and hairy

10. Shrubs.……………………………………… Quercus ilicifolia scrub oak

10. Buds pointy; trees.……………. Quercus falcata southern red (spanish) oak

7. Shell of acorn smooth on inside, acorns maturing in first year, bark usually pale gray-white (white oak group)

8. Buds narrow; twigs stout; bark with deep fissures separated by broad, angled ridges ………………………………....Quercus prinus chestnut oak

8. Buds broad, ovoid

9. Terminal buds >5 mm long; buds and twigs hairy.. Quercus stellata post oak

9. Terminal buds 2-4 mm long

10. Shrubs.……………………………..Quercus prinoides dwarf chestnut oak

10. Trees, bark white, flaky……………………….. Quercus alba white oak

B. SHRUBS, excluding shrub oaks and also a few species like Ceanothus americana New Jersey tea and Spirea sp. steeplebush, occasionally encountered (see Ferren, in Forman, 1979, or Geller, 2002, for a more complete listing)

1. Leaves evergreen

2. Stems jointed, fleshy, spiny or prickly…………………....Opuntia humifusa prickly pear

2. Not as above

3. Low prostrate or trailing plants

4. Leaves needle-like or scale-like

5. Leaves hairy

6. Leaves downy, white or grayish, appressed to stem

2mm long... …………………………………. Hudsonia tomentosa beach heather

6. Leaves hairy, greenish, diverging, 3-6mm.……Hudsonia ericoides golden heather

5. Leaves not hairy, margins rolled under………….Corema conradii broom crowberry

4. Leaves broader

5. Leaves variegated with white, stems erect…Chimaphila maculata spotted wintergreen

5. Leaves not variegated white

6. Leaves tiny, awl-shaped, acutely tapering.….Pyxidanthera barbulata pyxie moss

6. Leaves larger

7. Leaf margins toothed, wintergreen smell, red berries. Gaultheria procumbens teaberry

7. Leaf margins smooth

8. Stems brown haired.……………………………Epigaea repens trailing arbutus

8. Not as above

9. Leaves glaucous white below, wetlands… Vaccinium macrocarpon cranberry

9. Leaves green below; dry, sandy soil……. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi bearberry

3. Taller shrubs or climbing vines

4. Climbing thorny vines, narrow leaves tapering to base...

……………………………………… Smilax laurifolia laurel-leaved greenbrier

4. Erect shrubs

5. Leaves toothed

6. Leaves smooth green, small teeth at tip, black berry.……….Ilex glabra inkberry

6. Leaves with tiny teeth on edges & brown or silver

scales, low dense shrubs of wetlands.…… Chamaedaphne calyculata leatherleaf

5. Leaves not toothed

6. Leaves <2cm, not stalked; low shrubs of open sand...

…………………………………. Leiophyllum buxifolium sand myrtle

6. Leaves >3cm, stalked

7. Leaves thin, drooping, low shrubs.………… Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel

7. Leaves thick, tall shrubs…………………….. Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel

1. Leaves deciduous

2. Climbing or trailing vines or thorny canes

3. Thornless; trailing, erect, or climbing with aerial rootlets;

berries white.………………………………………... Rhus toxicodendron POISON ivy

3. Thorny plants

4. Stems green, climbing vines, round berries (greenbrier)

5. Berries red... …………………………………………………………… Smilax walteri

5. Berries blue or black

6. Berries blue

7. Wet ground, tall climber, leaves green below……………………… S. rotundifolia

7. Dry, sandy ground, leaves waxy-white below…………………………... S. glauca

NOTE: these are the two common thicket forming, deciduous Smilax. The shape of the leaves is variable, and doesn’t help separate the species.

6. Berries blue-black, low growing, moist ground… S. pseudo-china (=S. bona-nox )

4. Low-growing or arching; leaves break off above base; fruit compound, edible

5. Trailing, barely spiny……………………………………... Rubus hispidus dewberry

5. Erect or arching……………..Rubus spp. blackberries eg. R. cunefolius sand blackberry

2. Erect shrubs

3. Leaf scars opposite or whorled

4. Bundle scars one, or one solid line

5. Bud scales very loose and open, bark shredding, low shrubs

6. Stems lax, drooping

7. Branchlets stout, dry-moist sand………………..... Ascyrum stans St. Peter's wort

7. Branchlets thin, dry sand…………….....Ascyrum hypericoides St. Andrew's wort

6. Stems erect, wet areas……………...Hypericum densiflorum shrubby St. Johns wort

5. Buds submerged in the bark; bundle scars U-shaped;

fruit a head of nutlets; wet areas……………... Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush

4. Bundle scars distinct; or not visible

5. Aquatic; branches trail over and root at tips, may

break off………………………………….. Decodon verticellatus swamp loosestrife

5. Not as above

6. Buds yellow-brown; twigs dull………….. Viburnum cassinoides northern witherod

6. Buds red-brown; twigs shiny………………………... V. nudum southern witherod

3. Leaf scars alternate

4. Bundle scars more than one

5. Stipule scars or stipules present

6. Twigs glandular-hairy, resinous; buds globular, no terminal bud;

low-spreading……………………... Comptonia ( Myrica ) peregrina sweetfern

6. Terminal bud present; tall (almost a tree) swamps....Alnus serrulata common alder

5. Stipule scars and stipules absent

6. Terminal bud present (but see second 7, below)

7. Pith chambered; swamps………………………... Itea virginica Virginia willow

7. Pith not chambered

8. Buds reddish, pointed (Aronia = Pyrus)

9. Fruit red or purplish; twigs & buds hairy….Aronia arbutifolia red chokeberry

9. Fruit black; twigs & buds smooth……Aronia melanocarpa black chokeberry

8. Buds black-tipped, pointed (Amelanchier) (Note: third #8 below)

9. Dry soil.…………………………………. Amelanchier obovalis shadbush

9. Wet soils.…………………………………….. A. canadensis serviceberry

8. Buds globular; fruits waxy; leaves late deciduous,

aromatic.…………………………………….. Myrica pennsylvanica bayberry

6. Terminal bud absent (except in Rhus vernix which has

white berries); tall, treelike shrubs (Rhus)

7. Leaf scars crescent-shaped

8. Twigs downy; lenticels prominent; fruit red……..Rhus copallina dwarf sumac

8. Twigs glabrous; lenticels inconspicuous;

fruit white………………………………………...Rhus vernix POISON sumac

7. Leaf scars U-shaped; twigs glabrous; fruit red.…….Rhus glabra smooth sumac

4. Bundle scar one

5. Young twigs with stellate-hairs, fruit a long raceme of dry

capsules.………………………………………….. Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush

5. Twigs not stellate-hairy

6. Stipules or stipule scars present (Ilex)

7. Twigs smooth; fruit red, transparent…………..Ilex laevigata smooth winterberry

7. Twigs smooth or hairy; fruit red, opaque……………..Ilex verticillata winterberry

6. Stipules and stipule scars absent

7. Terminal bud present, often very large……..Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea

7. Terminal bud absent

8. Twigs finely white-speckled, granulose, green or red

9. Usually <1m tall…….Vaccinium vacillans (or V. pallidum) lowbush blueberry

9. Usually >1m tall (Vaccinium - highbush blueberries)

10. Twigs glabrous... … …all now called V. corymbosum, (incl. V. caesarense)

10. Twigs hairy.…………………………….…. V. corymbosum ( V. atrococcum)

8. Twigs not as above

9. Winter twigs with long, thin clusters of reddish

flower buds………………………………….. Leucothoe racemosa fetterbush

9. Not as above

10. Twigs with large flower buds with several visible scales and tiny leaf buds with two visible scales (Gaylussacia)

11. Twigs smooth to slightly hairy……………. G. baccata black huckleberry

11. Twigs smooth………………………………... G. frondosa dangleberry

11. Twigs hairy and resin-dotted; <0.5m high;dry areas G. dumosa dwarf huckleberry

10. Twigs not as above; fruit a capsule; wetlands

11. Buds oblong-acute, closely pressed to twig;

capsules small, round, numerous…………...Lyonia ligustrina maleberry

11. Buds conical, diverging; capsules larger,urn-shaped, few



……………………………………………………. L. mariana fetterbush


TREES & SHRUB OAKS

Tree genera occurring in the Pine Barrens and on Stockton’s campus, but not included in this key:



Carya,

Catalpa

Celtis

Cornus

Juglans

Morus

Populus

Salix

Tree species listed in the key



Pinus rigida pitch pine

Pinus virginiana scrub pine

Pinus echinata shortleaf pine

P. strobus white pine [introduced]

Chamecyparis thyoides white cedar

Juniperus virginiana red cedar

Acer rubrum swamp (or red) maple

Ilex opaca holly

Ilex verticillata & I. laevigata winterberry

Diospyros virginiana persimmon

Sassafras albidum sassafras

Prunus serotina black cherry

Amelanchier canadensis serviceberry

Magnolia virginiana sweetbay magnolia

Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum

Nyssa sylvatica black gum

Rhus glabra smooth sumac

Rhus vernix POISON sumac

Castanea dentata chestnut

Quercus marilandica blackjack oak

Quercus coccinea scarlet oak

Quercus velutina black oak

Quercus phellos willow oak

Quercus ilicifolia scrub oak

Quercus falcata southern red (spanish) oak

Quercus prinus chestnut oak

Quercus stellata post oak

Quercus prinoides dwarf chestnut oak

Quercus alba white oak
SHRUBS & SMALL TREES

Smilax laurifolia laurel-leaved greenbrier

Smilax walteri

S. rotundifolia

S. glauca

S. pseudo-china (=S. bona-nox )

Itea virginica Virginia willow

Opuntia humifusa prickly pear

Roasceae – rose family

Spirea sp. steeplebush

Rubus hispidus dewberry

Rubus spp. blackberries eg. R. cunefolius sand blackberry

Aronia arbutifolia red chokeberry

Aronia melanocarpa black chokeberry

Amelanchier obovalis shadbush

A. canadensis serviceberry
Ascyrum stans St. Peter's wort

Ascyrum hypericoides St. Andrew's wort

Hypericum densiflorum shrubby St. Johns wort

Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush

Decodon verticellatus swamp loosestrife

Viburnum cassinoides northern witherod

V. nudum southern witherod

Comptonia ( Myrica ) peregrina sweetfern

Myrica pennsylvanica bayberry

Alnus serrulata common alder

Rhus copallina dwarf sumac

Rhus vernix POISON sumac

Rhus glabra smooth sumac

Rhus toxicodendron POISON ivy

Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush

Ilex glabra inkberry

Ilex laevigata smooth winterberry

Ilex verticillata winterberry

Ericaceae – heath family

Hudsonia tomentosa beach heather

Hudsonia ericoides golden heather

Corema conradii broom crowberry

Chimaphila maculata spotted wintergreen

Ceanothus americana New Jersey tea

Rhododendron viscosum swamp azalea

Vaccinium vacillans (or V. pallidum) lowbush blueberry

V. corymbosum, (incl. V. caesarense and

V. atrococcum) Highbush blueberry

Leucothoe racemosa fetterbush

Gaylussacia baccata black huckleberry

G. frondosa dangleberry

G. dumosa dwarf huckleberry

Lyonia ligustrina maleberry

L. mariana fetterbush

Pyxidanthera barbulata pyxie moss

Gaultheria procumbens teaberry

Chamaedaphne calyculata leatherleaf

Leiophyllum buxifolium sand myrtle

Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel

Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel



Compiled from:

Cope, Edward. 2001. Muenscher's Keys to Woody Plants. Ithaca, NY. Comstock Publishing. 337pp.

Ferren, W. et al. 1979. Common vascular plants of the Pine Barrens. pp 373-383 in Forman, R.T.T., ed. The Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape. Academic Press. N.Y.

Geller, Michael. 2002. A Key to the Woody Plants of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press. 256pp.

Muenscher, W.C. 1950. Keys to Woody Plants, ed. 6. Cornell Univ. Press. Ithaca, N.Y.

Radford, A.E. et al. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Univ. of N.C. Press. Chapel Hill.



20 Jan 2011




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