Wide-screen signalling for broadcasting




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Rec. ITU-R BT.1119-2

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R BT.1119-2*

WIDE-SCREEN SIGNALLING FOR BROADCASTING

(Signalling for wide-screen and other
enhanced television parameters)

(Question ITU-R 42/11)


(1994-1995-1998)

Rec. ITU-R BT.1119-2
The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

considering

a) that 16:9 wide-screen television receivers are increasingly being made available to the public in 525-line and 625-line countries. The advent of a wide-screen receiver market is leading programme producers to consider the production aspects of wide-screen programmes that will be shown on 4:3 displays as well as 16:9 displays;

b) that provision for a common system for optimizing the display of the original programme material on a suitably equipped 16:9 display device would be a valuable enhancement to the service provided, together with the means to make appropriate automatic arrangements for any subtitling;

c) that there would be benefits for multi-standard receivers and, recorders, and costs, if a unique signalling system were used for all television standards,



recommends

1 that for broadcasters wishing to broadcast a wide-screen signalling system, the system given in Annex 1 should be used for 625-line analogue broadcasts and the system in Annex 2 should be used for 525-line analogue broadcasts.

ANNEX 1

1 Scope


This specification is applicable to 625-line PAL and SECAM systems in use in cases where wide screen signalling is to be provided by the broadcasters for use by new 16:9 television receivers.

It specifies the wide-screen signalling information, the coding and the way of incorporating the coded information into a 625-line system.

The wide-screen signalling information contains information on the aspect ratio range of the transmitted signal and its position as it would appear on a conventional 4:3 display and on the position of the subtitles and on the camera/film mode. Furthermore some bits are reserved for future EDTV signalling (e.g. PALplus, see Recommendation ITU R BT.1197) as well as for future use.

This Annex specifies the transmitted signal. Appendix 1 gives the rules of operation for the minimum requirements for receiver display formats as well as for subtitling. Appendix 2 gives some recommended practices.



2 Normative references


This Recommendation does not incorporate any normative reference.

3 Definitions


For the purpose of this Recommendation, the following definition applies:

Letterbox operation: the transmission of a picture format with an aspect ratio greater than 1.33, in such a way that empty (black) lines are added to conform to a 4:3 transmission format.


3.1 Symbols and abbreviations


a : aspect ratio

Fs : clock frequency

Td : data bit period

Ts : sampling period

TXT : teletext.


4 Requirements

4.1 Line code


The following sections specify the line code of the wide-screen signalling.

4.1.1 Position


The signalling bits shall be transmitted as a data burst in the first part of line 23. The position of the beginning of the wide-screen signalling bits shall be 11.0  0.25 s from OH of the horizontal sync, as indicated in Fig. 1.

In each frame the first part of line 23 shall be occupied with the wide-screen signalling.


4.1.2 Clock frequency


The clock frequency shall be: Fs  5 MHz  1  10–4).

The period shall be: Ts  200 ns.


4.1.3 Signal waveform


The signal waveform shall be approximately a sine squared pulse.

The half amplitude pulse duration shall be:  200  10 ns.


4.1.4 Signal amplitude


The signal amplitude with respect to a maximum video signal amplitude of 700 mV shall be:

500 mV  5%.


4.1.5 Modulation coding


Bi-phase coding shall be used in accordance with Fig. 2.

Duration of one data bit:  Td.








The data bits shall be inserted in NRZ-L at the input of the (bi-phase-L) code modulator. The code modulator will produce on line 23, the data in bi-phase-L code, in which one data bit period equals 2  3 clock periods, whereby:



Td  6 Ts

4.1.6 Preamble


The preamble contains a run-in and a start code. The preamble shall be in accordance with Table 1.

4.1.7 Data bits


There shall be 14 bits in total. One of these 14 bits shall be allocated to the error detection code. There shall be 13 data bits available for transmission of information. The data bits shall be grouped in four data groups (see Table 1).

4.1.8 Odd parity bit


For error detection, an odd parity bit has been introduced. The odd parity bit shall belong to the first three data bits only (see Table 1).

TABLE 1


Status bits transmission scheme


Status bits transmission

Insertion: first half of line 23

Coding: bi-phase modulation coding

Clock: 5 MHz (Ts  200 ns)



Run-in

Start code

Group 1
Aspect ratio

Group 2
Enhanced services

Group 3
Subtitles

Group 4
Reserved

29 elements based on 5 MHz

24 elements based on 5 MHz

24 elements based on 5 MHz

24 elements based
on 5 MHz

18 elements based
on 5 MHz

18 elements based
on 5 MHz







Bit numbering
0 1 2 3
LSB MSB
per info bit(1)
"0"  000 111
"1"  111 000

Bit numbering
4 5 6 7
LSB MSB
per info bit(1)
"0"  000 111
"1"  111 000

Bit numbering
8 9 10
LSB MSB
per info bit(1)
"0"  000 111
"1"  111 000

Bit numbering
11 12 13
LSB MSB
per info bit(1)
"0"  000 111
"1"  111 000

0  1F1C 71C7
1 1111 0001 1100 0111 0001 1100 0111

0  1E 3C1F
0001 1110 0011 1100 0001 1111

3 2 1 0 bit number

1000 full format 4:3

0001 box 14:9 centre

0010 box 14:9 top

1011 box 16:9 centre

0100 box 16:9 top

1101 box  16:9 centre

1110 full format 14:9 centre shoot and protect 14:9

0111 full format 16:9 anamorphic

b3  odd parity bit



b4 film bit

0 camera mode

1 film mode

b5  colour coding bit

0 conventional coding

1 Motion Adaptative Colour Plus

b6 = helper bit

0 no helper

1 modulated helper

b7  Reserved.


Should be set to "0" until otherwise defined

8 bit number

0 no subtitles within teletext

1 subtitles within teletext

10 9 bit number

00 no open subtitles

01 subtitles in active image area

10 subtitles out of active image area

11 reserved



Reserved.
Should all be set to "0" until otherwise defined

(1) 1 info bit consists of 6 elements based on 5 MHz clock.



4.2 Information content of data bits


The 13 data bits shall be grouped in four groups.

Group 1 shall contain 4 bits in which the first 3 bits carry data and the last bit shall denote the odd parity bit of the first three data bits. Group 2 shall contain 4 data bits, Group 3 shall contain 3 data bits and Group 4 shall contain 3 data bits.

The data bits shall be labelled b0 up to and including b2 combined with b4 up to and including b13,b3 shall be the odd parity bit as is shown in Tables 1 and 2. The index also indicates the order of transmission: b0 shall be the first transmitted bit.

4.2.1 Data group 1

4.2.1.1 Aspect ratio


b0, b1, b2 : shall denote the aspect ratio label, the letterbox format and position according to Table 2.

Diagrams illustrating the way that pictures will be displayed on: 16:9 displays equipped to make use of wide screen signalling information; and on conventional 4:3 displays (not equipped to decode wide screen signalling information) are given in Figure 3.

b3 : shall denote the odd parity of b0, b1, b2, b3 according to Table 2.

TABLE 2


Aspect ratio label, letterbox and position code

b3


b2b1b0



Aspect ratio label

Full format or letterbox



Position
(when shown on a con­ventional 4:3 display)

No. of active lines(1)



1

000

4:3

Full format

Not applicable

576

0

001

14:9

Letterbox

Centre

504

0

010

14:9

Letterbox

Top

504

1

011

16:9

Letterbox

Centre

430

0

100

16:9

Letterbox

Top

430

1

101

>16:9

Letterbox

Centre

Not defined

1

110

14:9

Full format(2)

Centre

576

0

111

16:9

Full format
(anamorphic)

Not applicable

576

(1) The number of active lines is only an indication for the exact aspect ratio a  1.33, a  1.57 and a  1.78.

(2) The actual transmitted aspect ratio is 4:3, but within this 4:3 area a 14:9 window is protected so that it contains all the relevant picture content to encourage a wide screen display on a 16:9 television set.



The aspect ratio label indicates a range of possible aspect ratio. All aspect ratios falling in these ranges shall be labelled by the same code. Table 3 indicates the aspect ratio ranges.

TABLE 3

Aspect ratio ranges


Aspect ratio label

Aspect ratio range

 4:3

a  1.46

 14:9

1.46  a  1.66

 16:9

1.66  a 1.90

16:9

a  1.90


4.2.2 Data group 2, enhanced services

4.2.2.1 Film bit


b4 :  shall denote the film bit in accordance with Table 4.

TABLE 4


Film bit

b4

Film bit

0

Camera mode

1

Film mode(1)

(1) The field dominance shall conform to Recommendation ITU-R BR.469 and EBU Recommendation R62-1990.


4.2.2.2 Colour coding bit


b5: shall denote the colour coding bit in accordance with Table 5.

TABLE 5


Colour coding bit

b5

Colour coding bit

0

Conventional coding

1

Motion adaptive colour plus coding


4.2.2.3 Helper bit


b6: shall denote the helper bit in accordance with Table 6.

4.2.2.4 Bit b7


b7: reserved, this bit should be set to "0" until otherwise defined.

TABLE 6


Helper bit

b6

Helper bit

0

No helper

1

Modulated helper


4.2.3 Data group 3, subtitles

4.2.3.1 Subtitles within teletext bit


b8 :  shall denote the subtitles within teletext in accordance with Table 7.

TABLE 7


Subtitles within teletext bit

b8

Subtitles within teletext bit

0

No subtitles within teletext

1

Subtitles within teletext


4.2.3.2 Subtitling mode


b9, b10 :  shall denote the mode of subtitling in accordance with Table 8.

TABLE 8


Subtitling mode

b10, b9

Subtitles in/out of active image area

00

No open subtitles

01

Subtitles in active image area

10

Subtitles out of active image area

11

Reserved

NOTE 1 – The “out of active image area” subtitling, which extends into the active image area shall be treated as “out of active image area”.

Figure 4 indicates the meaning of the terms “in active image area” and “out of active image area”.

NOTE – In the case of “out of active image area”, subtitling the helper bit, b6, must be set to “0”.

4.2.4 Data group 4, reserved


b11, b12, b13 :  reserved these should be set to “0” until otherwise defined.

APPENDIX 1

TO ANNEX 1

Rules of operation

1 Receiver display formats


To ensure automatic selection of the most appropriate display mode, the receiver with a 16:9 display should comply with the following minimum requirements.

TABLE 9


Aspect ratio minimum requirements

b2b1b0

Aspect ratio label

Minimum requirements

000

4:3

Case 1

001

14:9

Case 2

010

14:9

Case 2

b2b1b0

Aspect ratio label

Minimum requirements

011

16:9

Case 3

100

16:9

Case 3

101

16:9

Case 4

Case 1: 4:3 full format: The 4:3 aspect ratio picture should be displayed centred with black bars at the left and right hand side of the display.

Case 2: letterbox signalled as 14:9. The 14:9 aspect ratio picture should be displayed using one of the following two methods:

– the 14:9 aspect ratio picture should be displayed centred with small bars at the left and right hand sides of the display.

– the 14:9 picture may be displayed filling the full width of the visible screen by incorporating a small horizontal geometrical error – typically 8%.

Case 3: letterbox signalled as 16:9. The 16:9 aspect ratio picture should be displayed using the full width of the screen.

Case 4: letterbox signalled as >16:9. The >16:9 aspect ratio picture should be displayed using one of the following two methods:

– as under Case 3;

It should be noted that the viewer should be free to override the automatically selected display condition. The speed of the automatic change of aspect ratio is limited mainly by the response time of the deflection circuits.

2 Subtitling


When the subtitling of letterboxed pictures is in, or partly in, the “out of active image area”, the new 16:9 receivers will lose this information, unless they display the picture in the 4:3 mode. This would mean that on the 16:9 receiver black bars would be present all around the active image content, and this should be avoided.

To serve both the interests of the existing 4:3 and the new 16:9 viewers, it is of great importance that:

– wide-screen programmes should always have the subtitling (whether “in active image area” or “out of active image area”) conveyed as well by means of the teletext service;

– new 16:9 receivers, complying with this standard, should be equipped with a teletext decoder and always have the possibility of detecting the teletext presence bit b8.


3 Procedure in absence of signalling


In the absence of signalling bits, the receiver should go to a default mode.
APPENDIX 2

TO ANNEX 1



Recommended practices

1 Low pass pre-filtering


It is recommended that the received status bit is low pass filtered before decoding.

This low pass filter should preserve the main spectral energy of the status bits signal, which resides in the spectral domain of 0 up to 1.67 MHz.


2 Response time on a change in the received signalling information


The maximum response time on a change in the received status bits signalling information is recommended to be 120 ms.
ANNEX 2

1 Scope


The specification is applicable to the 525-line NTSC system in cases where wide-screen signalling is to be provided by the broadcasters for use by new television receivers.

It specifies wide-screen signalling information, the coding and the method of incorporating the coded information into a 525-line system.

The wide-screen signalling information contains information on the aspect ratio of the transmitted signals and various information required for the EDTV-II enhanced television system, such as the incorporation of various picture quality helper signals and on the designation field/frame types. Furthermore, some bits are reserved for future use.

This Annex specifies the transmitted signal.


2 Definitions, symbols and abbreviations

2.1 Definitions


Letterbox operation: the use of a picture format to transmit 16:9 aspect ratio pictures, in such a way that upper and lower black areas are added to conform to a 4:3 transmission format.

Full format operation: the use of all active picture lines to carry a 4:3 transmission format.


2.2 Symbols and abbreviations


SC: duration of one cycle of chrominance signal subcarrier (SC = 1/3.579545 µs)

D: delay element of one data bit period

IRE: unit picture signal level when pedestal level is zero and the picture signal white level is 100

Fs: clock frequency

Ts: sampling period




3 Requirements


The following subclauses specify the line code for wide-screen signalling.

3.1.1 Position


Wide-screen signalling is inserted into line 22 and line 285, as indicated in Figure 5.

The position of the beginning of the signalling bits is defined relative to T1. T1 is defined as the 50% amplitude point of the falling edge of the first data bit B1, with respect to 0h, the 50% amplitude point of the falling edge of the horizontal synchronizing signal. T1 shall be nominally 40 SC.

Furthermore, T1 shall accord with the zero crossing point of the colour subcarrier which has the same phase as the colour burst.

3.1.2 Clock frequency


The clock frequency shall be: Fs = 4/SC MHz

The sample period shall be: Ts = SC/4 µs.

The clock frequency of four times the colour subcarrier frequency shall be synchronized to a colour subcarrier with a phase of 57 degrees delayed with respect to the colour burst. The sampling period just after the 50% amplitude point at the falling edge of B1 shown in Figure 5 shall be the 35th pixel. This pixel numbering system conforms to that of SMPTE 244M, where pixels are separated by period Ts.

3.1.3 Data bits


There shall be 27 data bit periods. Each data bit period has a duration of nominally 7 SC.

Each data bit period is indicated as Bn (n is an integer from 1 to 27). Six of these bits shall be allocated to an error correction code and a further bit shall be a parity bit. In addition, three data bits shall be reference signals, three data bit periods shall be used for a confirmation signal, and three bits are user bits for broadcasters. There shall be 11 data bits available for transmission of information.

Relative to T1, the start and end positions of Bn shall be (7n-14)SC and (7n-7)SC respectively.

3.1.4 Signal waveform

3.1.4.1 B1 to B5, and B24


B1 to B5, and B24 shall be binary NRZ pulses with a setup level of 0 IRE and amplitude of 40 IRE. The rising and falling edges shall be a sine squared pulse. The nominal rise and fall times between the 10% and 90% amplitude points shall be 145 ns.

3.1.4.2 B6 to B23


B6 to B23 shall each be formed from a sine wave with the same frequency as that of the colour subcarrier with the setup level of 0 IRE and the amplitude of ±20 IRE.

The phase shall be the same as that of the colour burst when the information of wide-screen signalling is “0”, and the opposite phase when it is “1”.

The rising and falling edges of each data bit is shaped in the form of a sine squared pulse. The nominal rise and fall times between the 10% and 90% amplitude points of the envelope shall be 290 ns.

3.1.4.3 B25 to B27


The entire period of B25 to B27 shall consist of a sine wave with four-seventh of the frequency of the colour subcarrier with the setup level of 0 IRE and the amplitude of ±15 IRE. The first rising sine wave shall cross zero at the 680th pixel.

The rising and falling edges of the envelope are shaped in the form of a sine squared pulse, and its nominal rise and fall times between the 10% and 90% amplitude points shall be 290 ns.


3.1.5 Tolerances


The amplitude tolerance of each data bit shall be ±2 IRE.

The position of the 50% amplitude point of the falling edge of B1 shall be maintained to better than ±710 ns of its nominal value T1.

The tolerance of the setup level of the wide-screen signalling waveform shall be ±2 IRE.

3.1.6 Reference signals


B1, B2 and B24 shall be reference signals. B1 shall be set to “1”, B2 shall be set to “0” and B24 shall be set to “0”.

3.1.7 Confirmation signal


B25 to B27 shall be used as a confirmation signal to distinguish between wide-screen signalling and picture signals.

3.1.8 Even parity bit


An even parity bit is introduced for error detection. B4 shall be the even parity bit for B3 to B5.

3.1.9 Error correction code


A 6-bit error correction code is allotted to the information bits B3 to B17 to allow the detection or correction of bit errors.

B18 to B23 shall be the error correction codes, and they are binary code series obtained by entering B3 to B17 into the circuit shown in Figure 6.



NOTE 1 - Å is an exclusive operand.

NOTE 2 - When entering the B3 code, all one-bit delay elements shall be set to “1”.

NOTE 3 - When entering from B3 to B17, switch A shall be turned “on”, and switch B shall be connected to the lower contact. After the entry, switch A shall be turned “off”, and switch B shall be connected to the upper contact.


3.2 Information content of data bits

3.2.1 B3, and B6 to B11


The contents of B3, and B6 to B11 shall be as shown in Table 8.

3.2.2 B5, and B15 to B17


B5, and B15 to B17 are reserved and shall be set to “0”.

3.2.3 B12 and B13

B12 and B13 are assigned for use in TV broadcasting stations.

3.2.4 B14


B14 is assigned for use in TV broadcasting stations. On transmission, this shall be set to “0”.

TABLE 8


The content of wide-screen signalling information







Output

No.

Items

0

1

B1

Reference signal

-

1

B2

Reference signal

0

-

B3

Aspect ratio (Note 1)

4:3 full format

16:9 letterbox

B4

Even parity for B3 ~ B5







B5

Reserved

0

-

B6

Field type (Note 2)

First field

Next field

B7

Frame type

Reference frame

Other frame

B8

Vertical temporal helper

No

Yes

B9

Vertical high resolution helper

No

Yes

B10

Horizontal helper

No

Yes

B11

Horizontal helper pre combing

No

Yes

B12 ~ B13

Assigned for use in TV broadcasting stations







B14

Assigned for use TV broadcasting stations

(Should be set to “0” for output)



0

-

B15 ~ B17

Reserved

0

-

B18 ~ B23

Error correction codes for B3 ~ B17 (Note 3)







B24

Reference signal

0

-

B25 ~ B27

Confirmation signal (sine wave)







NOTE 1 – If any of B8 to B10 are “Yes”, B3 shall be set to “1”.

NOTE 2 – B6 may not be required to indicate field type. In this case, the output shall be set to “0”.

NOTE 3 – These 6 data bits shall be CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) codes belonging to B3 to B17.

The generator polynomial G(X) shall be: G(X) = X6 + X + 1.





*This Recommendation should be brought to the attention of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI).


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