VM PEA Supplemental Environmental Assessment:
Indoor Residual Spraying
Using Registered Carbamates, Pyrethroids and DDT in Mozambique
May 25, 2007
This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by RTI International.
United States Agency for International Development
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The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR
IRS USING CARBAMATES, PYRETHROIDS AND DDT FOR MALARIA CONTROL IN MOZAMBIQUE
Program/Activity Number: 656-0008
Program/Activity Title: SO8: Integrated Health Sector (HIS) Strategic Objective Agreement (SOAG)
Sub-Activity: IRS Using Carbamates, Pyrethroids and DDT for Malaria Control in Mozambique
Funding Begin: FY06 Funding End: FY11 LOP Amount: $
SEA Prepared By: M. Biscoe, RTI International
Current Date: May 25, 2007
IEE Amendment (Y/N): Y
Filename & date of original IEE: 33 Mozambique3_SO8_Health_SOAG (approved July 11, 2003)
ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION RECOMMENDED: (Place X where applicable)
Categorical Exclusion: ____ Negative Determination: ____
Positive Determination: _X__ Deferral: ____
ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS: (Place X where applicable)
CONDITIONS: ____ PVO/NGO: ____
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:
This program is associated with the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) in Africa, which seeks to reduce malaria mortality by 50% in up to 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa by 2010. The United States will work in partnership with host governments and build on existing national malaria control plans, policies, and resources. The PMI will support and complement the efforts of the Global Fund, the World Bank, and other members of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Mozambique is one of four second-year countries to be selected for PMI.
The Initial Environmental Examination in 2005 of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Mozambique’s Strategic Objective (SO) 8, Integrated Health Sector (HIS) Strategic Objective Agreement (SOAG) identified distribution, re-treatment, and use of re-treatable Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) as a major intervention for malaria control, for which a Negative Determination with conditions was recommended. The conditions to be met were listed in the Safer Use Action Plan (SUAP), and based on recommendations from the Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Insecticide-Treated Materials in USAID Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa (ITM PEA).
As part of a new malaria control program under the PMI, USAID proposes to implement an Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) program in Mozambique using carbamates, pyrethroids, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) for malaria vector control. Mozambique is characterized by perennial malaria transmission, and IRS would be used reduce malaria incidence in the seasons of highest transmission. Another aspect of malaria vector control supported by the Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Saude, henceforth referred to as MISAU) includes ITNs and LLINs. In the long-term, larviciding and environmental management should be pursued to provide an integrated malaria vector control strategy, although these interventions are not covered by this Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA).
A Positive Determination is recommended for this program, per 22CFR216.3(a)(ii)(3), because of the potential for the pesticides proposed for use to have a significant impact on the environment, and per 22CFR216.3(b)(iii)(b) because the U.S. registration one of the chemicals proposed for use – DDT– was cancelled by USEPA, and registration of bendiocarb in the US was voluntarily cancelled by manufacturers.
This Supplemental Environmental Assessment tiers off from USAID’s Integrated Vector Management Programs for Malaria Vector Control: Programmatic Environmental Assessment (IVM PEA). It identifies the mitigating measures by which the potential for impact on the environment can be minimized and the benefits of the program maximized. The conditions are that the MISAU and MICOA, with as much assistance from USAID as necessary, will implement the risk reduction actions outlined in the Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) and summarized here and in the section entitled REQUIRED AND RECOMMENDED MITIGATION MEASURES: The Safer Use Action Plan. An overview of conditions of the Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) is detailed below.
The following pesticides are registered in Mozambique, are available for use in IRS, and covered by this SEA:
Deltamethrin WP and WG
Lambda-cyhalothrin WP and CS
Additional pyrethroids and carbamates may become registered in coming years, and USAID may support their use under this SEA. This SEA does not address the use of organophosphates—note that pirimiphos-methyl EC is also registered in Mozambique, but is not covered by this SEA. USAID reserves the right to revoke support for a particular insecticide product based on technical grounds described in Pesticide Procedures B, Basis for Selection of the Requested Pesticide, particularly when vector susceptibility and efficacy are in question.
In support of subsequent IRS campaigns supported by USAID, this Supplemental Environmental Assessment will be reviewed and revised every one to three years as needed to ensure the USAID support remains consistent with stipulations in Annex B, Part II of the Stockholm Convention (http://www.pops.int), Mozambique’s National Implementation Plan (NIP), and Stockholm Convention party reporting requirements for DDT use, which can be found at http://www.pops.int/ddt_info/default.htm.
To re-examine the need for DDT and to identify the best choice for IRS chemicals (considering safety, effectiveness and affordability in accordance with Annex B, Part II of the Stockholm Convention), USAID will work with MISAU and MICOA every one to three years as needed. At that time, this SEA must be amended to reflect the continuing need, if appropriate, for DDT.
USAID will assist MICOA and MISAU in completing activities necessary to fulfill Stockholm Convention reporting requirements.
USAID will assist MISAU in completing a domestic EIA required by Mozambique’s EIA Guidelines.
The Safer Use Action Plan is to be implemented with relevant partners as a management tool for dealing with and accomplishing the program objectives in a safe manner.
IRS supervisors, team leaders, and spray operators will be trained according to WHO standards as well as MINAG standards. Insecticide poisoning management training will be provided to health workers. Pyrethroid, DDT and carbamate poisoning treatment medications will be provided to trained health workers by MISAU. Insecticide storage facility storekeepers will also be trained on proper stores management.
Occupational exposure to insecticides will be minimized through personal protective equipment (according to WHO specs). An IEC Campaign will educate house owners on their roles and responsibilities during the spray campaign to avoid exposure, and supervisors will remind residents of these responsibilities during spray campaign.
Environmental contamination will be kept to a minimum through strict auditing, handling, and washing practices. Each insecticide sachet will be strictly accounted for, contaminated waste-water/rinse-water will be re-used in subsequent days of spraying (progressive rinsing).
Results of the public comment meeting indicate that the following issues are critical to the program:
It is necessary the involvement of all stakeholders, particularly the community.
It is necessary to minimize to the maximum the collateral effects (thefts and misuse).
It is imperative the training, not only for sprayers, but also supervisors.
The creation of possible mitigation measures for the malaria incidence.
The public comment meeting also highlighted issues that, while addressed in this SEA, should be major focal points of the IRS program:
Community education is essential for the program;
Clear and precise information on procedures to the community in order to permit them to follow up the sprayers’ actions;
Strong social mobilization;
Selection and recruitment of sprayers, in a very strict way, focusing on the maturity and integrity;
Strict training of sprayers, supervisors, storehouse workers and drivers;
Creation and enforcement of mechanisms of control of used insecticides in order to minimize theft and unduly applications.
Secure storage with adequate capacity for IRS insecticides and associated materials must be provided by MISAU. Current infrastructure is inadequate to house enough insecticide for the intended scale-up of IRS operations in Mozambique. Adequate storage, constructed or renovated according to FAO and MINAG standards, is required for support of Mozambique’s IRS program.
Hazardous waste transport and disposal resulting from IRS operations will comply with national and international guidelines. Empty DDT sachets will be collected by the program and exported for safe disposal. Safe disposal requires an FAO-approved incinerator; however, an FAO-approved incinerator does not exist on the African continent. Thus safe disposal will require export of IRS waste materials to Europe, or storage of IRS waste materials in storage facilities until an African incinerator can be constructed or refurbished according to FAO standards. Additionally, bilateral agreements between hazardous waste exporters and importers, as well as transit countries, are required for any out-of-country disposal of IRS hazardous waste. These types of agreements need to be addressed through multi-stakeholder discussions involving MISAU, MICOA, MINAG, USAID, USEPA, FAO, WHO, and WB, among others.
As required by Automated Directives System (ADS) 204.5.4, the Strategic Objective (SO) team will actively monitor ongoing activities for compliance with the requirements and recommendations in this assessment, and modify or end activities that are not in compliance. If additional activities are added to this program that are not described in this document, an amended SEA must be prepared and approved prior to implementation of those activities. This includes any commodities, including pesticide products, being considered under the program but not covered in the present SEA.
APPROVAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION RECOMMENDED:
Environmental Officer, Bureau of Global Health: ______________Date: ________
Mission Director, USAID Mozambique: ___________________Date: ________
Mission Environmental Officer
USAID/Mozambique: __________________________ Date: ________
Advisor: __________________________ Date: ________
Africa Bureau: __________________________ Date: ________