|Use of Dynamical Adaptation in Research Impact Studies
Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Gric 3, Zagreb, Croatia
Successful operational forecasting of strength, occurrence and spatial distribution of strong winds (bura) that frequently disturb traffic along the eastern Adriatic coast encouraged further usage of the dynamical adaptation method in impact studies. These events are so common that high-resolution operational wind speed forecast provided by the dynamical adaptation became the irreplaceable part of the ALADIN-Croatia operational suite. Roads and bridges in the Dinaric Alps region get closed due to very strong winds with gusts of more than 40 m/s. Results from an impact study of severe wind on the Maslenica Bridge and planned highway in the Dinaric Alps region will be shown. The study is based on the dynamical adaptation of wind field to 2-km resolution topography, output from the 8km resolution ALADIN model. Modelled wind filed will be compared to the measured data. The study has shown that wind is expected to be stronger along the road than it is on the Maslenica Bridge. Forecast of wind speed has already proven to be very good for Maslenica Bridge in strong bura situations on a study on MAP IOP 15 case.
The surface wind is the meteorological parameter that is the most dependent on the description of topography in the model. In mountainous regions surface wind prediction shows important deficiencies due to influences on a small scale - topography details not resolved at the scale of the large-scale model.
Surface wind field is operationally forecasted with 2-km resolution for the coastal (mountainous) part of Croatia (eastern Adriatic coast) obtained by dynamical adaptation to 2-km resolution topography. The procedure takes the output fields from the operational ALADIN with 8-km resolution. Fields are firs interpolated to the 2-km resolution. The interpolation process perturbs the fields and destroys the quasi-stationary state. The model fields adapt to high-resolution relief by running the numerical model from this initial state with the new resolution for a time necessary to achieve the quasi-steadiness. The 30 min integration period was used since it is sufficient for the wind field to adapt by friction and pressure gradient force. Part of the model physics describing the moist and radiation processes is excluded and the number of levels in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is reduced. This approach is not able to predict local thermal circulation or convection induced circulation. The method might also fail in the case of front propagation because the stationary state is not reached, and when large-scale forecast of the driving model fails.
The method performs much better when the wind is strong enough to overcome the circulation induced by local thermal or convection induced circulation. It is especially useful when the main wind forcing is the pressure gradient over mountains, as it is the case with bura.
In Croatia, there is a highway construction under way. The highway will connect inland part with the Adriatic coast, it will cross the Velebit mountain and Velebit channel over the Maslenica bridge. The bridge was built in 1997 but is already famous for being closed during bura events. Bura is a strong, gusty and cold katabatic wind that blows along the Eastern Adriatic coast from the northeast quadrant. It is generated by the interaction of synoptic forcing with orography; the wind is strongest downstream of the lowest passes in the mountain range and most frequent and strongest on the Northern Adriatic.
When the original impact study for the highway was done, the only data available was from the automatic meteorological station on Maslenica Bridge. Therefore, ALADIN model was used to estimate the strength of the wind along the new road. Dynamical adaptation of the surface wind speed has already proven to be very good for Maslenica Bridge in strong bura situations on a study on MAP IOP 15 case. Now, data from few new automatic stations along the future highway path are available and it can be seen that the choice is justified.
Figure 1. Orography representation is the 8-km resolution domain (left) and 2-km resolution domain (right) used for dynamical adaptation. The black lines represent land/sa mask and political borders from the graphic software. The maslenica bridge is situated in the center of the domain, (lon=15.52,lat=44.25). The road stretches eastward, to (lon=15.65,lat=44.25).
Figure 2. Surface wind field (left) and vertical crossection (right) with 2-km resolution for 16th December 1999, 21 UTC. Arrows on both pictures represent the direction of the horisontal wind, and shaded areas correspond to the wind speed in (m/s). The vertical crossection is along the lat=44.24, and the highway stretches along this crossection from lat=15.52 to lat=15.65.
The first study was based on a few cases of bura. New automatic stations were established in the autumn of 2002 and beginning of 2003. Measurements from those stations show that the choice of dynamical adaptation to 2-km resolution using operational ALADIN model was justified.
Figure 3. Measured wind speed for the Ledenik Tunel automatic station and modelled data from the closest model point for February 2003. Measured 10 min average wind speed is dark blue (dark grey), 10 min maximum (grey), all model forecasts for February (00 and 12 utc runs) with 8-km resolution in orange (grey) and 2-km resolution (light grey). 2-km resolution predicts occurrence and strength of the 10-min average wind speed well. The 'bad forecast' for 6th of February probably corresponds to bad large scale model forecast.
Figure4. Measured wind speed for the Barićevac viaduct (top, left), Krk Bridge (top, right), Ledenik Tunel (middle, left), Maslenica Bridge (middle, right) and Pag Bridge (bottom, left) automatic stations and modelled data for the 00 UTC run on 5th February from the closest model point for the period from 5th to 7th February 2003. Measured 10 min average wind speed is dark blue (dark grey), 10 min maximum (grey), all model forecasts for February (00 and 12 utc runs) with 8-km resolution in orange (grey) and 2-km resolution (light grey).
Recent model data from new automatic stations have shown that the 2-km resolution dynamical adaptation corresponds well with the observed data. The use of dynamical adaptation with the ALADIN model for the imact study was proven as a good choice and the use of ALADIN forecast operational products.