Us history Fort Burrows Slavery Divides the Nation – 1820 – 1861 16. 1 – Slavery in the Territories Presidents




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US History

Fort Burrows

Slavery Divides the Nation – 1820 – 1861

16.1 – Slavery in the Territories
Presidents:

1st

1789



1797

2 terms

George Washington – 57

__________________

2nd

1797



1801

1 term

John Adams – 61

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3rd

1801



1809

2 terms

Thomas Jefferson – 57

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4th

1809



1817

2 terms

James Madison – 57

__________________

5th

1817



1825

2 terms

James Monroe – 58

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6th

1825



1829

1 term

John Quincy Adams – 57

__________________

7th

1829



1837

2 terms

Andrew Jackson – 61

__________________

8th

1837



1841

1 term

Martin Van Buren – 54

__________________

9th

1841



1841

Died

William Henry Harrison-68

__________________

10th

1841



1845

1 term

John Tyler –51

__________________

11th

1845



1849

1 term

James K Polk – 49

__________________

12th

1849



1850

Died

Zachary Taylor – 64

__________________

13th

1850



1853

1 term

Millard Fillmore – 50

__________________

14th

1853



1857

1 term

Franklin Pierce – 48

__________________

15th

1857



1861

1 term

James Buchanan –65

__________________

16th

1861



1865

2 terms

Abraham Lincoln –52

assassinated in office

__________________

17th 1865 – 1869 1 term Andrew Johnson – 50 __________________

replaced Lincoln

18th 1869 – 1877 2 terms Ulysses Simpson US Grant-47 __________________

BE READY !!!! Which PARTY did teach Belong to ???
Why this matters to B&B Ranch 8th grade students…

Other than Burrows likes to hear himself talk.

The United States is still torn over the issue of racial equality. Slavery may be a thing of the past, but its legacy of poverty, inequality, and ignorance still troubles society. For example, at the beginning of the 2000s, about 23 percent of African American families lived below the poverty level compared to 8 percent of white families. About 26 percent, 1 out of 4, of white Americans had completed 4 or more years of college education, while about 17 percent of African Americans had done so. But an even more telling fact is that the average annual earnings of white college graduates were almost $10,000 higher than those of African American college graduates. To study the origins of the Civil War will help our students understand the problems of today and how they came about. We hope to teach you, so that history will not repeat itself in your lifetime and to prepare each of you to face your future as AMERICAN CITIZENS.


What are the 5 Supreme Court Cases and what are their Meanings ???

1.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5.________________________________________________________________________

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Time Line:
1820 – the Missouri Compromise maintains the balance of free and slave states in the Union
1833 – slavery is abolished in the British Empire
1848 – the Free-Soil party is formed to oppose the extension of slavery in the West

1850 – Congress passes the Compromise of 1850; new law that required all Americans to help recapture fugitive slaves
fugitive – one who tries to ‘illegally’ escape
1854 – Senator Stephen Douglas proposes the Kansas–Nebraska Act, allowing new territories to decide whether or not to permit slavery
1854 – slavery is abolished in Venezuela
1857 – Supreme Court rules in Dred Scott v. Sandford case that Congress cannot ban slavery in any territory
1861 – The Confederate States of America is formed

Confederate troops fire on Fort Sumter, South Carolina; this bombardment marks the beginning of the Civil War

Main Idea:

The Missouri Compromise attempted to settle the issue of whether slavery should be allowed in the western territories.
Vocabulary:

Missouri Compromise – agreement proposed in 1819 by Henry Clay, to keep the number of slave and free states equal
Wilmot Proviso – law passed in 1846 that banned slavery in any territories won by the US from Mexico

popular sovereignty – a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery

***created to keep slavery out of the western territories
Free-Soil Party – bipartisan, antislavery party founded in the US in 1848 to

stipulate – to demand or require something as port of an agreement

assume – take for granted; accept without proof

banned – forbidden, not allowed

lure – to convince someone to do something with the expectation of a reward

moderate – not on either side of an argument

morally – considered unacceptable, such as rules or habits of conduct

Setting the Scene:

When he reached his seventies, Thomas Jefferson vowed, ‘never to write, talk, or even think about politics.’ Still, in 1820 at the age of 77, he broke this vow. Jefferson voiced alarm at the fierce debate going on in Congress:

“This momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the funeral bells of the Union… We have the wolf by the ears, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go.”

Thomas Jefferson, Letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820

Jefferson knew the ‘wolf’, or the issue of slavery, could tear the North and South apart. As settlers moved West, Congress faced an agonizing decision. Should it ban slavery in the territories and later admit them to the Union as free states? Or should it permit slavery in the territories and later admit them as slave states? This was the critical question that filled Jefferson with terror in the night.
The Missouri Compromise



In 1819, 11 free states and 11 slave states

Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state; this would give slave states a majority in the Senate

Northern free states opposed Missouri entering as a slave state

During the lengthy congressional debate, Maine applied for statehood as a free state so Henry Clay made a proposal; The Missouri Compromise

Clay’s plan called to allow both to join the Union; this would maintain balance, 12 free and 12 slave states

Congress split the Louisiana Purchase; South of latitude 36◦ 30’ Latitude N could be slave states and North of the line would be only free states

Missouri would be the ONLY exception


¿¿ What issues did the Missouri Compromise address ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

Slavery in the West

Missouri Compromise only applied to the Louisiana Purchase lands

After the Mexican War, Mexican Cession, vast amounts of Western lands became United States Territory

New questions and debates began again over the question of slavery



Wilmot Proviso

 Northern states feared slavery would extend into the ‘new’ West

 Congressman David Wilmot, called for a law to ban slavery in any Western Territory won from Mexico

 Naturally, Southern leaders opposed the law

 The House passed the law; the Senate defeated the law

Opposing Views

 Abolitionists wanted total ban on slavery in all new territories

 Southerns wanted slavery allowed everywhere

 Also, most ALL Southerners, slave holders or not, agreed that runaway slaves should be returned and NOT allowed to seek freedom in the North

 Moderates looked for compromise; simply extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean – all land North must be free states, all land South could possibly be slave state

Popular Sovereignty is born; under this idea, the people that lived in the territory/state would vote and decide the issue for ‘their own’ state

*** popular means the majority of population as in people

¿¿ How did the slavery debate affect the West ?

Northerns wanted__________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________Southerns wanted__________________________________________________________

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Forced______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

The Free-Soil Party
By 1848, Northern Democrats and Whigs opposed slavery but would not take a stand in fear of losing Southern support

Some began to fear the slave issue may split the nation

Antislavery members from BOTH parties founded the Free-Soil Party

Intentions to keep slavery out of the Western territories

Free-Soiler and former President ( give it up for the past prez ) Martin Van Buren

Democratic unknown from the great state of Michigan…Lewwwwis Casssssss

The TOP Whig among all whigs, our very own Mexican killin’ hero, from the Rio Grande Valley and the Mexican / American War, General Zachary Taylor

Slavery is finally an important NATIONAL issue

Van Buren called for a slavery ban in the Mexican Cession

Cass supported popular sovereignty

Zach Taylor does not speak (publicly) on the issue – since he is from Louisiana – it was assumed he was pro-slavery

And the presidential winner is … Zachary Taylor, Big Whig among Whigs

Although, 13 Congressional seats did go to Free-Soiler’s; slavery was now indeed a national issue


1. What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise ?

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2. Why did conflict arise over the issue of slavery in the in the Western territories ?

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3. Why was the Free-Soil party found ?

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