Unit 11 Phylum Mollusca – Guided Notes General Characteristics




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Unit 11 - Phylum Mollusca – Guided Notes

General Characteristics


  • Three body parts:

    • ________________________àmuscular foot:

    • _______________________________

      • Contains the internal organs(heart, organs of digestion, reproduction and excretion)

    • __________________

      • Thin body covering (contains calcium carbonate)

      • Secretes shell

      • Reduce surface area for gas exchange à evolved gills

  • Respiration

    • ___________________________________________________________

  • Nitrogenous wastes are excreted through _____________

  • __________________________with dorsal heart and vessels, hemocoel for return of circulatory fluid

  • _______________________________with mouth, radula = flexible tongue like strip of tissue covered with tough abrasive teeth that point backward

    • _________ is used to graze, drill, or function as a poisonous dart/beak i.e.octopus


Four classes


  1. Amphineura (polyplacophora)

  2. Bivalvia

  3. Gastropoda

  4. Cephalopoda




  1. Class Amphineura (Polyplacophora) – the chitons




  • Marine organisms

  • Shell is made up of _________________________

  • Have a ___________________________(crawling)

  • Reduced head

  • About 650 species of these organisms

  • Cling to rocks in the intertidal zone and use a tooth-

  • like _____________to scrape food off of rocks (herbivores)

  • __________________________________




  1. Class Gastropoda (Stomach-foot)




  • ___________________________

  • ___________________________

  • Characterized by _____________________

___________________________________

  • Breathe through ______ (ctenidia) or _______

_________________________ (gas diffusion)

  • _____________________extends along the ventral

surface of the organism

  • Gastropods undergo a process called ____________________________________

  • The visceral mass twists _________________ in relation to the head

  • Results in the mantle cavity, gills and anus _____________________________

________________________________________________________________

  • Because of ________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________




  • Nudibranchs (___________________)

  • Marine gastropods that ____________________

  • Nudibranch means “__________________”

  • refers to the fact that gas exchange happens across the entire surface of these animals




  1. Class Bivalvia (2 shells connected by a hinge)




  • _______________________________________________________________

  • Mainly marine – living in intertidal zone

  • _______________________________________________________________

  • The mantle______________________________________________________

________________________________________________

  • ___________________:

  • Oldest part of the shell is the area surrounding the hinge (called the ___________)

  • Exclusively marine

  • __________________________

  • Burrow in sand or rock or attach to substrate by secreting byssal threads

  • _____________________________________________

  • _______________________– external fertilization


  1. Class Cephalopoda (Head-foot)




  • __________________________________________________

  • All members of this class are ________________

  • _______________________________________________________

  • All __________________

  • Have tentacles and a central mouth containing a ___________________

  • Many of these organisms contain a large _____________that is used when trying to escape from potential predators

  • They have well _________________________________

  • They contain special pigment cells called ____________________which enable them to change color

  • They have ___________________________

  • Their circulatory system is a _________________________

  • _________________________: Can force water out siphon

  • Catch prey with arms injecting poison with _________________

  • Internal fertilization – ________________


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