Учебно-методическое пособие Казань 2013 (072) ббк 81 Англ я 73 А64




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Put ten questions to the texts.

2. Fill in the missing words in the following sentences; the first letter of each word has been given to help you.

1. Tatarstan is in the east-central part of E... Russia.

2. The Volga f... north-south across the western end of the republic.

3. The republic’s diversified economy centres on p... production, i... and a... .

4. The c... industry has developed chiefly at Kazan.

5. A heavy freight t... moves along the rivers.

6. Another line runs north-south t... the Volga right-bank area.
3. Give a short summary about the republic.

My native city (Kazan)
My native city is Kazan. It is the capital of Tatarstan. It is situated on the picturesque banks of the Volga river. Kazan is an important centre of industry, economy, science and culture. The population of the city is over one million people. Kazan has numerous higher educational institutions and universities with many students, who master the professions of doctors, teachers, engineers, lawyers and others.

Kazan is a cultural centre. There are a lot of museums in the city. One can enjoy himself visiting the Museum of Fine Arts and Exhibition Hall. Beautiful masterpieces of Shishkin, Vasiliev and other painters are represented here. If you are a keen theatre-goer, you may visit performances at the Opera House, at the Tatar Drama or Russian Drama Theatres. One cannot help admiring the beautiful white-wall Kremlin, old churches, mosques, cosy streets, monuments in Kazan.

We are proud of many famous people who lived and worked in Kazan. The names of the scientists Lobachevsky, Butlerov, Zinin, the great poets G. Tukai and M. Jalil, the composers S. Saydashev and S. Gubaydullina are known all over the world.

Besides Kazan is one of the most important economic centres of the Russian Federation. Large enterprises produce planes, helicopters, compressors, computer systems, optics, chemicals, clothes, consumer goods and so on.

Kazan is a large transport centre too: there is a river port, a railway station and an airport. Many businessmen and tourists visit our republic and its capital.

I love my native city.

____________________

native - родной

important - важный

to master - овладевать

masterpiece - шедевр

to be represented – быть представленным

one cannot help admiring – нельзя не вохищаться

helicopter - вертолет

church - церковь

mosque - мечеть

keen theatre-goer – большой любитель театра

1. Complete the sentences.

1. Kazan is situated on ... .

2. Kazan is a cultural ... .

3. If you are a keen theatre-goer, you may ... .

4. One cannot help admiring the beautiful ... in Kazan.

5. Large enterprises produce ... in Kazan.



2. Put five questions to the texts.

3. Make up and retell a text about the sights of Kazan.

A Short History of Kazan City (1)
Kazan is the capital and a major historic, cultural, and economic center of the republic of Tatarstan in Russia. It is located on the left bank of the Volga River where the Kazanka River joins it, eighty-five kilometers north of the Kama tributary. In 2010 it had an estimated population of 1 196 738.

The traditional understanding is that the name comes from the Turkic and Volga Tatar word “qazan”, meaning “kettle”. The Bulgars founded Iski (Old) Kazan in the thirteenth century as one of the successors to their state, which had been destroyed by the Mongols.

During the first half of the sixteenth century, the khanate of Kazan was involved in a three-cornered struggle with Muscovy and the Crimean khanate for influence in the western steppe area. Ivan IV conquered the city in 1552, ending the Khanate of Kazan. Muscovy then used Kazan as an advanced staging area for further expansion down the Volga. In 1555 the archepiscopal see of Kazan was established.

From the late sixteenth century on, Kazan was the gateway to Siberia, as people and supplies were funneled through the town en route to the east, and furs and minerals were brought to the west. It was made the capital of the Volga region in 1708, and Peter I had the ships for his Persian campaign built there.

During the eighteenth century, light industry and food production developed, as well as a theater, which led to a number of similar theaters being founded in the nineteenth century.

In 1804 the University of Kazan was founded, which helped to establish the city as an intellectual center. The first provincial newspaper was published there in 1811. Kazan was also considered a major manufacturing center, the products of which included prepared furs, leather manufacture, shoes, and soap.

In the 1930s heavy industry developed, such as aircraft production and transportation and agricultural machinery. More recent industries include the production of chemicals, electrical engineering, and precision equipment, as well as oil refining.

In 1945 the Kazan branch of the Academy of Sciences was established. Presently, Kazan has a philharmonic society, a museum of Tatar culture, and a theater devoted to the production of Tatar operas and ballets.

________________________________

estimated – предполагаемый

kettle – котелок

struggle – бороться

conquer – завоевывать

expansion – увеличение; пространство



funnel – выходить; проводить

1. Put ten questions to the texts.

2. Try to retell the story to your foreign friend.

Appendix

Неправильные глаголы английского языка

(Irregular verbs)

be
bear
become
begin
bend
bind
bite
bleed
blow
break
breed
bring
build
burn
buy
cast
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fly
forget
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hold
keep
know
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
light
lose
make
mean
meet
put
read
ride
rise
run
say
see
sell
send
set
shake
shine
shoot
shut
sing
sink
sit
sleep
smell
speak
spend
spoil
spread
spring
stand
steal
strike
strive
swear
swim
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wear
weep
win
wind
write

was, were
bore
became
began
bent
bound
bit
bled
blew
broke
bred
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dug
did
drew
dreamt
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
held
kept
knew
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read
rode
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
set
shook
shone
shot
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
smelt
spoke
spent
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
struck
strove
swore
swam
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
wore
wept
won
wound
wrote

been
born
become
begun
bent
bound
bit
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flown
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
held
kept
known
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read
ridden
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
set
shaken
shone
shot
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
smelt
spoken
spent
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
struck
striven
sworn
swum
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
worn
wept
won
wound
written

быть, являться
родить
сделаться, стать
начинать(ся)
гнуть
связывать
кусать(ся)
истекать кровью
дуть
ломать(ся)
воспитывать
приносить
строить
гореть, жечь
покупать
кидать
ловить, схватывать
выбирать
приходить
стоить
резать
рыть, копать
делать
тащить; рисовать
мечтать

пить
вести, гнать


есть, кушать
падать
кормить
чувствовать
бороться, сражаться
находить
бежать; спасаться
летать
забывать
получать;

давать
идти, ходить


расти, становиться
вешать, висеть
иметь
слышать
прятать
держать
держать, хранить
знать
вести
учить(ся)
оставлять, покидать
давать взаймы
позволять
зажигать
терять, проигрывать
делать
значить
встречать
класть
читать
ездить верхом
подниматься
бежать
сказать
видеть
продавать
посылать
помещать;

трясти
сиять, блестеть


стрелять
закрывать
петь
погружаться
сидеть
спать
нюхать, пахнуть
говорить
тратить
портить
распространять
прыгать
стоять
красть; похищать
ударять
бороться
клясться
плавать
брать
обучать
разрывать, рвать
сказать
думать
бросать
понимать
носить, изнашивать
плакать
выигрывать,
крутить, заводить писать


Действительный залог (Active Voice)


Вид →

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect Continuous

Время ↓

I  или II

(-ed форма)



to be  +  IV

(-ing форма)



to have  III 

(-ed форма)



to be  +  IV 

(-ing форма)



Present

I  /  I-s

am / is / are + IV

have / has + III

have /has been + IV

Past 

II

was / wereIV  

had  +  III

had been + IV

Future  

will / shall + I

will / shall be + IV

will / shall have + III

will / shall  have been + IV

Future in the Past

would / should + I

would / should be + IV

would /should have + III

would / should have been + IV

Неличные  формы  глагола

Инфинитив

       to I  

to be +  IV

to haveIII

to have been + IV

Герундий

IV

-

having +  III

-

Причастие I

IV

-

having +  III

-

Причастие II

-

-

-

-



Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)


Вид →

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perf. Cont.

Время ↓

to be  +  III

(-ed форма)



to be  +  III

(-ed форма)



to be  +  III

(-ed форма)



-

Present

am / is / are + III

am / is / are being + III

have/has  been + III

-

Past 

was / were + III

was / were being + III

had been + III

-

Future  

will / shall  be

+ III



-

will / shall  have been + III

-

Future in the Past

would / should be + III

-

would / should have been + III

-

Неличные  формы  глагола

Инфинитив

to be + III

-

to have been +  III

-

Герундий

being + III

-

having been +  III

-

Причастие I

being + III

-

having been +  III

-

Причастие II

 III

-

-

-

 
 



Indefinite

Время

Личные местоимения

Глагольная форма

Случаи

употребления

Вспом. гл.

Смысл. гл.

Present

Действительный залог

Действие совершается обычно, вообще, ежедневно, часто, редко и т. п., но не сейчас!!!

В действ. залоге вопросительные и отрицательные формы образуются с помощью частицы do (does - 3-е лицо ед. ч.)



I, we, you, they

-

I

he, she, it

-

I-s

I ask. - Я спрашиваю (обычно, часто);  He asks.

Do I ask ?  I do not ask.      Does he ask ?

Страдательный залог

I

Am

III

he, she, it

Is

we, you, they

Are

I am asked. - Меня спрашивают

Past

Действительный залог

Действие совершилось в прошлом, обычно с указ. прошедшего. времени!!!
В действ. залоге вопросительные и отрицательные формы образуются с did

I, he, she, it, we, you, they

-

II

I asked. - Я спрашивал (спросил).

Did I ask ?   I did not ask.

Страдательный залог

I, he, she, it

Was

III

we, you, they

Were

I was asked yesterday. - Меня спросили вчера.
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