and Northern Island (the UK)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island is situated on the British Isles not far from Europe. It consists of the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of Ireland and a great number of small islands, such as the Orkneys, the Hebrides, the Isle of White and many others.
If you look at the map of Europe you will see that Great Britain is not large. It takes 6 hours to travel by a fast train, from London, the capital of England, to Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. And the journey from London to Plymouth takes a little over than 4 hours by train.
There are four parts of Great Britain: England, which capital is London; Scotland, which capital is Edinburgh; Wales, which capital is Cardiff and Northern Island, which capital is Belfast. Great Britain lies not far from the continent. It is separated from Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel. The Channel in its narrowest part known as The Strait of Dover is only 32 kilometres.
Great Britain has a very good geographical position, as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world.
The sea connects Britain with most European countries such as: Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Russia and many other countries. The main sea route from Europe to America also passed through the Channel.
British climate is mild and damp. It often rains; fogs are quite frequent, especially in the west and south-west. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, warms the seas around the British coast, moderating the climate. This results in cool summers and mild winters. The temperature in winter seldom falls below zero and fields and meadows are green all the year round.
crossway – перекресток
route – дорога, направление, маршрут
mild – мягкий
damp – сырой
frequent – частый
current – течение
meadows – луга, низины
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is one of the world's smallest countries. Its population is over 63 million people. About 80 percent of the population is urban.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used in the meaning of the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The surface of the British Isles is very various. The north of Scotland is mountainous and it is called The Highlands. The south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called Lowlands. The north and the west of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south-eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1, 43 m.).
There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It produces and exports machinery, electronics, and textiles. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy with the Parliament and the Queen as Head of State.
urban – городской
to consist of – состоять из
to include – заключать, включать в себя
various – различный, разнообразный
valley – долина
plain – равнина
highly developed – высокоразвитый
1. Put ten questions to the texts.
2. Find information in the texts about:
1) the territory of the country;
2) the climate of the country;
3) the population of the UK;
4) the head of the state.
3. Complete the sentences.
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated … .
2. They lie to … of Europe.
3. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the narrow strait of water which is called … .
4. To the north lies … .
5. The fourth part is called ….and is located on the second island.
6. The capital of England is … , Wales has …, Scotland has … and the main city of Northern Ireland is … .
2. Imagine, you have already been to this country. Make up and retell a text about the sights of the UK which you “have seen”.
The History of London
As well as being the capital of England, London is the capital of the United Kingdom. London was founded by the Romans in 43 A.D. and was called Londinium. In 61 A.D. the town was burnt down and when it was rebuilt by the Romans it was surrounded by a wall. That area within the wall is now called the City of London. It is London's commercial and business centre. It contains the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the head offices of numerous companies and corporations. Here is situated the Tower of London. The Tower was built by William the Conqueror who conquered England in 1066. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Now most of the Government buildings are located there.
During the Tudor period (16th century) London became an important economic and financial centre. The Londoners of the Elizabethan period built the first theatres. Nowadays the theatre land is stretched around Piccadilly Circus. Not far from it one can see the British Museum and the Covent Garden Opera House.
During the Victorian period (19th century) London was one of the most important centres of the Industrial Revolution and the centre of the British Empire.
Today London is a great political centre, a great commercial centre, a paradise for theatre-goers and tourists, but it is also a very quiet place with its parks and its ancient buildings, museums and libraries.
capital — столица
to found — основывать
surrounded — окруженный
crowned — коронованный
Westminster Abbey — Вестминстерское аббатство
theatreland — район театров
paradise — рай
ancient — древний
1. Answer the questions:
1. What is the capital of England and the United Kingdom?
2. Who was the founder of London?
3. How did the Romans call London?
3. What is the City?
4. When and whom was the Tower built by?
5. Where are the Government buildings situated?
6. When were the first theatres built?
7. What was London like during the Victorian period (19th century)?
8. What is London like today?
2. Translate the following sentences into Engish.
1) Территория, окруженная стеной, сейчас называется Сити.
2) Он был построен Вильгельмом Завоевателем, завоевавшим Англию в 1066 году, коронованным в Вестминстерском аббатстве.
3) Лондон является столицей Англии и одновременно столицей Великобритании.
4) Лондон был основан римлянами в 43-м году н. э. и назывался Лондиниум.
5) Во время викторианского периода (XIX век) Лондон был одним из наиболее важных центров промышленной революции и центром Британской империи.
6) Лондонцы периода правления Елизаветы построили первые театры.
7) Сейчас район театров расположен вокруг Пикадилли. Недалеко отсюда можно увидеть Британский музей и Королевский Придворный оперный театр.
8) Сейчас Лондон — важный политический центр, большой коммерческий центр, рай для театралов и туристов, но это также и тихое место с прекрасными парками, древними сооружениями, музеями и библиотеками.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It's one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. It was founded more than two thousand years ago. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, the West End, the East End and Westminster. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange.
Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It's the administrative centre. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are situated there. It is a very beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Big Ben is really the bell which strikes every quarter of an hour. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It is a very beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and writers are there.
To the west of Westminster is the West End. Here we find most of the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. Piccadilly Circus is the heart of London's West End. You can also see wide streets with beautiful houses, many parks, gardens and squares in the West End.
To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of the capital. There are no parks or gardens in the East End and you can't see many fine houses in the West End. Most of the plants and factories are situated there.
London has many places of interest. One of them is Buckingham Palace. It's the residence of the Queen. The English are proud of Trafalgar Square, which was named so in memory of the victory at the battle. The English fleet defeated the fleet of France and Spain under Nelson’s command in 1805. Another sight which is worth seeing is the British Museum, the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library - one of the richest in the world.
The streets of London tell us their all long-past history. There are many streets in London which are known all over the world. Among them are Oxford Street, Downing Street, Fleet Street and a lot of others. And tourists are usually attracted not only by the places of interest but by the streets too. In conclusion, I should say if you are lucky enough to find yourself in London some day you will have a lot to see and enjoy there.
tower - башня
tomb - могила
battle - битва
in conclusion - в заключение
1. Answer the questions:
1. When was London founded?
2. Which parts is London divided into?
3. What is the heart of the City?
4. What places of interest do you know in London?
5. The streets of London tell us its all long-past history, do not they?
3. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information.
1. The UK occupies the territory of the British Isles.
2. The UK is washed by many seas and the oceans.
3. Many rivers are flowing through Great Britain.
4. There are many beautiful parks in the West End.
The United States of America (1)
There are fifty states in the United States of America. Two of these states, Alaska and Hawaii, are not connected to the other states. The US is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west, by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico in the south. In the north Great Lakes are situated.
As it was announced on January 1, 2013, the United States had a total resident population of 315,260,000, making it the third most populous country in the world. The United States is a young country. Its written history is only a few hundred years old. It is sometimes called the "New World". Over the last 400 years millions of people have come to start a new life in this "New World".
The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The German brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick's Day celebrations. The Scots brought Halloween.
The US has never had an official language, but English has always been the main language spoken in the country. Spanish is the second most common language in the USA.
The US government has three branches. The first branch is the Congress. The Congress is the meeting of representatives from all states. The people elect those representatives. The Congress makes the laws that everybody must obey. The Congress meets in the US Capitol in Washington, D.C. and divided into two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Every state, no matter how large or small, sends two people to the Senate. These people are called senators. There are one hundred senators in the Senate. They are elected for six years. Each state also sends people to the House of Representatives. They are called congressmen or congresswomen. The number of congressmen from each state depends on the number of people who live in the state. All in all there are 425 congressmen in the House of Representatives. A representative's term is two years. The Constitution gives many powers to the Congress. One important power of the Congress is the power to declare wars.
The 2nd branch of government is the President and his helpers. They carry out the laws that the Congress makes. The President signs bills and then they become laws. The Vice President and members of the Cabinet help the President to make decisions. The US President is Commander in Chief of the country's armed forces. A person who wants to become the President must be at least 35 years old and must live in the United States for at least 14 years. The President’s term is four years and one can be President for one or two terms, but not longer.
The 3rd branch of government is the Supreme Court. It is made up of nine judges - the most important judges in the land. They have to make sure that the President and the Congress follow the Constitution. Americans are very proud of their Constitution. It was written more than 200 years ago and it is still working!
1. Put ten questions to the text.
2. Try to match up adjectives in column A with the nouns in column B to form meaningful phrases:
large a) kilometres
similar b) patterns
dry c) valley
natural d) Isles
federal e) territory
square f) river
swift g) language
administrative h) machine
official i) government
British j) channel
3. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:
1. The Unites States of America is ... .
2. The US is washed by ... .
3. It borders ... .
4. The USA can be divided into ... .
5. Many river sare flowing ... .
6. The north-eastern part of the USA comprises ... .
7. The United States had a total resident population of ... .
8. The US is sometimes called ... .
9. The US has never had ... .
10. Spanish is ... .
11. The US consists of ... .
12. The President is ... .
13. The people of the United States are ... .
4. Talk on one of these topics:
1) The Rivers in the USA.
2) The Five Great Lakes.
3) The Population of the USA.
4) The Great Seal.
The USA (2)
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea boarder with Russia.
The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 300 million.
If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley, which is located in Alaska.
America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.
The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part of the country is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the leading producer of copper and oil and the world’s second producer of iron ore and coal. On the industrial enterprises of the country they produce aircrafts, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, weapon, furniture, and paper.
Though mainly European and African in origin, the Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations, including the Chinese and the Native Americans — Indians.
The largest cities are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, and others.
The United States is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, D. C. According to the Constitution of the USA, the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the juridical. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.
1. Agree or disagree with the following statements; add some more information:
1. The USA is the fourth largest country in the world in area.
2. The USA is the third largest country in the world in population.
3. The climate along the Pacific coast is much colder than that of the Atlantic coast.
4. The USA consists of 50 states and the District of Columbia.
5. The USA has the national emblems.
2. Find the Russian equivalents of the English sentences.
g)to be washed by
Washington, D.C. (1)
The city of Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is located in the District of Columbia (DC for short). Many people consider Washington DC to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It is filled with many parks, wide streets and impressive buildings. In the centre of the city, in Capitol Park, visitors' eyes focus on the Capitol, where the Congress meets to make laws. Many visitors come to Washington DC to see the White House. It is the greatest attraction for many of them. The White House, the official residence of the President, is situated at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. The largest room in this building is the East Room, the scene of many state receptions, balls and musicals. Other famous rooms are the Green Room, the Blue Room, the Red Room, which are used for afternoon teas and for receptions held before state dinners.
The Blue Room, the most formal of these "colours" room is an oval-shaped room connecting the Green and the Red Rooms. On the second floor, the floor with the family quarters and quests rooms is the Lincoln Room, which one served as an office for President Lincoln but today serves as an honour guest room. In this room Lincoln signed the emancipation proclamation of 1863.
Other landmarks in Washington DC include memorials to three Presidents: The Washington Memorial, The Lincoln Memorial and The Jefferson Memorial; The Library of Congress, The National Gallery of Art, The John F. Kennedy centre for the Performing Arts. The Capitol is in the very centre of Washington. It is located on the Capitol Hill, the highest point in the city. The Capitol is the highest building in Washington. There is a law in Washington not to construct buildings higher than the Capitol. The corner stone of the Capitol was laid by George Washington on September 18th, 1793. The Capitol is the seat of the government of the United States of America.
Washington, D.C. (2)
The beautiful city of Washington D.C. is the capital of the United States and the centre of its government. The capital was named after the first president George Washington and was founded in 1790. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. Washington is not the largest city in the USA. It has about 900 000 inhabitants. Washington D.C. has nothing characteristically American in it, as its conception is purely French. It has long wide avenues, gardens, beautiful parks and no skyscrapers at all. Washington is the residence of the President and the Congress of the USA. The White House is the President's residence, the Capitol — the seat of the American Congress. The largest and the tallest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and Senate Chamber. There are no skyscrapers because no other building must be taller than the Capitol. All American presidents except George Washington (the White House was not yet built in his time) lived in the White House. It was built in 1799. Washington is a large scientific and cultural centre, where there are many research institutes, five universities, the National Academy of Science and the Library of Congress. There is one well-known building in Washington - Pentagon, the residence of the US Military department. It is situated in the suburbs to the south of the Potomac.