People usually go to the shop two or three times a week to buy food. Less frequently people go shopping to buy clothes; usually it is women and teenagers. And everywhere you go, you’ll find adverts. There are many varieties of adverts: on TV, on radio, in magazines, on streets and so on.
You can see your favourite sportsman or actor advertising cars, drinks, sports shops. Superstars make big money from advertising. For example, some football and basketball players make millions of dollars from advertising sport clothes or drinks.
What are the functions of advertisements? The first function is to inform. A big part of the information people have about houses, cars, building materials, electronic equipment, cosmetics, drinks and food comes from the advertisements they read. Advertisements introduce them to new products or remind them of the existing ones.
The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point of view and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously chooses the advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum because the colourful TV commercials convince him of the best qualities of the product. Even cigarettes or alcohol are associated with the good values of human life such as joy, freedom, love and happiness, and just those associations make a person choose the advertised products.
All those small ads in the press such as “employment”, “education” and “for sale and wanted” columns, help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their second-hand things and to find services, or to learn about educational facilities, social events such as concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births, marriages and deaths.
frequent – частый
advertisement – объявление, реклама, анонс
equipment – оборудование, оснащение
to exist – возникать
to convince – убеждать
employee – служащий
1. Read and translate the text.
2. Put ten questions to the text.
3. Complete the following sentences.
1. When you want to buy something ... .
2. There are different kinds of shops in our city: ... .
3. In the men’s clothing department you can find ... .
4. After you have chosen the thing you ... .
5. Shoes are sold at ... .
6. In a supermarket you can buy... .
7. The greengrocery is stocked by ... .
8. At a dairy you can buy... .
4. Make up short stories about these themes.
1. The shops in my street.
2. A self-service shop.
3. My usual shopping round.
4. At the baker’s.
Meals in Our Family
The appetite comes with eating.
My family isn't large. It consists of four members. But each member of owe family has his own tastes and interests. For example, my brother is fond of sports. So early in the morning he goes jogging. That's why he has nothing to eat before it, because it would be bad for him to eat before exercises. But when he comes back, he has a shower and is more than ready for breakfast. He always needs a cup of coffee to really wake him up. His breakfast usually consists of a bowl of cereal with milk and sugar. This he follows by toasts and juice. My father eats the same as my brother.
My mother has a lighter breakfast of just yoghurt and a grapefruit. As for me, a cup of tea is enough for breakfast. And my mother sometimes scolds me for it, because it's important to have a really goods breakfast. We don't have our main meal at lunch time. My father takes sandwiches with him to work. To be healthy, he also eats fruit. My mother is able to be more varied in her lunches, because she is a housewife. It means that she can prepare what she likes. Her favourite dish is roast meat. As she likes to bake, there is always something tasty at home.
Our evening meal is usually eaten at 7 o'clock. The main course is often meat with vegetables. Sometimes we eat pizza or pasta with delicious sauce. We try to eat our main meal together. In our busy lives it is the one time of day when we sit down and have a good talk.
jogging — бег трусцой
cereal — овсянка
to scold — ругать
roast meat — жареное мясо
1. Answer the questions:
1. Is your family large?
2. What do your family have for breakfast?
3. Do you have your main meal together?
4. When do you have your main meal?
5. What do you have for supper?
2. Using questions above make up a text about your meal traditions in your family.
(from C. E. Eckersley)
The usual meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. Breakfast is generally a bigger meal than you have on the Continent, though some English people like a “continental” breakfast of rolls and butter and coffee. But the usual English breakfast is porridge or “corn flakes” with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs, marmalade (made from oranges) with buttered toast, and tea or coffee. For a change you can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or perhaps fish.
We generally have lunch about one o’clock. The businessman in London usually finds it impossible to come home for lunch, and so he goes to a cafe or restaurant; but if I am making lunch at home I have cold meat (left over probably from yesterday’s dinner), potatoes, salad and pickles, with a pudding or fruit to follow. Sometimes we have a mutton chop, or steak and chips, followed by biscuits and cheese, and some people like a glass of light beer with lunch.
Afternoon tea you can hardly call a meal, but it is a sociable sort of thing, as friends often come in then for a chat while they have their cp of tea, cake or biscuits.
In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. We had rather a special one last night, as we had an important visitor from South America to see Mr. Priestley.
We began with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, a sweet, fruit and nuts. Then we went into sitting-room for coffee and cigarettes.
But in my house, as in a great many English homes, we make the midday meal the chief one of the day, and in the evening we have the much simpler dinner – an omelet, or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruits.
But uncle Albert always has “high tea”. He says he has no use for these “afternoon teas” where you try to hold a cup of tea in one hand and a piece of bread and butter about as thin as a sheet of paper in the other. He’s a Lancashire man, and nearly everyone in Lancashire likes high tea. They have it between five and six o’clock, and they have ham or tongue and tomatoes and salad, or sausages, with good strong tea, plenty of bread and butter, then stewed fruit, or a tin of pears, apricots or pineapple with cream or custard and pastries or a good cake. And that’s what they call a good tea.
hospitality – гостеприимство
a foreigner – иностранец
to set foot in – ступать на
to get acquainted with – знакомиться
cookery – кулинария, стряпня
national dishes – национальные блюда
establishment – учреждения, заведения
substantial – существенный, важный, значительный
employment – работа (внаем)
home-made pastry – домашняя выпечка (кондитерские изделия, пирожные)
to lay the table – накрывать на стол
occasion – случай, возможность, событие
to spread – расстилать
to protect – защищать, ограждать
a tureen – супник, супница
a platter – деревянная тарелка
sauce – соус, приправа, гарнир из овощей
cutlery – ножевые изделия
hors d’oeuvre – закуска
dessert – десерт, сладкое блюдо
a napkin – cалфетка
a salt-cellar – солонка
receiving the guests – прием гостей
a menu – меню
a clear soup – бульон
a pasty – мясной пирог
a pie – пирог
the second course – второе блюдо
a candle – свеча
1. Read and translate the text.
2. Close the book and try to remember the main moments of the story.
3. Put prepositions where necessary.
1. Can I have another piece ... pie?
2. What did you have ... dinner yesterday?
3. I never eat much bread ... breakfast.
4. Yesterday I had lunch ... my friend.
5. Do you like your tea ... lemon?
6. I have something very tasty ... you.
7. Help ... me lay the table ... breakfast.
8. I usually have lunch ... the university canteen.
Four Seasons (1)
Winter, spring, summer and autumn are the seasons of the year.
December, January and February are the winter months. The weather is cold, usually it snows. The days are short and the nights are long. The rivers and lakes freeze and we can go skating and skiing.
March, April and May are the spring months. It is a very nice season. The weather is fine, it is warm. There are many green trees in the streets in the parks and in the yards. Sometimes it rains but usually the sun shines brightly. The birds return from the hot countries and build their nests.
June, July and August are the summer months. It is hot or warm. The days are long and the nights are short. There are many nice flowers in the parks and squares in the summer. The pupils do not go to school, they have summer holidays. June is the first month of summer. We have the longest day and the shortest night in the year on the 21st-22nd of June. July is the middle month of summer. It is hot and sun shines brightly. The sky is blue and cloudless. August is the last summer month some times it is cold in August, but there are many mushrooms, berries and fruits.
September, October and November are autumn months. The weather is changeable. It often rains. You can see yellow, red, brown leaves everywhere. It is time to gather the harvest.
There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter.
March, April and May are spring months. Spring is the most pleasant of all the seasons of the year. The weather is getting warmer and warmer; everything changes and seems to revive. The trees begin to bud. Sometimes it rains, but there are no rough winds; the sun shines brightly. The grass is green and one can see a lot of flowers peeping out from it. In spring all the migratory birds return. They sing sweetly on the branches of the trees.
The summer months are June, July and August. Summer is the hottest season of the year. The days are longest in summer. The longest day of the year is the 22nd of June. Some people like summer best of all. All of us enjoy summer with its cloudless sunshine, with its gardens and meadows full of flowers. There are a lot of fruits and vegetables at that time. In summer many people leave town and spend the hottest time in the country or at the seaside.
After summer autumn comes. The autumn months are September, October and November. The warm days of early autumn arc called the «Indian Summer» or the «Golden Autumn». The «Golden Autumn» is really beautiful with its yellow, red and brown trees and golden leaves falling down. Autumn is the season of fruit and vegetables. But the days become shorter and the nights become longer and darker. The weather is not as good as in spring and in summer. It often rains and the air gets colder and colder.
Winter is the coldest season of the year. The winter months are December, January and February. The winter days are short and gloomy. It often snows and it freezes. Winter is a very beautiful season too. Some people like it very much. It is pleasant to walk when it is not very cold and it snows. The ground is covered with snow. The trees and the roofs are white with snow too. Winter also gives great opportunities for those who go m for winter sports.
I think every season has a charm of its own.
1. Answer the questions:
1. How many seasons are there in a year?
2. How long does each month last?
3. What is the hottest season?
4. What are the autumn months?
5. What are the winter months?
6. Do you like spring?
7. What is the weather like in each season?
2. Use the words on the left side with those on the right side:
model: high temperature.
3. Complete the text using the words:
fine; climate; warm; weather (4); foggy; weather forecast (2); to rain; cold.
WEATHER IN BRITAIN
Britain people say, “Other countries have a ... , in England we have ... .”
The ... in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be ... and the next day may be ... . The morning may be ... and the evening may be ... .
People talk about the ... more in Britain than in most parts of the world. When two Englishmen meet, if they can not think of anything else to talk about, they talk about the ... .
Every daily paper publishes the ... . Both the radio and television give the ... several times each day, warning (предупреждая) drivers if it is ... and warning people to take their umbrellas if it is going ... .
5. Find the Russian equivalents of the English sentences. What seasons are described on these sentences?
The days become longer and the nights become shorter.
When spring comes nature awakens from its long winter sleep.
Every season is beautiful in its own way.
The air is fresh, the sky is blue and cloudless, and the sun shines brightly.
The ground is covered with emerald-green grass and the first flowers.
Каждое время года прекрасно по-своему.
Дни становятся длиннее, а ночи — короче.
Когда приходит весна, природа пробуждается от долгого сна.
Земля покрыта изумрудно-зеленой травой и первыми цветами.
Воздух свеж, небо голубое и безоблачное, и солнце ярко светит.
Autumn begins in September.
The days become shorter and the nights become longer.
The leaves turn yellow, red and brown and fall to the ground.
Most birds fly away to warm countries.
There is a short spell of dry sunny weather in September, which is called 'Indian Summer'.
It is a beautiful time when the sky is cloudless, the trees around are golden, the air is transparent and it is still warm.
But gradually it gets colder and colder.
It often rains in October and November which makes autumn an unpleasant season.
Дни становятся короче, а ночи - длиннее.
Осень начинается в сентябре.
В сентябре бывает короткий период сухой солнечной погоды, который называется «бабье лето».
Листья желтеют, потом становятся красными, коричневыми и падают на землю.
Это прекрасное время, когда небо безоблачно, деревья вокруг золотые, воздух прозрачный и все еще тепло.
Большинство птиц улетают в теплые страны.
В октябре и ноябре часто идут дожди, что делает осень неприятной порой года.
Но постепенно становится холоднее и холоднее.