Учебно-методическое пособие Казань 2013 (072) ббк 81 Англ я 73 А64




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КАЗАНСКИЙ (ПРИВОЛЖСКИЙ) ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНСТИТУТ ФИЛОЛОГИИ И ИСКУССТВ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ


ENGLISH TOPICS

Учебно-методическое пособие




Казань - 2013

УДК 811.111 (072)

ББК 81.2.Англ я 73

А64


Печатается по решению учебно-методической комиссии Института филологии и искусств Казанского (Приволжского) Федерального университета
Протокол № 6 от 12. 03. 2013 г.

English Topics: учебно-методическое пособие / сост. Г. Ф. Валиуллина. – Казань: КФУ, 2013. – 98 с.

Составитель: старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков

Г. Ф. Валиуллина

Рецензент:

к.ф.н., доцент кафедры контрастивной лингвистики и лингводидактики Института филологии и искусств Казанского федерального университета Л.Р. Закирова


Научный руководитель: д.п.н., доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков Института филологии и искусств Казанского федерального университета Д. Р. Сабирова

Учебно-методическое пособие «English Topics» предназначено для студентов I-II курсов неязыковых факультетов и институтов, а также для широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык.

Пособие содержит три главы. В каждой главе представлены несколько вариантов текстов различного уровня сложности, которых изучают по дисциплине «Английский язык». Для лучшего усвоения темы после каждого текста даны лексико-грамматические задания. Учебно-методическое пособие также содержит краткий грамматический справочник.
Part I

ABOUT MY LIFE
About myself (1)
First of all let me introduce myself. My name is Nick. I’m seventeen years old. I’m at 11-th grade. There are two more kids in the family besides me - my elder brother Oleg and my younger sister Maria. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a University. He will be a dentist. Maria is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I forgot to mention one more member of our family. It’s our favourite poodle Tim.

My parents are not old at all. My mother is forty. She works for newspaper. My father is forty-four. He is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs very much.

I’m doing quite well at school. My parents are proud of my marks. I go in for sports. I play basket-ball. In summer time I like yachting and windsurfing. I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In a year I shall finish my school and I have to decide what occupation to choose I have been studying English for seven years. I want to be a military interpreter. My grandparents are already retired. They like gardening and spend all their time growing tomatoes, potatoes, onions, strawberries, raspberries.

___________________

to introduce - представлять
let me introduce myself - разрешите представиться
grade - класс в школе

kid - ребенок


favourite - любимец, любимый

poodle - пудель


to forget - забывать
to be proud of smth - гордиться чем-то
to go in for sports - увлекаться спортом
occupation - занятие, род занятий, профессия

military interpreter – военный переводчик


to retire - быть на пенсии
1. Answer the questions:

1. Do you study at school or in the university?


2. What grade are you at?
3. How old are your parents?
4. Are you the only child in the family?
5. Do you have a pet?
6. Do your grandparents live near you?
7. Do you go in for sports?
8. Do you like reading?
2. Translate into English the following words and word combinations:

First of all, besides, to attend, at all, to decide, gardening.


3. Put the necessary prepositions:

Kids ... the family, I'm ... 11-th grade, forgot to mention, to do well ... school, to be proud of once marks, to study English ... seven years.


About myself (2)
I was born on the 3rd of July in 1990 in Moscow. Like many other children I went to a kindergarten. At the age of 6 I went to school. My school was next to my house. Many pupils of our primary school were my neighbours. I was very proud when I became a pupil.

But very soon I realized that this was not a game, and I had to work hard if I wanted my parents to be pleased with me. Now, when the school years have passed so quickly I see clearly that sometimes I succeeded and sometimes I failed in my intention.

I am an outgoing person. I think I took after my father. As a matter of fact my parents are friendly and hospitable. They like to invite friends and neighbours to our house.

I like to go to discos, to parties with my friends. We like to dance, have coffee and soft drinks. I like when somebody plays the guitar or the piano.

But I don’t play any musical instrument. Certainly we talk a lot about life, our problems. But now I can’t afford to spend much time for entertainment.

Sometimes I like to stay home alone, especially when I need some relaxation. Then I listen to music, watch television or read books. I am fond of reading. I prefer historical novels. Some detective stories are very interesting too. It is considered that detective stories can’t be regarded as the real literature. I do not agree with this opinion. Everything depends on the skill and gift of the writer.

I do not go in for sport regularly. But if I have a possibility, I go to the swimming pool. I also like to play different ball games such as volleyball, basketball.

I am a school leaver now. I have good marks. I am going to enter the university. Our teachers say I am good at Literature. It seems to me that in fact I have some attitude for it.

My parents think that after graduating from the university it will be difficult to find a job I’ll be trained. However, as for me it is early to discuss this question. The most important thing now is to pass the entrance exams well and to enter the university.
_____________________

kindergarten – детский сад

next to - почти

primary - начальная

to be pleased with – быть довольным

hard - усердно

intention – намерение, стремление, цель

outgoing – отзывчивый, чуткий, дружелюбный, общительный

to take (took) after – походить на кого-либо

as a matter of fact – фактически, на самом деле

hospitable – гостеприимный, радушный

soft drinks – безалкогольный напитки

to afford – быть в состоянии позволить себе

to consider - рассматривать

skill – мастерство, умение

gift – дар, талант

attitude – позиция, отношение
1. Answer the questions:

1. When were you born?

2. When did you go to school?

3. Was your school far from your house?

4. How do you spend your free time?

5. Do you like reading books?

6. What kind of books do you like to read?

7. Do you play any musical instruments?

8. Do you go in for sports?

9. Do you study at school now?


2. Find in the text the word, which have the similar meanings to the following words:

Difficult, design, to disappoint, friendly, to delight, hearty, talent, chance.



About myself (3)

It is both pleasant and a bit difficult to speak about myself. It is pleasant because every person enjoys speaking about his or her interests, likes or dislikes. But at the same time, it is difficult because to study a person, especially yourself, it is a great journey, not a little walk.

Speaking about my character I'd like first of all to define what character is. These are some qualities that make a person different from others. People often say about me that I am not like others. I don't think that I am something special. When candles are out all cats are grey. But of course if you come closer and turn on the light you can see that some features are typical to me.

But to cut the long story short I think I am a good humoured, very responsible, hard working and emotional person. I like creativity and appreciate this trait in others. I don’t like to lie and I feel when others do. I try not to be late and I hate when others don’t come on time. I prefer to associate with clever and polite people. It is very annoying when somebody whom I trust turns out to be unreliable.

But I try to treat other people so as I want them to treat me. I see the man whom I am looking for also as a person with a strong and sound body and mind. The person, who is interesting to talk to, whom I can trust and rely on.

As for my interests I am fond of psychology in the sphere of dealing with people and the questions of how to form your thoughts in the most favourable way. I adore travelling, seeing other people, their traditions, customs, to get acquainted with their culture, going sightseeing. Besides I like different kinds of music, I like music with rhythm you can dance to.

____________________ 

to define - определять

features - черты

responsible - ответственный

to appreciate - ценить

trait - особенность

to associate – связываться, общаться

it is annoying - досадно

unreliable - ненадежный

to rely – надеяться; доверять

to deal with – общаться, иметь дело

to adore – почитать, преклоняться

to get acquainted – знакомиться
1. Put five general and five alternative questions to the text.
2. Read the text and answer the following questions.
BRITISH FAMILIES

British families are usually quite small. An average family consists of a mother, a father and two or three children. No one is sure how it is possible to have four children. It is quite rare in Britain for grandparents, aunts and uncles to share the house with the family. However, families often share the

house with dogs, cats, goldfish and even rabbits, which they keep, not to eat, but as pets.

1. Are families in Britain the same as in our country?

2. What similarities and differences have you noticed from the passage?
3. Make up the questions about the theme “My family” and use them for asking your friend about his/her family.
4. Sum up and try to retell the findings.

My flat (1)

There is no place like home.
We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fourth floor. It has all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, cold and hot water, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down. There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a hall in our flat.

The living-room is the largest and most comfortable room in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square-table with six chairs round it. To the right of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and stool before it. Between the two large windows there is a little table with a colour TV set on it. Near the TV set there are two cosy armchairs. A small round table, a divan-bed and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. This small table is for newspapers and magazines. My father is used to having a rest sitting on this divan-bed reading books, newspapers, magazines or watching TV.

The bedroom is smaller than the living-room and not so light as there is only one window in it. In this room there are two beds with a bedside-table between them. An alarm-clock and a small lamp with a pink lamp-shade are on the table.

In the left-hand corner there is a dressing-table with a big mirror. In this room we have a built-in wardrobe with coat-hangers to hang clothes on. There is a thick carpet on the floor and plain light-brown curtains on the window.

The third room is my study. It is not large but very cosy. There isn’t much furniture in it, only the most necessary. It has a writing-table and an armchair before it. In the right-hand corner there is a bookcase full of books, magazines and newspapers. A small table with a radio is standing in the left-hand corner. Near it there is a sofa with some cushions. In my opinion, the study is the best room in our flat.

But the warmest place in our flat is the kitchen, I think that the place where the whole family gathers every evening not only to have supper together, but also to speak and rest.

I like the English proverb: "My home is my castle" because my flat is, indeed, my castle.

____________________

square — квадратный

sideboard — сервант

wardrobe — шкаф

opposite — противоположный

cosy — уютный

divan-bed — диван

standard lamp — торшер

alarm-clock — будильник

mirror — зеркало

dressing-table — туалетный столик

lamp-shade — абажур

a built-in wardrobe — встроенный шкаф

coat-hanger — вешалка

to hang (hung) — вешать

study — кабинет

furniture — мебель

necessary pieces — необходимые вещи

cushion — диванная подушка


1. Answer the questions:

1. Do you have a house or a flat?

2. How many rooms are there in your flat?

3. Has your flat all modern conveniences? What are they?

4. What room is the largest in your flat?

5. What is there in the middle of the room?

6. Is there a piano in the living-room?

7. What is there near the TV set?

8. How many windows are there in the bedroom?

9. What is on the bedside-table?

10. What colour are the curtains on the window?

11. What room in your flat is cosy?

12. Is there much furniture in the study?

13. What is there in the right-hand corner of the study?

14. What is standing in the left-hand corner?
2. Put the necessary prepositions:

A flat … a new block of flats, … the fourth floor, … the middle of the room, … the right of, … the opposite wall, … the left-hand corner, a carpet … the floor, the curtains … the window, … the right-hand corner.



3. Make up a text about your room using word combinations in the task 2.

My flat (2)

East or West, home is best.
Our house is a short walk from the trolleybus stop. We live in panel house on the fourth floor. Our flat has all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, running cold and hot water, telephone, a lift and chute. Our flat consists of three rooms, kitchen, bathroom and a hall.

First there is a small hall with a mirror and small table with a telephone on it. The three rooms of our flat are: living-room, bedroom, my study. The floor is parquet in the rooms and linoleum in the kitchen. There is a thick carpet in the living-room on the floor. All the rooms are papered with wallpaper of a different pattern and colour.

The living-room is the largest and most comfortable room in the flat. It’s a large room with a balcony. In the middle of the room there is a table with some chairs around it. There is a sofa with two armchairs and low table with a TV-set on the left-hand side of the room. On the right-hand side there is a cupboard. There is a bookcase near it.

The bedroom is smaller and not so light. There are two beds, a wardrobe, and a dressing-table. The room I like best is my study. It is nice and cosy. It has a bed, a desk and an armchair. In the right-hand corner there is a bookcase full of books, magazines, newspapers.

The kitchen is handily arranged: there is a gas-stove, a fridge, a deep sink, built-in cupboards and a table that folds against the wall when not in use.

I like our flat very much.


_____________________

conveniences — удобства

central heating — центральное отопление

running water — водопровод

chute — мусоропровод

carpet — ковер

wallpaper — обои

wardrobe — шкаф

dressing-table — туалетный столик

stove — печь

sink — раковина

to fold — складывать


1. Answer the questions:

1. Is your flat big or small?

2. What floor is your flat on?

3. How many rooms are there in the flat?

4. Has your flat all modern conveniences?

5. What room is the smallest in your flat?

6. Do you like your room?

7. Is your kitchen small?

8. What is the number of your flat?
2. What kind of room do you see on the picture? Discribe it.

3. Image that you have a house or a flat of your dream. Make up and retell a text about it to your friend.
4. Read the text using dictionary. Put five questions to the text.
THE HOUSES OF AN ENGLISHMAN

My house is my castle.
Many families in London live in flats, but most people live in their own houses in the suburbs. Most of London’s suburban houses consist of two floors, the ground floor and the first floor. All in all there are six or seven rooms in the house.

On the ground floor there’s a dining-room, a sitting-room, a kitchen and a hall. In the hall you can see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas. A staircase leads from the hall to the leading on the first floor. On this floor there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory. On top of the roof there are three chimneys. In front of the house they have a small garden, in which they grow flowers: roses, tulips and so on. At the back of the house there’s a much larger garden with a lawn and some fruit trees. There’s also a vegetable garden where they grow all kinds of vegetables, such as potatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, onions and tomatoes. At the side of the house there is a garage, where they can keep their car. The garden is enclosed by a fence, with a gate in it.



My weekday (1)
My weekdays don’t differ much one from another. I go to university six days a week. That's why, I have to wake up at 7 o'clock every morning. Sometimes I want to stay in bed for some more time but my mother always insists on my getting up. I put on my bathrobe and slippers and unwillingly go to the bathroom. A cold shower makes me feel not so sleepy, and then I dry myself on a towel and hurry to the bedroom. I switch on a TV-set, it is just the time for news. You may ask me why I don’t do my morning exercises. From time to time, when I see smiling slim girls on TV briskly doing their exercises to music, I swear I shall get up earlier and do my morning exercises every day, but it don’t last long and soon 1 forget about it. Then I do my bed, dress myself and have my breakfast.

At a quarter to eight I rush to school, it usually takes me 10 minutes to get there. My classes begin at 8 o'clock, as a rule I have one or two lectures and two practical lessons. In university canteen I have dinner. At 4 o'clock the lessons are over, and I go home.

After supper, I do some work about the house (wash dishes, sweep the floor, go shopping) and sit down to my lessons. I spend a great deal of time on them.

At 8 o'clock all my textbooks and notebooks are put into a bag, and I can watch TV or read a book, look through papers and magazines or work on computer. Sometimes, when my friend called for me we went for a walk.

At eleven o'clock, tired after a long working day, I went to bed and in some minutes fell asleep.

____________________

bathrobe — банный халат

slippers — тапочки

unwillingly — без желания, неохотно

to dry on a towel — вытираться полотенцем

to switch on a TV-set — включать телевизор

from time to time — время от времени

slim — стройный

briskly — оживленно

to do one's bed — застилать постель

to rush — спешить, мчаться

to do some work about the house — делать домашнюю работу

to sit down to one's lessons — садиться за уроки

to look through — просматривать что-либо

to call for smb. — заходить за кем-либо

to be tired after — устать после
1. Answer the questions:

1. When do you wake up on your weekday?

2. When do you go to the bathroom?

3. When do you hurry to your bedroom?

4. When do you do your morning exercises?

5. What time do you rush to university at?

6. How many lessons do you have every day?

7. Do you do some work about the house?

8. What work do you do about the house?

9. What do you do in the evening?

10. When do you go to bed?

11. Do you fall asleep at once? Why?


2. Retell how you spent your working day yesterday.
My Weekdays (2)
My name is Andrew. I’m nineteen. I want to tell you about my weekday. As many people I have different timetables on weekdays and weekends. I think that it is very important to go to bed before midnight and to get up quite early in the morning, especially on weekdays. Thus you can manage to do everything you plan to do. My major duty is to study at university. My classes usually begin at about 8.30 a.m.

Every day I get up at half past six. I take a cool shower then go yoga to the park near my place. So I do jogging for about thirty minutes and then do some exercises. After that I do not feel sleepy at all. I feel refreshed and full of energy. Besides fresh air and birds singing improves my mood greatly even on Mondays.

I return home at about 8 o'clock, take a shower and then have breakfast. I know the first thing many people do when they get up in the morning is to turn on TV. They do it automatically because they are used to all this artificial noise. And when they have breakfast they watch news or morning programs. Well I think all this is the key to our morning depression or bad mood. It is better to read or hear news later at work. I even hate reading newspapers and entertaining magazines in the morning. I like to talk with my parents while having breakfast.

After breakfast I put all the necessary books into my bag and get dressed. I leave home at about 8 o'clock. I get to my university by bicycle. My classes usually finish at about 4 p.m. When classes are over I go to the sports centre where I have karate lessons. I have karate lessons three times a week. When I do not have them, I take guitar lessons.

I come home at 7 o'clock. I have dinner and start doing my homework at 8 o'clock. If I have some spare time after doing homework, then I play the guitar or read classical literature. I often play computer games too. I go to bed at about half past eleven.

On weekends I usually get up at 8 o'clock and do the same things I do on weekdays except going to university. At 12 o'clock I rehearse with in the rock band where I play the guitar. Our rehearsal ends in the evening.

On weekends I can stay at home and read books, or go somewhere with my friends. I think that it is very useful when one has a timetable to follow. I am sure that this prevents us from wasting precious time.

_______________________

timetable - расписание

to go yoga – заниматься йогой

to refresh - освежать

to improve – улучшать(ся)

entertaining - развлекательный

to rehearse - репетировать

to prevent - предупреждать

to waste – тратить (время, деньги)


1. Complete the chart below. Write what Andrew can do and you can do in the following time.
Time What Andrew does What you do

6.30 a.m _________________ __________________

8.00 a.m. _________________ __________________

8.30 a.m _________________ __________________

4.00 p.m. _________________ __________________

7.00 p.m. _________________ __________________

8.00 p.m. _________________ __________________

11.30 p.m. _________________ __________________



2. Make up the questionnaire about ordinary day. Give it your friend to complete.

My Hobby (1)
Tastes differ. Different people like different things, different people have different hobbies. I go in for sports, I like to play tennis. I go to play tennis every day. Sport is very important part of our life. Many people go in for sports, they jog, walk, swim, skat, ski, train themselves in clubs and different sections. Physical training is an important subject in our university. Pupils play volleyball, football, basketball. I have been playing tennis for 5 years. Tennis is very popular now. I take part in different competitions. To be in a good shape I jog every morning and do my morning exercises. Everyone should do all he can to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. I do not understand people who say that they like sport, but they only watch sport on TV.

If one goes in for sports he feels much better, looks much better and sleeps much better. Your physical appearance will change too. You will be slimmer and trimmer. And what is even more important you will not get sick often.

Why do I go in for sports? Because I think that it is very important for a man to be strong and well-built. Sport is not for weak people, because, you have to learn how to lose, and it's not easy.

My favourite proverb says: "A sound mind in sound body".

______________________

to jog — бегать

to skate — кататься на коньках

to ski — кататься на лыжах

competition — соревнование

shape — форма

health — здоровье

slim — стройный

trim — в хорошей форме

weak — слабый

to lose — проигрывать

Hobby (2)
People live a very busy life nowadays, so they have little time to spare. Still they try their best to make use of those rare hours of leisure. A hobby is a favourite pastime of a person.

 Hobbies differ like tastes. People choose their hobbies according to their taste and character. Someone likes simply to watch TV, lying on a sofa, when someone climbs to the mountains. 

If you have chosen a hobby to your liking, you are lucky: you have made your life more interesting. But many people have nothing to do during their spare time, though there are many different hobbies: reading, collecting, going in for sports, travelling and others.

If a person collects something, he does it according to his financial abilities: someone collects cars or pictures of well-known painters, while another one collects beers or stamps. But no matter what they collect, it gives them pleasure. Many collections started in a small way with one or two items. Some private collections are really valuable.

No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has an opportunity of learning from it. Some young people find it a pleasure to go to the theatre. The theatre is one of the most ancient kinds of art. For centuries people have come to the theatre for the different aims: to relax, to be amazed or entertained, to have a good laugh, to enjoy the acting of their favourite actors and actresses. Modern life is impossible without travelling. Many people travel by rail, by air, by sea or by road for pleasure.

I don’t like to read very much, but I think that it’s the most useful pastime.

If a person likes to read, he can take many useful information and life experience from the books. By reading about the things, a hobbyist is interested in, he is adding to what he knows.

A relatively new hobby is watching TV. But I don’t think that television is a hobby at all. As for me, it’s the way of getting information. There are two viewpoints on television. Some people think that TV is doing a lot of harm. People begin to forget how to occupy their free time. It prevents them from communicating with each other, from visiting friends or relatives. And indeed, people have hobbies, to go outside for amusements, to the theatres, cinemas, sporting events. They like to read books and listen to music. But TV gives wonderful possibilities for getting information, for education. TV brings world in our rooms. 

Computers are a new hobby too. Many young people all over the world like to sit glued to the monitor all day long, playing their favourite computer games.

As for me, the first hobby, I had in childhood, when I was 5 or 6 years old. It was collecting pictures from the bubble gums. Later, when I was 8, I collected beer cans. Afterwards, my grandma had thrown them away, because they occupied a lot of space.

And now I’m interested in cars. I always read all available magazines about the cars, because I want to know everything about their construction and production. Also I like to listen to music, especially heavy metal. Some people think that it is impossible to listen to such music and they call metal fans "head bangers” or "metal heads”, but I don’t care.

And, of course, like all teenagers, I like to work with computer, watch video and to go in for sports.

So as you can see there are a lot of things to do during your free time.

_________________________

to spare – экономить, беречь

valuable – ценный

no matter – безразлично, неважно

aim – намерение, цель

harm – вред



1. Answer the questions:

1. What is your hobby?

2. What sports do you go in for?

3. Do you like summer (winter) sports?

4. What things do you like to collect?

5. Do you like to read?

6. What writer is your favourite?

2. Make up the questions about the theme “Hobby” and use them for asking your friend about his/her family.

3. Sum up and try to retell the findings.

Education in my life

Little strokes fell great oaks.
I am a second-year-student of the Pedagogical University. I like languages. I want to know many languages, but now I am learning only tree. There are English, Spanish and German. I know English better then other. I choose it when I was a five-year-old girl. We know that English is becoming a universal language on our planet. One person out of six in the world knows English nowadays. It makes the people`s life more fruitful, interesting and enjoyable. But its greatest role will be in the nearest future when mankind starts solving the most important problems of war and peace, ecology, demography social and moral codes and many, many others.

It will greatly help us to reach mutual understanding which will tremendously improve the people`s life on our planet.

Nowadays many foreign enterprises and individual businessmen are more interested in raw materials and industrial possibilities of our country because of the development of international relations of our territory of our country, and the demand for the experts with knowledge of foreign languages grows up.

I think the youth must be more interested in education, because we are living in such a complex world. At school our teachers told us about universities and institutes to help us to orient us in our word.

Higher educational establishment, where it is possible to get a selected professional plays an important role. In our republic there are many higher educational establishments, both state and private, which offer a wide choice of specializations and professional trends.

From my point of view, education is our life. How do you want to live? So in such case you will study!

"Education brings a child the world".

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fruitful – плодотворный, продуктивный

mankind - человечество

to solve - решать

mutual - взаимный

tremendously – страшно, ужасно; крайне, чрезвычайно

establishment – образование, учреждение


1. What suffixes were used in these words?

Education, establishment, international, fruitful, enjoyable, professional, possibility.



2. Where do you study? What subjects do you have in university? What foreign languages do you learn there? Give detailed answers.

Education in Russia

It is never too late to learn.
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. It is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupil must to do everything to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of 7.When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession. When pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities. There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized, politecnical, musical art and others. Nowadays appears some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges.

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society – общество

compulsory – обязательный

specialized – специализированный

Education in Britain

Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.
In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old.

In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School.

When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) or "O level" (Ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college.

Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities.

In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree.
__________________________

nursery – детский

primary – начальный

secondary – средний

private – частный

to provide – обеспечивать, предоставлять



1. Translate the texts. If it is necessary, use the dictionary.

2. Put ten questions to the text.

3. Make up and retell the text about education in Russia and Britain showing the differences between educational systems.

Choosing a career
Choosing a career is like any other activity. Too many people start looking for a specific job before thinking out their occupational aims. It is a good idea to begin by attempting to define in clear terms what your requirements are from a career. It involves taking a realistic view of your strengths and weaknesses. You may think for example, that you would like a job which involves organizing people, but liking such a job is not a sufficient justification if experience you already may have suggests that this is not your strong point. On the other hand, you should remember that training would equip you to do new things. A further point to consider is how far you will be willing to do for a time things which you do not like knowing that they are necessary to achieve your longer term objectives. Having thought carefully about the sort of person you are, try to work out a realistic set of occupational requirements. In particular, you can answer to important questions. First: what sort of life do you want to lead? For example, do you want to live in the country or in the town? Is leisure time of great importance to you? Is the size of your salary important? Do you want to put down roots or travel widely? Second: what sort of work do you want to do? For example, do you like working alone or with others? Does teaching people appeal to you? Do you want to be an organizer of other people's activities? Do you want to develop new ideas and initiate changes?

As for me, I have made up my mind to be a teacher. As my parents are a teachers they have made a great influence on my choice and I can say that this profession runs the family. My choice of this occupation did not come as a sudden flash. I think that nowadays this profession is of great need and importance to our country. It is my aim to be a qualified specialist and to serve the interests of my country. To be a well-prepared teacher I should have some important qualities: great capability persistence, knowledge of science and, of course, knowledge of foreign languages. In spite of these arguments, we must not forget about everybody's vacation. I think that my facilities combined with the knowledge would be quiet enough to succeed in my work.

____________________

to attempt – пытаться

requirement – потребность

justification – оправдание

influence – влияние

persistence – упорство


1. Answer the questions:

1. Have you decided what you are to do after university?

2. Why did you choose this sphere?

3. Is the profession of a teacher a new one?

4. Whom are teachers supposed to work with?

5. If you fail to get the job you want the most, what will you do?


2. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Слишком много людей начинают искать специфическую работу до того, как определят свои цели. 2. Здраво оценивая свои возможности как личности, попытайтесь поработать над реалистичностью требований к работе. 3. Обучение людей вас вдохновляет? 4. Что касается меня, я сделал выбор. 5. Мой выбор это профессии не пришел ко мне внезапно. 6. Моя цель - быть квалифицированным специалистом и отвечать интересам моей страны.


3. Why did you decide to be a teacher? Give detailed answer.

Part II

WORLD AROUND ME
Shopping (1)
When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men's and women's clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and butchery.

I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof and this is very convenient. A department store, for example, true to its name, is composed of many departments: readymade clothes, fabrics, shoes, sports goods, toys, china and glass, electric appliances, cosmetics, linen, curtains, cameras, records, etc. You can buy everything you like there.

There are also escalators in big stores which take customers to different floors. The things for sale are on the counters so that they can be easily seen. In the women's clothing department you can find dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and many other things. In the men's clothing department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, ties, etc.

In the knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woollen jackets. In the perfumery they sell face cream and powder, lipstick, lotions and shampoos.

In a food supermarket we can also buy many different things at once: sausages, fish, sugar, macaroni, flour, cereals, and tea. At the butcher's there is a wide choice of meat and poultry. At the bakery you buy brown and white bread, rolls, and biscuits.

Another shop we frequently go to is the greengrocery which is stocked by cabbage, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, carrots, beetroots, green peas and what not. Everything is sold here ready-weighed and packed. If you call round at a dairy you can buy milk, cream, cheese, butter and many other products.

The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a self-service shop where the customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket what he wishes to buy. Then he takes the basket to the check-out counter, where the prices of the purchases are added up. If it is not a self-service shop, and most small shops are not, the shop-assistant helps the customer in finding what he wants. You pay money to the cashier and he gives you back the change.

______________________

supermarket — супермаркет
store — магазин, отдел
various — разнообразный
under one roof — под одной крышей
to be composed of... — состоять (из чего-то)
ready-weighed and packed — в расфасованном и упакованном виде
fabrics — ткани
escalator — эскалатор
customer — покупатель
1. Answer the questions:

1. What do we do when we want to buy something?


2. What kinds of shops are there in every town?
3. Where do you like to do your shopping?
4. What departments is a department store composed of?
5. Where are the things for sale?
6. What can we buy in the knitwear department?
7. What can we buy in a food supermarket?
8. What methods of shopping are there?
2. Put the necessary words:

various, most of them, big, floors, china, jackets, sale, perfumery, a shop.
When we want to buy something, we go to … . There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but … have a food supermarket, a department store, men’s and women’s clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and a butchery. I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell … goods under one roof and this is very convenient. A department store, for example, true to its name, is composed of many departments: ready-made clothes, fabrics, shoes, sports goods, toys, … and glass, electric appliances, cosmetics, linen, curtains, cameras, records, etc. You can buy everything you like there. There are also escalators in … stores which take customers to different … . The things for … are on the counters so that they can be easily seen. In the women's clothing department you can find dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and many other things. In the men's clothing department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, ties, etc. In the knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woollen … . In the … they sell face cream and powder, lipstick, lotions and shampoos.
3. Retell the text above.

My every day shopping (2)
When we want to buy something, we go to a shop.

Everyday shopping is rather traditional: some white and brown bread, milk, butter, sugar, salt, eggs and sausages. But it is not necessary to visit different provisional shops such as bakery or butchery to buy food for the family because we could buy foodstuffs in a supermarket. Different goods are sold under one roof, so customers can save their time having all goods bought in no time.

Well, shopping is no fun any longer, but my daily duty. I dream to be an economist. I try to be rational and economical. I try to follow some steps. First of all it is necessary to make a shopping list of what we need. Then we should calculate how much our purchases would cost and take this very sum of money with us. The third rule tells that we shouldn’t be hungry while shopping; a hungry person buys the things his or her stomach dictates to buy, not thinking about prices or rational nutrition. And we shouldn’t go shopping immediately after we have got our salary, when we feel impressed by a large sum of money and don’t think it’s for a long month to last.

Every day before leaving for university I look around the kitchen to see what we need. And on my way from school I drop into the nearest supermarket, and buy bread and other everyday essentials. Every Friday evening my Mum and I examine our kitchen more carefully as Saturday is our shopping day. The shopping list is rather long, so we both go shopping.

The method of shopping is very simple. In a self-service shop a customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket the goods he wants to buy. It’s absolutely necessary to check the dates before which this or that foodstuff should be used, not to buy something of bad quality. Then a customer takes the basket to the checkout counter where the prices of the purchases are added up. After paying money to the cashier the customer can get his purchases.

Mum and I go to the supermarket where we can buy different things at once: fish, bread, sausages, tea, sugar, spices, and eggs. I think that a bakery department is among the best in the shop as it has a rich choice of biscuits. And what is more importable they are always fresh and tasty.

Another department of the supermarket, which we have to visit, is a dairy. At the dairy we buy milk, cream, yogurt, cheese, butter and other products. My Mum and I are regular customers at the greengrocer’s where potatoes, carrots, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, oranges, apples and other fruits and vegetables. In summer we prefer buying fruits, berries and vegetables at the nearest market.

Sometimes I have to go to a department store. I can buy there fabrics and footwear, glass, ready-made clothes and cosmetics, toys and electric appliances, furniture and sport goods, cameras and films, and what not.

At the butcher’s there is a wide choice of meat such as beef, pork, mutton, chicken and turkey. It’s really a great skill to choose a piece of meat you need, for soup or for chops or shashlyk, so it’s my Mum who is to buy meat.

I can’t but say that our shops are becoming more and more European-like. Their halls, adverts attract more customers. Shopping gets some element of fun and entertainment.

_______________________

bakery - булочная

butchery – мясная лавка

purchase - покупка

stomach – желудок, живот

nutrition – питание, еда

essential – сущность, суть
1. Find the English equivalents of the following words and word combinations in the text:

Довольно традиционный, экономят свое время, ежедневная обязанность, список, голодный желудок, зарплата, переполнены чувствами, осматривать, метод, магазин самообслуживания, от прилавка к прилавку, корзина, плохое качество, кассир, в ассортименте множество пирожных, всегда свежие и вкусные, молочный отдел, фрукты и овощи, кусок мяса, элемент веселья и развлечения.


2. Make up the questions about the theme “Shopping” and use them for asking your friend.
4. Sum up and try to retell the findings.

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