Ninth Intergovernmental Meeting on the Action Plan
For the Caribbean Environment Programme and Sixth
Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for
the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment
of the Wider Caribbean Region
Kingston, Jamaica, 14-18 February 2000
International Trade in Species
Listed in both the
Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW)
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
This report was prepared for then Ad Hoc Working Group on SPAW and CITES, at the request of Monitor International, by a research team in the Graduate Program on Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology (CONS) at the University of Maryland. Information regarding species protected by SPAW and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) that summarizes character and volume of trade within the Wider Caribbean Region is provided. Trade data were compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), which maintains a database of trade records filed by countries in accordance with CITES regulations.
The report specifies which species were most traded and which countries have been most active in importing or exporting species between 1993-1997. The most traded species included Strombus gigas (Queen conch), Iguana iguana (Green iguana), Guaiacinum officianale (Common lignum-vitae), Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), Ara ararauna (Blue and yellow macaw), Amazona ochrocephala (Yellow-crowned Amazon parrot), Ara manilata (Red-bellied macaw), and many species in the Orders Scleractinia, Milleporine, and Antipatharia (Corals). The top five exporting countries overall between 1993-1997 were Jamaica, Honduras, Turks and Caicos, Colombia, and the Bahamas. The report also discusses findings for illegal trade in the Wider Caribbean Region and specifies which SPAW species are in each of the Appendices of CITES.
Sections 1 and 2 provide background and an explanation of research methodology, including an introduction to CITES and SPAW, legal issues associated with regulating international trade in wildlife, and research objectives. Section 3 includes discussion about species cross-listed in CITES and SPAW (Section 3.1), total trade in the Wider Caribbean (Section 3.2), and illegal trade in the Wider Caribbean (Section 3.3).
Kingston, Jamaica, 14-18 February 2000 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2
4.0 REFERENCES 9
5.0 APPENDICES 12
Background of Project
The project was initiated to identify potential inconsistencies in the protection conferred by two different international agreements, one global in scope, CITES, and the other regional, SPAW.
For species protected by both agreements, an analysis of the character and volume of trade within the Wider Caribbean Region was conducted to assess the impacts of current levels of trade on biodiversity in the region.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) regulates trade in animal and plant species that merit protection. CITES entered into force July 1, 1975 and currently there are 145 Party countries. The convention is administered through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and specifically by a Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Protocol for Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) is a regional conservation agreement approved in 1990 that has been ratified by eight countries in the Wider Caribbean convention area. This region includes the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean adjacent thereto. SPAW includes, but is not limited to, provisions for the protection of threatened and endangered plant and animal species, the establishment of protected areas in ecologically critical zones, the management of protected areas, national and cooperative measures for preservation of species, and the maintenance of essential ecosystem functions in the Wider Caribbean. SPAW is administered through the Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP), a “regional seas program” of UNEP. The Protocol is administered by a Secretariat located in Kingston, Jamaica. A list of Wider Caribbean countries and territories that have ratified either CITES or SPAW, or both, is given in Appendix 5.1. Appendix 5.2 contains contact information.
1.2 Project Description
At the Fourth Meeting of the Interim Scientific, Technical, and Advisory Committee (ISTAC) of the SPAW Protocol, in Havana, Cuba, 3-6 August 1999, discussion included means toward collaboration between CITES and SPAW, and potential “incompatibilities” between CITES and SPAW were identified. An Ad Hoc Working Group on CITES met on 5 August 1999 to discuss the issue of compatibility between the two agreements. Minutes of the Ad Hoc Working Group’s meeting are given in Annex VI of the Report of the Meeting (UNEP (WATER)/CAR WG 22.5). Monitor International (300 State Street, Annapolis, MD 21403 USA http://www.monitorinternational.org) was a participant in the Ad Hoc Working Group on CITES and is a strategic partner with the University of Maryland Graduate Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology (CONS). At Monitor International’s request, a team of eleven students in the Problem Solving course, under the direction of Professor David W. Inouye, prepared this characterization of trade in species listed on both agreements.
As requested by Monitor International and advised by the CITES secretariat, the CONS graduate students researched and prepared this document. The document responds to specific tasks set forth by Monitor International and the CITES secretariat and is submitted as a contribution to the Ad Hoc Working Group CITES and for governments, NGOs, and other members of the Wider Caribbean conservation community. The proposed tasks assigned to the CONS group were originally provided by Monitor International on behalf of the Ad Hoc Working Group. However, the tasks were modified in part by subsequent comments by the CITES secretariat. The original tasks were outlined as follows:
Identify all species that are listed on both the CITES appendices and the SPAW annexes.
Prepare a short summary of the volume and character of trade in each of the species by countries of the Wider Caribbean Region.
Prepare a concise written report, in English, for electronic distribution to the members of the Working Group and to the two Secretariats.
Initiation of the project required communication with key people concerned with the potential incompatibilities between SPAW and CITES. We communicated via email with Jim Armstrong (Deputy Secretary General, CITES Secretariat) to solicit his guidance in focusing and conducting our research. He suggested specific information to include in the report, such as characterization of trade specifically within the Wider Caribbean region and information contrasting legal and illegal trade. For the remainder of the project, the research team focused on those species of greatest concern. These species, referred to as focal species for the remainder of this report, are those in SPAW Annexes I, II, or III and CITES Appendix II. Focal species warrant special attention, since trade in CITES I species is completely outlawed and because very few species in CITES III are also in SPAW.