The Treaty of Utrecht is a peace agreement signed in 1713 between England and France to end a war that began in Europe in 1701. This war, sometimes called “Queen Anne’s War” for the reigning Queen of England, involved several European countries in a dispute about rights to the throne of Spain. The conflict spread into North America when local battles broke out between English and French colonies in Acadia, Newfoundland, and New England.
When the war ended in Europe, France surrendered a great deal of colonial territory in North America. These are the terms agreed to in the Treaty:
All French forts in the northwest―the region covered by all the rivers that flowed onto the Hudson’s Bay―were surrendered to the British.
Newfoundland was surrendered to the British. French colonists who had settled at Plaisance (Placentia) in Newfoundland left the island. France retained some fishing rights in the area as well as the smaller islands of
St. Pierre and Miquelon, which are French territories to this day.