Rec. ITU-R M.1452 1
RECOMMENDATION ITU-R M.1452*
TRANSPORT INFORMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS – LOW
POWER SHORT-RANGE VEHICULAR RADAR EQUIPMENT
AT 60 GHz AND 76 GHz
(Question ITU-R 205/8)
Rec. ITU-R M.1452
This Recommendation provides system requirements and operational characteristics of low power, short range vehicular collision avoidance radar operating in the 60 to 61 GHz and 76 to 77 GHz.
The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,
a) that transport information and control systems (TICS) may significantly contribute to the improvement of public safety;
b) that international standards would facilitate worldwide applications of TICS and provide for economies of scale in bringing TICS equipment and services to the public;
c) that early international harmonization of TICS would have several benefits;
d) that worldwide compatibility of TICS may be dependent on common radio spectrum allocations;
e) that the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has work under way on standardizing TICS (non-radio aspects) in ISO/TC204 which will contribute to the efforts in ITU-R,
a) that the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has adopted a European standard on road transport and traffic telematics (RTTT) – Technical characteristics and test methods for radar equipment operating in the 76 GHz to 77 GHz band (EN 301 091 and ES 200 674-2, 1998 06);
b) that other regional organizations, such as the Asia-Pacific Telecommunications Standardization Programme (ASTAP), have approved a proposal on a draft standard on low power short-range vehicle radar equipment operating in the 60 GHz to 61 GHz, and 76 GHz to 77 GHz bands,
that low power, short-range vehicular radar operating in the 60-61 GHz and 76-77 GHz bands should meet the following system requirements:
Support for drivers' vision is one area in which TICS draws high expectations for its application. Sensor technologies for monitoring and identifying objects near vehicles are the most important safety-related base technologies for developing systems that will accommodate this purpose.
Various types of sensors have been studied and developed, and through this research and development, it has become clear that radar using radio waves is suitable for this objective. An international effort to regulate short-range radar for vehicular applications is crucial for ensuring stable radar operations and effective use of frequency resources.
In accordance with the RR, the 60-61 GHz and 76-77 GHz bands were considered due to the radio wave absorption characteristics of oxygen in the atmosphere. The 76 GHz band has already been assigned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States of America and by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (MPT) in Japan. Furthermore, in accordance with European spectrum requirements for RTTT, ETSI has adopted a European standard for low power vehicle radar operating in the 76 77 GHz band. The Japanese MPT has also allocated the 60 61 GHz band for this application. This effort has led ASTAP to consider a proposal on a draft standard for low power, short-range vehicular radar operating in the 60 61 GHz, and 76-77 GHz bands.
A radar system can detect the conditions within about 100 m from a vehicle using millimeter waves. This system is expected to avoid collisions and other accidents.
Figure 1 shows an application example of low power short-range radar (for vehicles).
FIGURE 1/M.1452...[D01] = 3 CM
Systems for monitoring the proximity to vehicles will play an important role in ensuring driving safety. With its resistance to bad weather and dirt, short-range radar is suitable for vehicles driven in severe conditions.
Figure 2 shows the configuration of short-range radar for vehicles.
FIGURE 2/M.1452...[D01] = 3 CM
Subsystems are as follows:
– Antenna/RF unit
This part consists of a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna, receiving equipment and transmission equipment. Signal modulations, conversions to high frequencies, radio wave transmission, and radio wave reception are handled in this part. This part could be equipped with several antennas and could perform beam scanning.
– Signal processing unit
This unit renders distance and speed by calculating signals handed over from the RF unit. Rendering of average distance and speed, and eradication of interference are sometimes handled here. When the antenna performs beam scanning, this unit calculates the direction of objects found.
– Recognition unit
This unit can select and arrange the most wanted or necessary data depending on the needs of each system. For example, the unit will recognize the most dangerous obstacles, and can judge whether the vehicle in front is in lane. The unit occasionally averages figures gathered, filters interference, and enhances measuring accuracy and reliability of data from other sensors.
2 System requirements
60 GHz band: 60-61 GHz.
76 GHz band: 76-77 GHz.
2.2 Radar method and modulation method
The following four radar methods (with modulation methods) are recommended:
– FM-CW method (frequency modulation);
– pulse method (pulse modulation);
– two frequencies CW method (no modulation or frequency modulation);
– spread spectrum method (direct sequence spread spectrum).
Transmitting power (power transferred to antenna) 10 mW or less (peak power).
Antenna gain: 40 dB or less.
2.4 Specified bandwidth
Up to 1.0 GHz.