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81  Menyanthaceae (Draft: R. Elven)

THIS DRAFT HAS NOT BEEN DISCUSSED

81.1  Menyanthes L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 145.
81.1.1  Menyanthes trifoliata L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 145.

S

2n= 54 (6x).



2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, five as arctic.

G ICE NOR RUS SIB RFE? ALA CAN GRL

Comments:

82  Apocynaceae (Draft: R. Elven)

THIS DRAFT HAS NOT BEEN DISCUSSED

82.1  Apocynum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 213.
82.1.1  Apocynum androsaemifolium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 213.

S

2n=



2nD

G ALA? CAN?

Comments:

(1) Printing error in Species plantarum, correct form of name in Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 946 (1759). (Elven)

(2) Approaches the Arctic in Alaska, approaches or reaches it in the Hudson Bay area (Gillam S of Churchill, probably non-arctic; York Factory, arctic, old report; see Scoggan 1978). Should probably be included as a border case. (Elven)

WARNING! Family, genus and species might be excluded as non-arctic.

83  Rubiaceae (Draft: N.N. Tzvelev)

THIS DRAFT HAS NOT BEEN DISCUSSED

83.1  Galium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 105.

Comments:

(1) The sections of Flora Europaea and Fl. Arct. URSS are indicated. As each of them usually contains only 1-3 species, their value is debatable. I would prefer to omit them and rather to use some species aggregates where needed (also included). (Elven)
[Sect. Platygalium Koch ***]
83.1.1  Galium kamtschaticum Steller ex Roem. & Schult. (1827), Syst. Veg. 3, Mant. 186.

S

T [Described from Kamtchatka.]



2n=

2nD


G CAN?

Comments:

(1) An isolated site is mapped by Hultén & Fries (1986) in the Mackenzie River delta. This is new compared to Hultén (1968) and is based on Porsild & Cody (1968). Is this record reliable, and is the species stable there? (Elven)

WARNING! Needs confirmation from arctic Canada before acceptance.
The Galium boreale aggregate (G. boreale, G. physocarpum)
83.1.2  Galium boreale L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 108.

S ?G. septentrionale Roem. & Schult. (1818), Syst. Veg. 3: 253.

2n= (1) 44 (4x). (2) 55 (5x). (3) 66 (6x).

2nD (1-3) Skalinska et al. (1961 C Eur). (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, six as arctic. (3) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, five as arctic, under the name G. septentrionale.

G NOR RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN GRL

Comments:

(1) Löve & Löve (1975) separate between a tetraploid G. boreale s. str. given by them for Europe, Siberia and Greenland, and a hexaploid G. septentrionale given for Siberia, Russian Far East and Alaska. I am not sure whether their cited counts support this geographic separation. I am even less sure whether there is some relation between their G. septentrionale and the Russian G. physocarpum. Ehrendorfer (1976, Fl. Eur. 4) indicates, with a question mark, G. septentrionale as a synonym of G. boreale s. str. He also states that "the tetraploids and hexaploids have widely overlapping distributions, and are morphologically indistinguishable". (Elven)
83.1.3  Galium physocarpum Ledeb. (1844), Fl. Ross. 2, 1: 410.

S ?G. rubioides L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 105, p. p.

2n=

2nD


G RUS SIB RFE

Comments:

(1) Ehrendorfer (1976, Fl. Eur. 4) includes G. physocarpum with many other 'Russian' taxa in an extended G. rubioides. Opinions? (Elven)

(2) The hexaploid chromosome number (2n=66) reported for G. rubioides s. lat. by Ehrendorfer (1976) is stated as erroneous by Moore (1982). (Elven)


[Sect. Hylaea (Griseb.) Ehrend. (1975), Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 3.]

[B Asperula L. sect. Hyalea Griseb. ***.]


83.1.4  Galium triflorum Michx. (1803), Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 80.

S

T [Described from Canada.]



2n= (1) c. 44 (4x). (2) 66 (6x).

2nD (1) Hämet-Ahti et al. (1986 Finl). (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list three non-arctic counts.

G CAN GRL

Comments:


[Sect. Trachygalium K. Schum. ***]
83.1.5  Galium uliginosum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 106.

S

2n= (1) 22 (2x). (2) 44 (4x).



2nD (1-2) Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts for both numbers, one tetraploid from Iceland.

G ICE NOR RUS SIB GRL

Comments:
[Sect. Depauperata Pobed. ***]
83.1.6  Galium davuricum Turcz. ex Ledeb. (1844), Fl. Ross. 2, 1: 409.

S

2n=



2nD

G SIB?


Comments:

(1) Does this species reach the Arctic at all? (Elven)



WARNING! Arctic occurrence should be checked before inclusion.
[Sect. Aparinoides (Jordan) Gren. ***]
The Galium palustre aggregate (G. elongatum, G. palustre)

Comments:

(1) The two entities are closely related but reproductively isolated, morphologically distinct without intermediates, ploidally different, and they are largely sympatric. They are ecologically slightly separated but mixed stands occur. According to most species concepts they should therefore be treated as species. It is, however, dubious whether G. elongatum reaches the Arctic. If not, the aggregate disappears. (Elven)
83.1.7  Galium palustre L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 105.

S G. palustre L. subsp. palustre

2n= (1) 24 (2x). (2) 48 (4x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous non-arctic counts. (2) Teppner et al. (1976 SE Eur).

G NOR RUS SIB CAN

Comments:


83.1.8  Galium elongatum C. Presl in J. Presl & C. Presl (1822), Delic. Prag. 119.

S G. palustre L. subsp. elongatum (C. Presl) Arcang. (1883), Comp. Fl. Ital. 312.

2n= (1) 96 (8x). (2) 144 (12x).

2nD (1) Teppner et al. (1976 N-C Eur). (2) Teppner et al. (1976 C Eur).

G NOR? RUS?

Comments:

(1) It is dubious whether this entity reaches the Arctic anywhere. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic.
The Galium trifidum aggregate (G. brandegei, G. trifidum)

Comments:

(1) There is some confusion about the distribution of G. brandegei, about the variation in G. trifidum, and about the distinction of the two. Hultén (1968) and Hultén & Fries (1986) restrict the distribution of the 'brandegei' entity to Iceland, Greenland and North America west to Alaska. Porsild & Cody (1980) also exclude it from northwestern America, giving its western limit at Hudson Bay whereas Cody (1996) at least accepts it from arctic N Yukon Territory. Russians (Fl. Arct. URSS 10) maps this as the main taxon throughout northern Russia west to Kola Peninsula and only accepts G. trifidum from Malozemelskaya Tundra. There are obviously very different views as to what G. brandegei and G. trifidum are. I have here tentatively followed Hultén (1968), Hultén & Fries (1986) and Cody (1996). (Elven)
83.1.9  Galium trifidum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 105.

S

T [Described from Canada, based on a Kalm specimen.]



Comments:
83.1.9.1  Galium trifidum L. subsp. trifidum

S

2n= 24 (2x).



2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list four non-arctic counts; Puff (1976 C Eur).

G NOR RUS SIB? RFE ALA CAN

Comments:
83.1.9.2  Galium trifidum L. subsp. columbianum (Rydb.) Hultén (1937), Fl. Aleut. Isl. 1: 367.

B G. columbianum Rydb. (1917), Fl. Rocky Mts. 808.

S

T [Described from W North America: "Mont.   Wash.   Alaska".]



2n=

2nD


G ALA

Comments:

(1) Reaches the Arctic as defined in SW Alaska. (Elven)
83.1.10  Galium brandegei A. Gray (1877), Proc. Amer. Acad. 12: 58.

S ?G. brevipes Fern. & Wieg. (1910), Rhodora 12: 78.

T [Described from USA: "Valley of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, on Los Pinos Trail".]

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1956b, 1970a, 1975 Icel); Jørgensen et al. (1958 Grl).

G ICE RFE ALA CAN GRL

Comments:

(1) Hultén & Fries (1986) separate between G. brandegei and G. brevipes as species but map G. brevipes only from non-arctic areas. (Elven)


83.1.11  Galium labradoricum Wieg. ***

S

2n=



2nD

G CAN


Comments:
Sect. Galium
83.1.12  Galium verum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 107.

S

Comments:



(1) The three entities here listed in the G. verum group should probably be treated as subspecies, at most. The morphological differences are vague and European investigations demonstrate that there is little correspondence between ploidy level and morphology in this group. One problem is that there may be no subspecific combination of the 'densiflorum' entity. A fourth entity is included by Tzvelev in Yurtsev (1987, Fl. Arct. URSS 10) from Siberia, but it does not seem to reach the Arctic and its occurrence east of C Europe is disputed: G. verum L. subsp. wirtgenii (F.W. Schultz) Oborny (1885), Verh. Naturf. Ver. Brünn 23, 2: 735 [basionym: G. wirtgenii F.W. Schultz (1855), Arch. Fl. 1: 201], 2n=22 (2x), Fritsch (1973 C Eur). (Elven)
83.1.12.1  Galium verum L. subsp. verum

S

2n= (1) 22 (2x). (2) 44 (4x).



2nD (1) Anchev (1974 SE Eur). (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, three as arctic.

G ICE RUS

Comments:
83.1.12.2  Galium verum L. subsp. ruthenicum (Willd.) P. Fourn. ***

B G. ruthenicum Willd. (1797), Sp. Pl. 1: 597.

S

2n=


2nD

G SIB RFE?

Comments:
83.1.12.3  Galium verum L. subsp. densiflorum (Ledeb.) ***

B G. densiflorum Ledeb. (1829), Fl. Altaica 1: 137.

S

2n=


2nD

G RUS SIB RFE

Comments:
[Sect. Leiogalium Ledeb. ***]
83.1.13  Galium album Mill. (1768), Gard. Dict., ed. 8, no. 7.

S G. mollugo L. subsp. erectum Syme in Sowerby (1865), Engl. Bot., ed. 3, 4: 217; G. mollugo auct., non L. (1753).

2n= (1) 22 (2x). (2) 44 (4x).

2nD (1) Hämet-Ahti et al. (1986 Finl). (2) Anchev (1974 SE Eur).

G ICE* NOR* RUS*?

Comments: Subsp. album in the Arctic.


[Sect. Leptogalium Lange ***]
83.1.14  Galium normanii O.C. Dahl (1915), Skr. Vid.-Selsk. Kristiania 1914, 4: 136.

S G. pumilum Murray subsp. normanii (O.C. Dahl) Nordh. (1940), Norsk Flora 609.

T [Described from N Norway: Vega I.]

2n= 44 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1956 Icel).

G ICE


Comments:

(1) Nordhagen's subspecies combination is not valid. There is no basionym indication whatsoever. (Elven)


[Sect. Kolgyda Dumort. ***]

[S Sect. Aparine Koch ***]


83.1.15  Galium spurium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 106.

S

Comments:


83.1.15.1  Galium spurium L. subsp. vaillantii (DC.) Gaudin ***

B G. vaillantii DC. in Lam. & DC. (1805), Fl. Fr., ed. 3, 4: 263.

S

2n= 20 (2x).



2nD Hämet-Ahti et al. (1986 Finl).

G NOR? RUS SIB RFE

Comments:
83.1.16  Galium aparine L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 108.

S

2n= (1) 42. (2) 44. (3) 48. (4) 62. (5) 64. (6) 66. (7) 68.



2nD (1) Ehrendorfer in Moore (1982 C Eur). (2) Kliphuis (1962b W Eur). (3) Ehrendorfer in Moore (1982 C Eur). (4) Ehrendorfer in Moore (1982 C Eur). (5) Hämet-Ahti et al. (1986 Finl). (6) Anchev (1974 SE Eur). (7) Ehrendorfer in Moor (1982 C-S Eur).

G ICE? NOR RUS GRL*



Comments:


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