The years of revolution




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1820-1850:  THE YEARS OF REVOLUTION

I.        General Causes of revolutions

A.     Many were unhappy with the settlements of the Congress of Vienna in 1815

1.     Liberal ideals continued to increase in popularity

a.      Equality before the law without regard to class gained great favor with the growing Middle Class and the new industrial Working Class.

b.      Written constitutions gained favor as a way to control governments and guarantee rights

c.      Middle Class wanted removal of economic restrictions and greater political power.

2.     Nationalities without nations began to work for unification, independence and sovereignty

B.    Several European nationalities still lacked national unity and freedom

1.     Italian states were not unified

a.       Northern Italy was dominated by Austrian Empire after the Congress of Vienna

b.       Old city states still held the primary loyalty of most Italians

c.      Metternich, when asked about Italy and nationhood said, “Italy is merely a geographical expression.”

2.     German states were not unified

a.      Prussia was emerging as a power among the German states rivaling Austria for leadership

b.      German nationalism grew after the unity of the states fighting France at the end of the Napoleonic Wars

3.     Eastern Europe was dominated by three empires encompassing many modern nations

a.      Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires ruled many subject nationalities

b.      Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Belorus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania did not exist

4.     Habsburg (Austrian) Empire contained several subject nationalities

a.      Magyars (Hungarians), Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats

b.      Germans dominated the Austrian-based imperial government in Vienna and throughout the Empire

C.    Latin America had won independence from Spain and Portugal

1.       Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 making his brother Joseph king caused revolution in Spain’s colonies in the Americas

2.       All mainland colonies in the Americas ruled by Spain and Portugal were independent by 1824

3.       Success of these revolutions, like the American Revolution, inspired Europeans

D.    There was an extension of political power growing slowing to the Middle and Lower classes in Western Europe; Eastern European governments opposed change of any kind

E.    Concert of Europe began to break up after 1820

1.       British public opinion began to favor liberal changes and independence for the subject nationalities

2.       British opposed French intervention in Spain

3.       Congress System was effectively ended by the Congress of Verona, 1822, as the British withdrew

4.       National interests of existing nations sometimes undermined the absolute principles of the Congress and the alliances: Quadruple / Quintuple Alliance and the Holy Alliance

F.     There was the desire to abolish feudalism where it still existed, mostly in Eastern Europe

G.    Rise of industrialism and its consequent problems spurred many to revolt

1.     Middle Class demanded political power equivalent to its growing economic power

2.     Working class wanted political power and relief from poverty and poor conditions in cities

3.     New competition had arisen between the old style artisans and the new factory workers

4.     Industrialism brought economic recessions aggravating the problems of urban poverty

F.     Alternative philosophies, particularly socialism and anarchism, began appeared sometimes called for revolution

G.    Crop failures periodically intensified the problems for the peasant farmers living in poverty

H.    Major financial collapse occurred concurrent with the 1848 revolution, the first major depression of the Industrial Revolution

 II.      Notable common features of the revolts

A.     The revolts were inspired by the romantic nationalism of the early nineteenth century

B.    The grievances of the rebels were mostly urban; the events were mostly urban

C.    Leadership came from Middle Class intellectuals

D.    Most of the fighting was done by the urban Lower Class

E.    Student involvement in the revolts was high; student support for the issues of liberalism and nationalism was strong

F.     The rebels showed little concern for the plight of agricultural poverty in rural areas

G.    There was little support or involvement for the revolts from the rural poor

 III.     Revolutions of the 1820's

A.     Inspired by the liberalism of the French Revolution and dissatisfaction to the settlements of the Congress of Vienna, 1815

B.    Nationalistic unification movement continued to rise in Germany

1.     Student clubs favoring liberal nationalism formed on university campuses

2.     German Burschenschaften, clubs favoring national unification and written constitutions, gathered at Wartberg Castle in 1817 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of Luther’s 95 Theses and the 4th anniversary of the Battle of Nations

3.     Karl Sand, member of the Burschenschaften, assassinated a reactionary writer, 1819; convicted and executed

4.     Diet of the German Confederation, under the leadership of Metternich, passed the Carlsbad Decrees banning the Burschenschaften and limiting the discussion of German nationalism

C.    Italian nationalism grew among students and workers

1.     Carbonari, the “Charcoal Burners”, formed in 1815 and rose as leaders of national unification

2.     Student groups formed on university campuses and organized nationalist movements

3.     Austrian control of northern Italy following the Congress of Vienna was resented by Italians

D.    Spain was ruled by reactionary King Ferdinand VII restored to power by the Congress of Vienna

1.     Spanish army was to be sent to Americas to try to regain Latin American colonies lost during the Napoleonic Wars

2.     Army mutineed, January 1820, in support of liberal reformers wanting a constitution

3.     Congress of Verona, 1822, dealt with the crisis

a.     French army was authorized to invade Spain and pacify the rebels

b.     Use of force by France was supported by Austria, Russia and Prussia

c.     Britain led by new Prime Minister George Canning opposed the French invasion of Spain

d.     Britain favored Latin American independence because it would increase trade

e.     Revolt in Spain was crushed by the French army

f.       British withdrew from the Concert of Europe as a result

g.     U.S. issued Monroe Doctrine opposing the establishment of any new colonies by European nations

h.     Britain encouraged and supported the Monroe Doctrine with its navy

E.    Italian states ruled by kings restored by Congress of Vienna

1.     Il Risorgimento (the Resurgence) was label given to the rising movement for Italian unification

2.     Revolt led by the Carbonari, began in Naples, July 1820

3.     Protested rule of the restored Bourbon ruler, Ferdinand I

4.     Subsequent revolt against King Victor Emmanuel I of Piedmont-Sardinia

5.     Congress of Laibach, 1821, allowed invasion by Austrian army to crush revolts

F.     Greece under the rule of the Ottoman Empire

1.     Greek nationalism, inspired by France and the Italian Carbonari, rose following the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars

2.     Ottoman Empire, the “sick man of Europe” was losing its hold on the Balkan nationalities

a.      “Eastern Question”:  What would happen if the Ottoman Empire fell?

b.      Issue created political and economic uncertainty in Europe

3.     Greek Revolution began in 1821 featuring very vicious and violent fighting; Turks had almost completely conquered the rebels by 1827

4.     Greek War of Independence drew much sympathy from European romanticists

5.     Dissent rose in the Concert of Europe over the Greek revolution

a.     Austrians and Prussians opposed the revolt and favored neutrality or non-intervention

b.     Britain, France favored the revolt for political and business benefits

c.     Russia supported the revolt and favored intervention because anything that weakened the Ottoman Empire was good for Russia

d.     The Concert of Europe was essentially destroyed by the conflict over the Greek War of Independence

6.     United British, French, and Russian force defeated combined Turkish and Egyptian navies at Navarino Bay in 1827 allowing recovery by the Greek rebels

7.     Greek independence was recognized in the Treaty of Adrianople, 1829

G.    Russia:  the Decembrist Uprising, December 1825

1.     Death of Tsar Alexander I brought the reactionary Nicholas I to the throne not the hoped for liberal Constantine

2.     Moderate-liberal army officers staged a demonstration in favor of Constantine in St. Petersburg in December 1825

3.     Revolt crushed by the artillery of Nicholas I’s army

4.     “Decembrists” were the first upper-class rebels in Russia and became the model for most later revolutionary movements

5.     Tsar Nicholas I became the most reactionary monarch in Europe and imposed strict autocratic rule upon Russia undoing many of the reforms of Catherine the Great and Alexander I

H.    Britain:  Avoided revolt through reform

1.     Six Acts of Parliament, passed in 1819, were the climax of repression of the masses by the ultra-conservatives

2.     “Peterloo Massacre” (August 1819) and Cato Street Conspiracy (February 1820) showed that Britain was on the verge of rebellion.

3.     New members of Parliament, younger and more progressive, favored moderate change

4.     Britain abandoned participation in the Congress System due to public pressure

5.     Robert Peel led the reform of the criminal justice system, police, and prisons

6.     Test Act and Catholic Emancipation Act, 1829, granting full civil rights to Dissenters and Catholics

 IV.   Revolutions of 1830's

A.     July Revolution in France inspired by liberalism set off revolts in Belgium, Poland, German states, and Italian states: Metternich says, “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold

B.    Liberalism and nationalism had continued to grow in spite of the provisions of the Congress of Vienna; the Concert of Europe no longer met; the Congress System had ended by 1822

C.    France:  under the rule of the reactionary King Charles X, last of the Bourbons

1.     Charles X, leader of the Ultra Royalists, alienated liberals, moderates, and many conservatives with his repressive policies violating the Charter

2.     Appointment of the reactionary Prince of Polignac as Prime Minister and the decree of the Four Ordinances to re-create the absolute monarchy

3.     Riots caused Charles X to abdicate and flee France

4.     Chamber of Deputies led by Adolphe Thiers wrote a new constitution with a limited monarchy

a.     The “July Revolution” created the new constitution of the “July Monarchy”

b.     Louis Philippe of the Orleans family became the new king, the “Citizen King”

5.     The new government favored the bourgeoisie:  It was politically liberal but socially very conservative.

D.    Belgium:  Ruled by the Kingdom of Holland since the Congress of Vienna, 1815

1.     Belgians did not favor the re-unification with the other states of the Netherlands by the Congress of Vienna

2.     Belgium had not been part of the Dutch Netherlands since the late 16th century

3.     Belgium and the Dutch Netherlands were different in language, religion, economic life, and many other cultural aspects

4.     Inspired by the July Revolution in France, students and urban workers rioted in Brussels, capital of Belgium

5.     The Dutch army could not suppress the revolt, was defeated and forced to withdraw from Belgium

6.     Belgian national congress wrote a liberal constitution creating a constitutional monarchy

7.     Leopold of Saxe-Coburg became the first King of Belgium in 1831

8.     The Great Powers (Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia) agreed to respect Belgium’s sovereignty and neutrality by treaty in 1839

E.    Italian states still lacked unity

1.     Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young in 1831

a.      Young Italy organization worked to unite students and other young Italians throughout the peninsula

b.      Mazzini believed that the nationalism movement should be built with the young because they were not committed or as loyal to the past system of city states

2.     Carbonari continued its work for unification especially amongst urban workers

3.     Rioting favoring liberal reforms took place in the Italian states of Modena, Parma, and the Papal States

4.     Austrian troops easily crushed most of the rioting

F.     Poland mostly under Russian domination since the Congress of Vienna

1.     Revolt by Polish army officers favoring Polish independence inspired by the July Revolution in France broke out in Warsaw in 1830

2.     Russian troops were driven out of Poland, Tsar Nicholas I was deposed as the King of Poland, and Poland was declared to be in independent nation

3.     Tsar Nicholas I ordered a full-scale invasion of Poland by the Russian army

4.     The revolt was brutally crushed and Poland was made part of the Russian Empire, 1832

G.   German states still lacked unity

1.     Inspired by the July Revolution in France, German students and professors led street demonstrations in favor of liberal reforms and national unification

2.     New liberal constitutions were granted in several small German states

3.     Metternich’s domination of the German Confederation and his influence over Prussia led to the defeat of the revolutionaries and the withdrawal of the constitutions

H.   Britain:  Reform with no revolt again

1.     The accession of King William IV (reigned 1830-37) brought the election of Whigs calling for electoral reform

2.     The Great Reform Bill of 1832 doubled the number of eligible voters, eliminated unpopulated (rotten) boroughs, and increased representation in the House of Commons from the growing cities and manufacturing districts

3.     Investigation into the problems of industrialization by Parliament, the Sadler Report, brought new laws to improve the lives of industrial workers such as the Factory Act of 1833

 V.     Italy in 1848

A.     Background

1.     Politically disunited since Congress of Vienna and dominated by Austria

2.     Rising nationalist organizations, the Carbonari and Young Italy, continued to grow in support

3.     Some partially successful uprisings brought small reforms:  Naples (1820), Piedmont (1821), Papal States, Modena, Parma (1831), Savoy (1834)

4.     "Il Risorgimento" (Resurgence):  rising Italian nationalism continued to grow

B.    Revolution

1.     Movement surfaced in Palermo, Sicily in January 1848

2.     Ferdinand II was forced to grant a new liberal constitution for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

3.     Tuscany and Piedmont Sardinia granted new liberal constitutions, February

a.     King Charles Albert of Sardinia was the only native Italian dynastic ruler

b.     Statuto Fundamentale of Sardinia would later become the basis of the first Italian constitution in the 1860's

4.     Pope Pius IX liberalized the Papal States, March 1848

5.     Milan's "5 Glorious Days", March 18 22, 1848

a.     Cattaneo led the Milanese driving out the Austrian troops

b.     Victory and Metternich's flight from Vienna encouraged the movement

6.     Spreading of the revolution

a.     Venice led by Daniele Manin declared itself and independent republic on March 22

b.     Sardinia declared war on Austria

c.     Defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Goito, May 30, 1848

d.     Papal army supported the cause of Venice, April 1848

C.    Reversal and defeat

1.     Austria was ready to yield in Lombardy, June 1848; General Radetsky persuaded Austria to fight to keep Lombardy

2.     Sardinia was defeated by Austria, July 24, 1848, at the Battle of Custozza

3.     Ferdinand II won back Naples (May 1848) and Sicily (May 1849) with help from Swiss mercenaries and army returning from aiding Sardinia in the north

4.     Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini declared the Roman Republic, February 1849

5.     Pope Pius IX regained control over Rome and the Papal States when French troops sent by Louis Napoleon arrived, June 30, 1849

6.     Austrians recaptured Venetia, August 28, 1849

D.    Analysis and effects

1.     Failure was due to a lack of leadership, disunity of the revolutionary groups, and a lack of military power

2.     Nationalistic movement was temporarily defeated but not gone

3.     Later emergence of Camilo Cavour in Piedmont-Sardinia and changing policies of Napoleon III will bring success to the movement

 VI.   France in 1848

A.     Background

1.     Bourbon monarch, Louis XVIII (1814 1824) was restored to the throne of France by the Congress of Vienna

a.     Constitutional monarchy was established with a hereditary king, an upper house nominated by the king, and a lower house elected by qualified voters (small minority mostly property holders)

b.     Assassination of Duc de Berry, 1820, brought conservatives to power

c.     Louis XVIII was increasingly under the reactionary influence of the Count of Artois (his younger brother) and the Ultra Royalists

d.     Several liberal plots to overthrow the Bourbons were defeated

2.     Charles X, former Count of Artois, (1824 1830) succeeded Louis; Charles X attempted to return to pre 1789 absolute monarchy

3.     Louis Philippe, the "Citizen King", Orleanist (July) Monarchy was brought in as Charles X was deposed, August 7, 1830

a.     Louis Philippe attempted to be a strong king and lost the support of republicans and the working class

b.     Lost popularity of Louis Philippe was due to economic problems and his peaceful foreign policy:  France missed the glory of Napoleon

c.     Two unsuccessful coups (1836 and 1840) were led by Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte

d.     Riots in Paris against the laws against dissent caused Louis Philippe to abdicate and bring the fall of the “July Monarchy”, February 1848

B.    Provisional Government was established:  an uneasy alliance of moderate republicans and socialists

1.     Head of state was the moderate Alphonse Lamartine

2.     Socialists Louis Blanc and Albert were included to appease and quiet the Parisian working class

3.     Unemployed Parisians pressured for jobs demanded through national workshops

4.     National workshops to relieve unemployment

C.    Election of National Assembly (April 23, 1848)

1.     Moderate republicans: 500, Orleanists: 200; Legitimists (favoring Bourbon restoration: 100; Radicals (mostly from Paris): <100

2.     Radicals of Paris revolted

a.     Moderates and monarchists dissolved the workshops after a mob stormed the National Assembly

b.     Street fighting in the bloody "June Days" ends as General Cavaignac restored order with the French army

c.     Cavaignac was granted dictatorial powers; brought the suppression liberties

D.    Assembly completed a new republican constitution, November 4, 1848, creating a  strong presidency and a unicameral legislature

1.     Louis Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Cavaignac in the election for President, December 1848

a.     Cavaignac lost votes due to his brutal suppression of people

b.     Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was popular with peasants and bourgeoisie

c.      The Bonaparte name still reminded people of past glory

2.     Second Republic hoped to re capture the glory of the Empire

E.    Second Republic, 1848 1851

1.     Monarchists won a large majority in national elections, May 13, 1849

2.     Monarchists were divided almost equally divided between Orleanists and Bourbons who both supported Louis Napoleon as President

3.     Louis Napoleon gained further support and popularity

a.     Remained above the liberal monarchist struggles in the Assembly

b.     Won Catholic support for sending French troops to aid to Pope Pius IX in the overthrow of the Roman Republic, April June 1849

c.     Appealed to peasants and bourgeoisie with a promise to bring order

d.     Cultivated support from the army through gifts and honors and the aroused memories of his uncle, Napoleon I

F.     Coup d'etat, December 2, 1851, gave full power to Louis Napoleon Bonaparte

1.     Uprisings in the provinces and in Paris were put down by the army under Louis Napoleon

2.     Plebiscite, December 21, 1851, confirmed the dictatorial powers of Louis Napoleon by 10 1 margin.

G.    New Constitution, January 14, 1852, gave dictatorial control to the President

H.    Second Empire was established December 2, 1852 by decree; the Second Republic came to an end

I.        Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor Napoleon III

 VII.  Austria in 1848

A.     Situation and background

1.     Habsburg Empire was still founded on the concept of privileged classes

2.     Empire consisted of many national groups:  Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Slovenes, Ruthenians, Poles

3.     Prince Klemens von Metternich directed foreign policy for the Emperor Ferdinand I (reigned 1835 1848)

4.     Army was loyal to the monarchy and the nationalities could be played off against each other since all of them feared the control of the others

B.    King Louis Philippe's abdication in France set off revolts in the Habsburg Empire

1.     Hungarians favoring Magyar nationalism united under Louis Kossuth and demanded liberal government (more local Hungarian rule), March 3, 1848

2.     Revolution in Lombardy (Italian province held by Austria) threw back the Austrian Army, March, 1848

3.     Metternich and the Imperial Family fled Vienna, March April, 1848

4.     Student riots, revolutionary press, and anarchy caused the middle class to create the Committee of Safety in Vienna, May October, 1848      

C.    Bohemia rebelled

1.     Divisions between Czechs, Germans, and Slovaks (Slavs) prevented a nationally unified Bohemia

2.     Army crushed the Bohemian revolt, June 17, 1848

D.    Croatians living in Hungary rebelled, June 5, 1848

1.     Austrians encouraged the Croatians to attack Hungary, September, 1848

2.     Croatian attack on Hungarian liberal government failed

3.     Hungarians attempted to help the Revolutionary Association (liberals favoring change in the Empire’s government) in Vienna

E.    Vienna fell to the Habsburg army, October 31, 1848; the assembly formed by the Revolutionary Association fled

F.     Habsburgs concentrated their strength against the Magyars in Hungary

1.     Austrian army captured Budapest, January 5, 1849

2.     Magyar resurgence drove out the Habsburg army, April, 1849

3.     Hungarian Republic was proclaimed under the leadership of Louis Kossuth, April, 1849

4.     New emperor, Francis Joseph (1848 1916) appealed for Russian help

5.     Combined Russian Austrian army defeated Hungarian, August, 1849

G.    Results

1.     Feudalism was ended, September 7, 1848, by decree of the new emperor, Francis Joseph

2.     Francis Joseph appointed the reactionary Felix Schwarzenberg as First Minister

3.     Constitutional and liberalizing promises of Ferdinand I were ignored

4.     Bureaucratic control of Vienna over the other parts of the Empire increased

5.     Germanization of the Empire (the Bach system) increased

 VIII. Germany in 1848

A.     Background

1.     Nationalism rose in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars

a.     German states fought as a unified force against the French

b.     Leaders of the nationalist movement such as Beethoven, Goethe, and the Grimm Brothers made major impressions

c.      German nationalist student groups promoted nationalism

2.     German Confederation was organized as a mutual defense pact against France by the Congress of Vienna

a.     Metternich used the German Confederation to control the forces of liberalism and nationalism in the German states’

b.     Prussia became subservient to Austria in the Confederation; the Prussian army declined in power following the Napoleonic Wars

3.     Liberal nationalist movement hoped for unity under Prussian leadership

4.     Prussia under King Frederick William III would not challenge Metternich and Austria's control of the Confederation

5.     Bavaria, Baden, and Saxe Weimar granted liberal constitutions

6.     Nationalist student groups had been curbed by the Carlsbad Decrees passed by the Confederation under the control of Metternich

7.     Prussia organized the Zollverein, a tariff union including most German states; did not include Austria, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg, Hanover, Hansa cities

8.     Small German states feared the loss of power in a larger nation

a.     Small states preferred the less efficient Catholic Habsburgs to the ambitious Prussians

b.     The Habsburg Empire was 80% non Germanic so it did not appeal to the strong nationalists

9.     Prussian King Frederick William IV spoke of liberal goals but he feared Metternich and the power of Austria

B.    Ousting of King Louis Philippe in France intensified the liberal nationalist movement for German unification

1.     Several German princes yielded to demands for constitutional gains

2.     Nationalist movement was centered in the cities and led by intellectuals

3.     Frederick William IV of Prussia indicated he favored German constitution

a.     Prussian Assembly debated, May December, 1848, but took no action

b.     Illiberal constitution granted in Prussia, 1850, placing control in the upper classes and nobility

C.    Frankfurt Assembly

1.     Meeting of liberal nationalists that began May 18, 1848:  liberals came to Frankfurt to write constitution for a united Germany

2.     Philosophic differences, lengthy discussions, and problems allowed the princes to gain control of the Assembly

3.     Archduke John headed a provisional government but no army was provided

4.     Grossdeutsch   Kleindeutsch controversy emerged

a.     Grossdeutsch faction wanted to include German Austria and Bohemia

b.     Kleindeutsch faction wanted to exclude Austria

c.     Kleindeutsch faction won but Austria gave no concessions in territory (The Habsburgs had recovered from the early losses of the revolts in the Empire)

5.     Frankfurt Constitution for united Germany was declared, March 27, 1849

a.     King of Prussia declared as the Emperor of Germany

b.     King Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the crown because it came from a popular assembly; his refusal hurt the liberal monarchists

D.    Austro Prussian rivalry for control of a united Germany

1.     Prussia sponsored the Erfurt Union to combine Prussian Austrian rule

2.     Habsburgs restored the old Germanic Confederation, May, 1850

3.     Humiliation of Olmütz:  Prussia changed and backed Austria, November, 1850

E.    Reasons for failure

1.     No revolutionary center for movement

2.     Middle class movement failed to gain the support of city workers, peasants, and princes

3.     Revolutionaries failed to consolidate their gains; this allowed the reactionaries to win back control

4.     Autocracy remained popular over liberal reforms for government in Germany

5.     Austro Prussian struggle prevented unity whether it was under either power or separate from both of them

F.     Results

1.     Liberals were discredited; many fled or emigrated from the German states

2.     Austrian and Prussian monarchists remained as the only possible unifiers of Germany

3.     Liberal plans for unification lacked leadership and strong backing  

IX.   Reasons for failure of the revolutions

A.     Lack of unity of goals or programs among the revolutionaries

1.     Revolutionaries were coalitions of many different factions with liberal goals

2.     Revolutionaries were constitutional monarchists, republicans, socialists, nationalists, etc.

B.    Strength of the reactionary opposition

1.     Reactionaries controlled the national armies

2.     Reactionaries were unified on the one goal to remain in power and their ruthlessness to maintain that power

C.    Lacked the support of all classes

1.     No program for the agricultural poor cost the liberals lower class support

2.     Little sympathy from upper class existed for the movement

D.    Poor, inexperienced, or disunited leadership

E.    Lack of support for or confidence in liberal reforms; autocracy was still preferred by many

 X.     Results, effects and residuals of the revolutions

A.     Nationalism continued to grow and intensify; it would be the dominant political force of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

B.    Feudalism was abolished in the Habsburg Austrian Empire; the only major place retaining feudalism after 1850 was Russia

C.    Experience was gained by the leadership for use in later nationalist struggles

D.    Many reforms were enacted by existing governments to stop the revolutionary spirit

E.    Socialism emerged as a new economic force to dominate European affairs for many years

F.     Liberal intellectuals left Europe in large numbers

1.     Most went to the United States where they made an impact on liberal issues such as the anti-slavery crusade

2.     Germany lost most of its liberal leaders; consequently, the movement for German nationalism would now be in conservative hands

3.     Eastern European empires, especially Russia, Austria, and Prussia, expelled leading liberal leaders

G.    Anger in the lower classes intensified and many turned to new alternative philosophies

1.     Marxism (Scientific Socialism) favored revolution as the method to install its radical economic system that would do away with government

2.     Anarchism favored the abolition of all political institutions including government itself



3.     Liberals joined the political structure and began to work for change within the system

4.  Violence increasingly became the tool of the revolutionary: the revolutionary of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries was more violent and less reasonable


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